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* C-2/15, S.D.A, NEW OEILHI- 1 10016 


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rfrst )\ibli^ied^ I-ondon. 

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HI -206-0388-5 

Published by J. JETl-EY. 


C 2/15. S D A. NEW DELHI 111X)16 
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1 * K u Ff.'- M l: J 1 \: N u i: ii t i \ i-. t » ! > i . u s <> r 


f;<) V K li NO i; c;i:nki:ai, t)V India, 
roil THE K\riir<iS puitrosi: or investo; vti vi; the state or 

I N T (I E l>0 MINIONS O I' 

'I' 1 1 E H A .! AH ( ) 1’ -M Y S O 11 1 

A N l> T)l F, ro 1' N U I KS .K^QU 11'^ l.l> V, V 




iELLOU' or THE. RDY/lL Sdf'lF.TY, A \M> Ol THE SOrij/i'Y t> I AVTIDPARIEH O T' lONDOS ‘ 
til' r n E H o N O ir II A f. T. E COMrANY ON THE JiENCsAL K.S'1 A L I. T > J I M E N T , 

IH'RI.ISHi H ITXOi !{, THE Ai;rHORirV \N1> P A T IM:) N' A « r E OK 



VOL. H. 





C O N T E N T S 


From Sira to Scringapatam, ----- page i 


Journey through the Part of Karnata south from the Cavery, - - 87 


From the Kaveri-pura Ghat to Coimbetorc, - 18s 

GIIAPTlvll X. 

Fiom Coimbetorc 10 ihc Frontier of Malabar, - - - 


Journey through the South of Malabar, - - - - 245 


Route from Valiencotlu to Coduwiilly, through Panyani and the central Parts of 
Malabar, - - - ~ - - - - 419 


Journey through the Noiihcin Part of Malabar 


i:rtnA'i A 'i o n. 


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A ugust 7tb, ISOO, — Having been infonnccl, that in the >roo(l.s 
to the north and iiortli-east of Si?'a many cattle an* hrcal, and 
that ill the hills to the eastward much steel is made, I delennincd 
to take a short journey in tlicsc ciircclions, althougli it was in some 
measure retracing my steps. For the cattle, PaKguda and Niildi/gul 
are tlie principal places; there being tw(dvc large herds in llie one 
district, and ten in the other. These places, however, being much 
out of my way, I determined to proceed to Madiglic.shy^ where, I was 
told, there were several lierds. In tlie morning I went five eosscs to 
Chemdra-gh'i^ or AI oon-liill, M'liich is a poor village at the toot of 
a high rock east from Badaxamt-hulli). Of course, I had heforc 
travelled the greater part of tlic road. In the neighbourhood of 
Chaudra-giri are some fine betd-uut gardtais. Formerly tlicso 
amounted to five Candacas of land, or 150 acres. In the time ot a 
dreadful famine, Avhich happened about thirty-six years ago, these 
gardens siifl’ereil much, owing to the wells having become <lry; for 
they arc all ivatcrcd hy the machine called Cupdy. They suffered 
still more owing to the desertion of their proprietors, on acconuL 
VoL. II. ^ 13 

rn ARi’ER 

Aiitjubl 7‘ 




August 7, 

State of llic 

of tlie wliich was in^posctl by Tippoo, lo iMKiblo liiin to 

})iiy the conti ihution whirl) I.ord Cnriiw allis exacted. They arc 
iHJW rednecfl to aV)() aerts, or I [ (Unuliu'd, 

The tank here (uioT.t to water (i Cattdacas of laud, or ISO acres; 
but:, fruni l)cini>' out of repair, it at preseut su|)|)lies one sixth |)art 
only of that: extent- Tlu' iarmers here alie^ax that in the hist 

August s. 


twenty years they Irive had only one season iu which thcK' was as 
luiirl) rain as they wauti'd. In tliis di^tiief of xlIiuihfi’L^iri s'liue of 
the villa^jfcs want some aud sojue ’■ ot llie cullivaiors v.iiiidi 
would be iiecess.iry to labour their aralde hiuds, aud some liave been 
totally deserted. 

Sth Anin^usL — I went tliree eosses to dA/r/7y'A(’.v/o/. (kirt of the ro;id 
lay iu the eomitiy cedol to the. A7:<'o//, wlio iu tie- ueiyhhourhood 
of has j:;ot an iusulalcd distiaet, in tin? Svune manner as 

the luijii e)f MijM)rc has one roinni Paup^uda, The whole eountiy 
thiou<;h wliieh I. passed was laid M'aste Iiy tin; Mural Idlr.wvwy under 
I^urseram Jihoic ; and as yet has na/overed very little, lii tlie. A7- 
r:<nns tr'rrilory the villages were 0);aliy deserteii. 'l‘he greater pait 
ol the cvunitry is now covered with low ne('s, hut much of it is lit 
for culti\’atiom (.)n iny arri\al at ^lA////V//c,y// 7 , I v/as not a little 
disa|7poiuted on lieing told iyy the i i\ il oUieeJ>., tli it ni ihe m hole 
district tiu'i*e was n«jt ;t single cow kcjR for breealing; aud that 
the rnily cattle in the j»laee w<’re .i few cows to give the* village 
people milk, and tiieoxeii lu'cessary for agriculture. 

Aladipihcihj^ is a fortress situated on a ro<*k of very diiricult access, 
and gavrisojual by a few' ('oinpany's seapojs; in ordej', I suppose, 
to prevent any of tin* rufiians in the Sham'.s country from seizing; 
on it, and rcinhuing it a strong-liold lo protect them in their rob- 
iicrics- yVt the foot ol’ the liill is a well foi lilied towm, wdiicli was 
said to contain 10()hous<’s; h/ut tliat aeeount was evidently greatly 
under-rated. In it w'crc 12 houses of fanners, and twenty oi Brdh- 
maufiy who, except two orticers of govtrninenl, wa:re all supported 
by the contributions of the industrious part of the community ; for 



Tippoo had entirely resumed the extensive charity lands Avliichthey CHAri’ER 

formerly posscssc<l. Their houses were, however, by far the best 

in the town, and occupietl, as usual, the most distinguished (|uartcr. August®- 

The place is now dependant on Madhu-gin ; but during the former 

government was the residence of an Asoph, or lord-lieutenant. His 

house, which is dignified with the title of a A/tf/'tf/, or palace, is a 

very mean place indeed. The Mussulman A/ri/rtr.v under Tippoo were 

too uncertain of their property to lay out much on buildings ; and 

every thing that they acquired was in general immediately expended 

on dross, ecjtiipagc, and amusement. 

The place originally belonged to a Po/ygar family ; a lady of 
which, named Madigheshy, having burned herself with her husband’s 
corjise, her name was given to the town ; for, above the Ghats, this 
practice, so far as 1 can learn, has been ahvays very rare, and con- 
.seqiicnriy gave the individuals who suirered a greater reputation 
than where it is constantly used. A/ad/g/iw/iy was after wartls go- 
verned by lidnU, or princesses, of the same family with the heroine 
from whom it derived its name. Erom them it was conquered by 
the family o\' Chicuypa Gaiida, who retaine«l it long after the Toly- 
gars of Mysore had deprived them of their original possessions, 
uMudhu-giri and Chin -uurdynn' -darga. During the in\ asion of Lord 
Cornwallis, a di.'scendant ot' Chicuppa Gauda came into this country; 
and, when he found that the place must return to the Saltan's do- 
minion, he cruelly plundered it of the little that had escaped 
Maraltali rapacity. He did not leave the place, which is extremely 
strong, till Coinnnir ud' Deen Khan came into the neighbourhood 
with a considerable force. 

In the vicinity there is very little cultivation ; owing, as the Wimt of 
natives say, to the want of rain. The late Sultan three years ago 
expended 700 Pagodas (about 230/.) in repairing a tank, that <jught 
to water H Candacas, or 240 acres of ricc-laiul : but in no year since 
has the. rain filled it, so as to water more than what sows two Candacas. 

The wells here are too deep for the use of the machine called Cap 'ily. 




August y. 
Tears «.f the 

pth August . — The native olliccr coniinancling the seapoys in the 
fort having informed me that I \ras deceived concerning the herds 
of breeding cattle, and the village oHicers being called, he gave 
such particular information where the herds were, that it became 
impossible for them to be any longer concealed. The people, in 
excuse fior themselves, said, they were afraid tliat I had come to 

take away tlieir cattle for the use of ColonenVelleslcy’s army, then 
in the field against Duudia ; and, although they had no fear about 
the payment, yet tliey could not be accessory to the crime ofgiving 

up oxen to slaughter. In the morning I took the village ofiicers 
M'ith me, and visited some of tlie herds ; but the whole j)Cople in 
the place were in such agitation, that I could little depend on 

the truth of the accounts which tliey gave; and I do not copy what 
they said, as I had an opportunity soon after of getting more satis- 
factory i n fo r mat i o n. 

Appearance The coiintry round Madighi’shj is full of little hills, and is over- 

try. grown with cripsc wood. The villages of the Goalas, or cow- 

keepers, arc .scattered aliout in the woods, and surrounded by a 
little cultivation of dry-lield. The want of water is every where 
.severely felt, and the poor people live chiclly on norsc-gram, their 
iJr/g/fhaving failed. In many pl.'iccs the soil seems capable of ad- 
mitting the culti\ ation to be much extended. 

Quarries. Near the town is a line (jiiarry, of a stone which, like that found 

at Jldma-giri, may be called a granitic porphyry. 

Here also may be easily <juarried fine masses of gray granite. 
August 10; 10th ylugust.— In tlie morning I went three cosses to Madhu-giri. 

ofth«*coun- tbroiigb pretty vallies, surrounded by detaclied rocky 

‘ry* bills. These vallies showed marks of having once been in a great 

measure cultivated, and contained the ruinous villages of their 
former iuhabitants. Ever since the devastation committed by Pur- 

serum Bhow, and the subsequent famine, they have been nearly 
waste ; and many of the fields are overgrown with young trees. A 
few wretched inhabitants remain, and a few fields are cultivated ; 



and it is said, that this year s^reatev progress would have been made CII.(PTF,R 
toward the recovery of the country, had not the season been re- 
niarkahly dry and unfavourable. August lo. 

On iny arrival at Madhu-g'iri, and qucslioniug Trhnula N/n/iiIca R,eo<liiig 
on the subject, I found, tliat every town and village in this hilly 
country had herds of breeding cattle. One of the herds I had met 
on the road ; but they were so liertre, that, without protection f»oiu 
tlie keepers, it won hi have been unsafe to approach them. I deter- 
mined, tlicrefore, to remain a day at Mudhii-gh i and examine the 

11th August. — I went u'ith 'JYimuta Nuyaka, and examined three August ii. 
herds of breeding cows, one of tliem chiefly his own property. 

Vroin him, and from some of the most sensible Goalas, I afterwards 
took the following account. 

In this country the Cudu Goalas, or Goalaru, are those who breed Goahu.w 
cattle. Their lamilies live in small villages near the skirts of the 
M’oods, where they cultivate a little ground, and keep some of their 
cattle, selling in tlie towns the produce of the dairy. Their families 
are very numerous, seven or eight young men in each being com- 
mon. Two or three of these attend the flocks in the woods, while 
the remainder cultivate their fields, and supply the towns with fire- 
wood, and with straw for thatch. Some of them also hire themselves 
to the farmers as servants. They arc a very dirty people, much 

■worse than even the generality of the people of Kaniula ; for they 
wear no cloathing but a blanket, and generally sleep among the 
cattle ; which, joined to a warm eliniate, and rare ablutions, with 
vermin, itch, ring-worms, and other cutaneous disorders, render 
them very offensive. 

In criminal matters relating to cast, the Goalas arc under the ju- 
risdiction of a renter, who in the lauguage ot' Kanidta is called Ban/ 
Chavadi, or in the Mussulman dialect Mima Cluivadi, which signifies 
the head of the butter-office. He resides at tlie capital, and pays to 
government an annual revenue. He goes to every village where any 



MI. , 

August U. 

regular families of Goalas arc established, and from each levies tlio 
tax which they pay to government for liberty to pasture their flocks 
oil its property. In this neighbourhood, every family, whether it 
consists of many persons or of few, or whether it be rich or poor, 
])ays the same tax ; which is indeed a mere trille, being only six 
Fttmm, or about 4.y. a year. For this small sum they are exempted 
from any tax or rent for grass, and may feed their cattle in what- 
ever woods they please. In some villages there is often only one 
fiimily of |)rivileged (roaUif, in others there arc two. If a family 
change its place of abode, it must ahvays pay its tax, and also cer- 
tain dues owing to the temples, at its original village. The same 
happens to the indiviilu.ils of a family, which sometimes may occupy 
ten houses ; tlic whole ol’ them, wlicrcver settled, must send their 
share of the tax to the head of the family. The head man of tlie 
family is generally the eldest sou of the last man who held the 
office; but in case of his being incapable, from stupidity, of trans- 
acting business, the Bti/j/ Ckavadi appoints an acting chief, or Ijya^ 
mana. There are some Goalas, who are not privileged, nor under 
the authority of the lieiiy Chavadi, who in proportion to the extent 
of their flocks pay a rent for the grass to the CyddaCavUa, or keeper 
of the forest. This also is very moderate; 100 cows paying annually 
five Famous, or 3s, Ad. 

The Ijyamdnus, or hereditary cliiefs of Goala families, settle all 
disputes ; but the Bcny Chavadi punishes all transgressions against 
the rules of cast. When the flocks of any family have perished, 
either by war or pestilence, the sufferers go and solicit anew stock 
from the other persons of the cast, each of whom will give a beast 
or two for that purpose. Should they be so unreasonable as to refuse 
this botinty, the Bcny Chavadi will compel them to assist their dis- 
tressed neighbours. 

There arc a great many different races of Goalas, with whom the 
Cadu Goalas neither eat nor intermarry. These last are a tribe of 
Karn&ta ; and persons, who consider themselves as of any rank, 



marry into such families only, v ith the purity of whose origin they 
are well ac<ju;'inte(l ; for in this tribe there is a very numerous race 
of Cutitfus, or bast.ards. Wi<lows who prefer disgrace to celibacy, 
and women wlio commit adultery, connect themselves with the 
bastard race, Avhoalso keep llaitras, or concubines; a practice that 
is not i)ermitte(l to Goalas of a pure <lescent. These, however, may 
keep as many wives as they please. A woman who is incontinent 
with a man of any other cast, is inevitably excommunicated. If the 
adidtery has heen committed with ^Goala, she will be received as 
a Cdtigu; and liolh the man who seduced her, and her husband, are 
fined in twelve I'unaiua^ or about 8.v. The Gvala.s 'avc not permitted 
to drink spirituous liquors, nor to eat fish, or hogs; but they may 
cat sheep, giaits, deer, and fowls. They bury the dead, and have no 
knowledge of a future life, except believing that those wlio die un- 
married will become Virigas, whom they worship in the usual manner. 
Tlie gods peculiar to their cast are, Jhijiippa and llamuppa. The 
Brahmans say, that the former is the same with Lechmana, the 
younger ])rother of liu/na; but of this the Goalas are ignorant. 
These poor people have a small temple, containing two shapeless 
stones; one of which they cvlW Juijuppa, and the other Rmnuppa. 
The Bujih i, or priest, is a Gcala, wliosc olhce is hereditary ; but who 
intermarries with the laity. Sacrifices are notolfcred to tlicsc idols; 
they are W'orshipped by offerings of fruit, flowers, and the like. 
There is a forest called Gyddada Mutraya, to which the Goalas re- 
pair, and sacrifice animals to Mutrdya, v/lio is represented by the 
first stone which the votaries find in a convenient place. On this 
occasion there is a great feast ; and any IMsiri (religious mendicant) 
that attends obtains the head of the sacrifice, and some bread. They 
sacrifice also to the goddess Marhna. Some of the Cadu Goalas 
the vow of Ddseri; but none of them can cither read or write. 
Their CrMra is a A/’* Vaishnavam Brahman but they neither know 
his name nor Avhere he lives. He comes once in two or three years, 
admonishes them to wear the mark of Vkhnu, and gives them holy 



August 11. 





August 11. 

Oxen of the 
Zebu kind. 

water. Each person presents hiiu with a Fanam ; anti, if he happen 
to be present at a marriage, he gets a measure of rice. Although 
these people call their Guru a. Brahman, it is more probable that he 
is a Vakhnavam or Satdnana; for the Panchanga, or astrologer of the 
village, does not act as Purdhita at any of their ceremonies, and 
they are not a tribe that can claim to be of Shdra origin. 

The race of oxen in this country may be readily distinguished 
from the European species, by the same marks that distinguish all 
the cattle India; namely, by a hump uu the back between the 
shoulders, by a deep undulated dewlap, and by the remarkable de- 
clivity of the os sacrum. Rut the cattle of the south are easily dis* 
tinguished from those of Bengal by the position of the horns. In 
those of Bengal the horns project forward, and form a considerable 
angle with the forehead ; whereas in those of the south the horns are 
placed nearly in the same line with the os frontis. In this brectl 
also, the prepuce is remarkably large ; and vestiges of this organ 
are often visible in females ; but this is not a constant mark. 

Of this southern species there are several breeds of very different 
qualities. Plates XIII. XlV.andXV. contain sketches ofsomc of them. 

Above the Ghats, however, two breeds are most prevalent. The one 
is a small, gentle, brown, or black animal: the females arc kept in the 
villages for giving milk, and the oxen are those chiefly employed 
in tlK plough; their short, thick make enabling them to labour 
easily in the small rice-plots, udiich are often but a few yards in 
length. This breed seems to owe its degeneracy to a want of proper 
bulls. As each person in the village keeps only two or three cows 
for supplying his own family uith milk, it is not an object with 
any one to keep a proper bull ; and as the niule-- are not emasculated 
until three years old, and are not kept separate from the cows, 
these are impregnated without any attention to improvement, or 
even to jirevent degeneracy. Wealthy farmers, however, who are 
anxious to improve their stock, send some cows to be kept in the 
folds of the large kind; and to breed from good bulls. The cows 


sprung from these always remain at tlic fold, and in the third gene- CIIAPTKR 
ration lose all marks of their parents degeneracy. The males are 
brought home for labour, especially in drawing water by the Capily; August 11. 
and about every village may be perceived all kinds of interme- 
diate mongrels between the two breeds. 

In the morning the village cows are milked, and are then col- 
lected in a body, on the outside of the wall, with all the buffaloes 
and oxen that are not employed in labour. About eight or nine 
in the morning the village herdsman, attended by some boys or 
girls, drives them to the pasture. If the flock exceeds 120, two 
herdsmen must be kept, and their herds go in different directions. 

The pastures are such waste lands as are not more than two miles 
distant from the village, and arc in general poor; the tufts of grass 
are but thinly scattered, and the bare soil occupies the greater 
space. This grass, however, seems to be of a very nourishing qua- 
lity, and the most common species is the Anilropogon Marthu of Dr. 
Roxburgh's manuscripts. At noon, and at four o’clock, they are 
driven to water, to raise which the Capily is often employed. At 
sun-set they are brought home ; and in the rainy season the cow- 
house is smoked, to keep away the flies. In the back yard of every 
house stands a large earthen pot, in which the water used for boil- 
ing the grain consumed by the family is collected; and to this 
are added ihu remains of curdled milk, of puddings, and a little 
flour, oil-cake, or cotton seed. This water becomes very sour, and 
is given as a drink to the cows in the evening, when they are again 
milked. At night, in the rainy season, the cattle get cut grass, 
which is collected in the woods, and about road sides : this last is 
the most nutritious, the very succulent roots being cut u]) with the 
leaves, and the situation preventing the harsh stems from growing. 

In dry weather, the cattle at night have strawl Those who can 
afford it, chiefly Brdhmam, give their milch-cow« cotton-seed and 
Avaray. The working cattle ought to have After the 

Voi.. II. C 



. VII. 

Augnst 11. 

milk for the family has been taken, the calves are allowed to suck; 
and unless they be present, as is usual with all the Indian race of 
cattle, the cows will give no milk. The cows here go nine months 
with calf, begin to breed at three years of age, and continue until 
15 years old. They breed once a year, but give milk for six months 
only. A good cow of the village kind gives twice a day from four 
to six Cucha Seers, or from about 9,j to 3i pints ale measure. 

The cattle of the other breed are very fierce to strangers, and 
nobody can approach the herd with safety, unless he be surrounded 
by Goalas, to whom they are very tractable ; and the whole herd 
follows, like dogs, the man who conducts it to pasture. The bulls 
and cows of this breed never enter a house ; but at night are shut up 
in folds, which are strongly fortified with thorny bushes, to defend the 
cattle from tigers. At 5 years old the oxen are sold, and continue to 
labour for twelve years. Being very long in the body, and capable of 
travelling far on little nourishment, the merchants purchase all the 
best for carriage. To break in one of them requires three months 
labour, and many of them continue always very unruly. The bulls 
and cows were so restless, that, even with the assistance of the 
Goalas, 1 could not get them measured ; but the dimensions of a 
middle sized ox were as follow : From the nose to the root of the 
horn, 21 inches. From the root of the horn to the highest part of 
the hump, 30 inches. From the height of the hump to the project- 
ing part of the ossa ischia, 45 inches. From the hump to the 
ground 46 inches. From the top of the hip-bones to the ground 
51 inches. 

The cows of this breed are pure white ; but the bulls have gene- 
rally an admixture of black on the neck and hind quarters. These 
cattle are more subject to the disease than the cattle living in vil 
lages ; and once in three years an epidemic generally prevails among 
them. It is reckoned severe when one-third of a man’s stock pe- 
rishes, although sometimes the whole is lost; but in general, as all 



the cows are reserved for breeding, the loss occasioned by one CHAPTER 
epidemic is made up before another conies. 

These cattle are entirely managed by Goalas ; and some of these August ii. 
people have a considerable property of this kind ; but the greater 
part' of these breeding flocks belong to the rich inhabitants of towns 
or villages, who hire the Goalas to take care of them ; and, for the 
advantage of better bulls, send to the fold all their spare cows of 
the village breed. In procuring bulls of a good kind, some expense 
is incurred : for the price given for them is from 10 to 20 Pagodas 
(3/. 7s, Id. to 6/. 14^. 2d.), while from 8 to 15 Pagodas is the price 
of an ox of this kind. Care is taken to emasculate all the young 
males that are not intended for breeding, before they can injure 
the flock. 

I'll? Goalas live in huts near the small villages, in parts of the 
country that contain much uncultivated land, and are surrounded 
by the folds, in which they always keep as many cattle as will cul- 
tivate a little land, and as the pasture near the place will maintain. 

But as local failures of rain frequently occasion a want of forage 
near their huts, some of the men drive their flocks to other places 
where the season has been more favourable, and either take up 
their abode near the huts of some other Goalas, giving them the 
dung of their fold for the trouble which they occasion, or live in 
the midst of woods, in places where the small reservoirs, called 
Cuttags, have been formed to supply their cattle with water. All 
the breeding and young cattle, with all the sheep and goats, are 
carried on these expeditions ; but a few labouring cattle and the 
buft'aioesare left at home in charge of the women, and of the men 
who can be spared from accompanying the flocks. During the whole 
time that they are absent the Goalas never sleep in a hut ; but, 
wrapped up in their blankets, and accompanied by their dogs', they 
lie down among the cattle within the folds, where alt night they burn 
fires to keep away the tigqrs. This however is pot always sufiicient, 
and these ferocious animals sometimes break through the fence, and 



ClIAPTEll itill 01 ' wound tlie cattle. The men have no tire-arms, the report 
of which would terrify the cattle; and for driving away the tiger, 
August 11. they trust to the noise which they and their dogs make. They -are 
also much distressed by robbers, who kill or carry away the sheep 
and goats ; but unless it be a numerous rabble that call themselves 
the army of a Poly^fctr, no thieves can annoy their black cattle ; for 
these are too unruly to be driven by any persons but their keepers, 
and the most hardened villain would not dare to slaughter an ani- 
mal of this sacred species. 

Exclusive of the buffaloes, Avhich arc managed as I have described 
at Scringapatam, the cattle of the 6’oa/tf.y have nothing to eat, except 
what they pick up in the wastes. The cows and sheep eat grass, 
and the goats the leaves of every kind of tree, bush, or climber, 
those of the Pcriploca eineticaW: excepted. Each kind of cattle 
must have a separate fold. From this, when at a distance .from 
home, they are driven out at sun-rise, as then the calves got all 
the milk, except a little used by the herdsmen ; but near the vil- 
lage the cows are milked every morning ; and this operation, which 
is performed by the men, takes up two hours. From each about 
two Seers, or pint, only are taken. They are indeed miserably 
lean, and at twenty yards <Iistance their ribs may be distinctly 
counted. The cattle are once a day conducted to the w.ater; and 
the calves, after they area month old, follow their mothers to pas- 
ture: before that they remain in the fold, under the charge of the 
man ivho cooks. 

’When a rich man sends a flock of a hundred cows under the care 
of the Goatas, he allows wages for two men, each of whom has an- 
nually 6() Faminxs, with a blanket and pair of shoes; in all, M'ortli 
about 2/. 5s. 1 d.; and when they come on business to their master’s 
house, they get their vicfoals. For grass he pays also live Panams 
a year to the keeper of the forest. These (3^. 4d.) w'ith the two 
men’s wages, making in all 4/. 13 j. 3d. are the whole of his annual 
ex pence. The profits, when no disaster happens, will be : for GAee, 



or boiled butter, , 8 Pagodas ; for sour curds, batter-milk, &c. CHAPTER. 

4 Pagodas ; for ilO tlirec-year-old bullocks 6o Pagodas ; m all 72 Pa- 

godas, or 720 Panams, or 24/. 3f. 6d.\ from this deduct the expense, August n. 

and there will remain ly/. 10s. as the gain npon the original stock, 

which may be estimated at 150 Pagodas for the 100 cows, and 

30 Pagodas for the two bulls; in all, 1300 Fanams, or 43/. 13^, 

which is almost 45 per cent, annually on the original value of the 


Tlic Goalas keep many Curls, and Maykays, or sheep and goats> Sheep anJ 
These always accompany them in their expeditions ; and even those 
who are servants to the rich men generally carry with them flocks 
of sheep and goats, or are accompanied by some men possessed of 
that stock ; so that less than four men never go together. The 
sheep arc more subject to the disease than the cows, and- the goats 
still more so than the sheep. A flock of a h\indred small cattle 
requires the attendance of two men, and two dogs ; and these have 
more profit from their own small herd, than the men who serve 
the rich to take care of cows. This they acknowledge themselves 
yet they will only allow the profits of the 100 goats to amount to 
100 Fanams a year; that is to sny, SO Fanams for .30 three-year^old 
males, and 20 Fanams for boiled butter. They eat the old females, 
and give the keeper of the forest two males for every hundred, in 
order to obtain his permission to cut the trees, that the goats may 
procure leaves. 

KGoala, that is reckoned rich, will have 200 cows, 30 female stock of the 
buffaloes, 50 ewes, and 100 she goats ; and will keep as many la- 
bouring oxen as will work three ploughs. Such a man, Trimula 
NAyaha says, besides paying rent, and finding his family in provi- 
sions, will annually make 100 Pagodas, or 33/. 10s. lOd. His 
clothing, being a blanket, costs a mere trifle; and part of the money 
he expends in the marriages of the younger branches of the family, 
and in religious ceremonies; the remainder is in general buried,, 
and a great deal of money is in this M'ay lost ; as M'hen the men get 





August 11. 
Stock of 

of the milk. 

old, and stupid, they forget where their treasures are hidden, and 
sometimes die without divulging the secret. 

The farmers also keep small flocks of goats and sheep, which are 
sent, under the charge of a boy, to the pastures near the village. 
In the evening they are brought home ; when the goats are taken 
into the house, and the sheep are folded on the field 6f their pro- 

The cattle in this country, as I have aU'cady mentioned, are 
milked by the men, who carry the produce home to the women; 
for they prepare the butter. The milk, on its arrival, is imme- 
diately boiled for at least one hour; but two or three hours arc 
reckoned better. The earthen pots, in which this is done, arc in 
general so nasty, that after this operation no part of the produce 
of the dairy is tolerable to an European ; and whatever they use, 
their own servants must prepare. The natives never use raw milk, 
alleging that it has no flavour. The boiled milk, that the family 
has not used, is allowed to cool in the same vessel ; and a little of 
the former days Tyre, or curdled milk, is added to |)romote its coa- 
gulation, and the acid fermentation. Next morning it has become 
Tyre, or coagulated acid milk. From the top of each potful, five 
or six inches of the Tyre are taken, and put into an earthen jar, 
where it is churned by turning round in it a split Bamboo. This 
is done very expertly by a rope, which, like that of a turner’s lathe, 
is passed two or three times round the Bamboo, and a quick motion 
in contrary directions is given by pulling first one end of the rope, 
and then the other. After half an hour’s churning, some hot water 
is added, and the operation is repeated for about half an hour more; 
when the butter form . The natives never use butter; but prefer, 
what is called Ghee, not only as that keeps better, but also as it 
has more taste and smell. In order to collect a quantity sufficient 
for making Ghee, the butter is often kept two or three days ; and 
in that time a warm climate readers it highly rancid. When a suf^ 
ficient quantity has been collected, it is melted in an earthen pot. 



and boiled until all the water mixed with the butter has evaporated, CHAPTER 
It is then taken from the fire ; and, for what reason I couhl not 
learn, a little 'lyre and salt, or Betel- and reddle, are added. It 
is kept in pots, has a very strong smell, and is best preserved from 
spoiling by a little tamarind and salt, which at any rate enter into 
the dishes of all the natives tliat can afford to use Ghee. It is eaten 
when even a year old. Three Pucka Seers, or 2SS Rupees weight of 
buffaloes milk, give 100 Rupees weight of Ghee ; the same quantity 
of cow and buffalo milk mixed, as usual, give 80 Rupees weight ; 
cow milk alone gives 60 Rupees weight, and goat milk only 40 Ru- 
pees weight. 

12th August. — Having been informed, that Chin'-ttardpan'-durga August V2. 
was distant three cosses, I ordered my tents to be pitched at that o(*^,he'^coun-- 
place; but on coming up, I found that the distance was only one coss. try. 

In this country, it is indeed very difficult to get any accurate in- 
formation concerning routes and distances. The road leads through 
a very narrow rugged valley, capable of very little cultivation. It 
is situated in the highest part of the country, the water from its 
north end running into the northern Pin&kani, while the Cdviri re- 
ceives the torrent flowing from its southern extremity. Chin'- 
Ti&rdyan' -durga, by its situation, is a strong place, and is garrisoned 
by the troops of the Mysore Raja. It is greatly inferior in appear- 
ance to Madhu-giri, although it is said to have been the favourite 
residence of Chicuppa Gauda. The town is the Kasha, or capital of 
a district, but is very poor. Nothing can be rougher than the 
neighbouring country, which at first sight appears a mass of rocks 
and bare hills thrown confusedly together; but on a nearer inspec- 
tion, many fertile spots are observed. 

In the neighbouring woods is found abundance of XhtPopli bark, Ifopli bark, 
which I have frequently mentioned as a dye, and as an article of 
export. It is the bark of the root of a large scandent plant, which 
climbs to the top of the highest trees. I saw neither flower nor 
fruit, so can say nothing of its botanical affinities ; and the specimens- 





August 13. 

of the couu* 

Iron mines. 

of the stem and leaves were not known to Dr. Roxburgh. It is 
collected by some Baydarus, who arc in the service of the Gydda 
Cofcila, or keeper of the forest. 

13th August. — I went three cosses to Tavina Cnray, in company 
with the Amildar^ who seems to be a very industrious man. He 
says, that last year he brought 200 ploughs into his district, and 
that 200 more would be required for its full cultivation. Near 
Chin'-n&r&yan'-durga the country, for the most part, consi.sts of a 
rugged valley surrounded by hills; but the fields between the rocks 
were form'erly cleared, and Avell cultivated, and are said to be very 
favourable for Ragy^ the rock enabling the soil to retain moisture. 
Among these rugged spots we visited some iron and steel forges, 
which had indeed induced me to come this way. The information 
procured on this subject, is as follows. 

Iron is smelted in various places of the following Talucs, or dis- 
tricts ; Madhu-giri, Chin’-^n&r&yan'-durga, Hagalarvadi., and D6va- 
r&ya'durga. In the first two districts the iron is chiefly made from 
the black-sand which the small torrents formed in the rainy season 
bring down from the rocks. In the two latter districts, it is made 
from an ore called here Cany Callu, which is found on the hill Am- 
dalayGuda^ near Muga-Nayakana-Cotay in the Hagalatfadi dhtnet. 
A little of the same iron ore is also procured from a hill, called 
Kaymuttyy near Mmo-conda in the district of Chica-Ndyakana- 

The manner of smelting the iron ore, and rendering it fit for the 
use of the blacksmith, is the same here as near Ma^adi. The people 
belonging to the smelting-house are four bellows-men, three men 
who make charcoal, and three women and one man who collect 
and wash the sand. They work only during the four months in 
which the sand is to be found ; and for the remainder of the year 
they cultivate the ground, or supply the inhabitants of towns with 
fire- wood. The four men relieve each other at the bellows ; but 
the most skilful person takes out ^he iron and builds up the furnace; 



on which account his allowance is greater. In each furnace the CHAPTER 
workman puts first a basket (about half a bushel) of charcoal. He 
then takes up as much of the black sand as he can lift with both August is. 
his hands joined, and puts in double that quantity. He next puts in 
another basket of charcoal, and the fire is urged with the bellows. 

When the first charcoal that has been given burns down, he puts in 
the same quantity of sand, and one basket of charcoal; and does this 
again, so soon as the furnace will receive a farther supply. The whole 
quantity of sand put in at one smelting measures 6l7 cubical inches, 
and weighs, when dry, about 42^ lb. avoirdupois. This gives a mass 
of iron, which, when forged, makes 1 1 wedges, each intended to 
make a 'ploughshare, and weighing fully l^'^lb. The workmen 
here, therefore, procure from the ore about 47 per cent, of malle- 
able iron ; but, as usual in India, their iron is very impure. 

In the forging-house are required 3 hammer-men, one man to 
manage the forceps, 2 bellows-mcn, and 4 men to supply charcoal, 
which for this purpose is always made of the Bamboo^ Every day 
three furnaces are smelted, and 33 wedges forged. The workmen 
are always paid by a division of the produce of their labour; and 
every fourth day, or when 132 pieces have been prepared, the divi- 
sion is made as follows. 


To the proprietor - - - - - 35 

To the Panchdla, who is the fore-man at the forge - 10 

To the fore-man at the smelting-house - - 8 

To one of the bellows-meu, who removes the ashes and dross 5 
To two of the women, who wash the sand, at 5 each - 10 
To the remaining 16 persons, at 4 each - 64 


The Panch&Utf or black-smith, out of his wages, is bound to find 
all the iron instruments, such as the anvil, the hammers, and the 
forceps. The proprietor defrays all other expenses ; and these are, 
Voji. ir. D 





August 13. 

Relative va- 
lue of the two 

Error in the 




To the keeper of the forest, for permission to make charcoal 100 
To the Gauda, or chief j 'the village, for leave to gather 

iron sand - - - - - - 40 

To ditto for furnace rent - - - - 15 

To the Sunca, or collector of customs - - 30 

To a pair of bellows for the smelting-house - 4i2 

To ditto for the forge - - - - 24 

To sacrifices - - - - 15 

To charity for the Brahmans - - 10 

. Fanams 276 

The buildings are so mean that they go for nothing ; and at the 
beginning of the season are put up by the workmen in the course 
of a day. 

The stone-ore is made into iron exactly in the same manner; the 
quantity put into the furnace, and the produce, being nearly the 
same. The iron from the stone-ore is reckoned better for all the 
purposes to which malleable iron is applied, but it sells lower than 
the iron made from the sand ; for this last is the only kind that 
can be made into steel. The stone-iron sells at 6 pieces for the 
Fanam; and the people who work it are paid by daily wages. The 
wedges that it forms are larger than those of the sand iron, and 
A'/eigl) from 3 to 4 Seers each ; so that this iron costs about 6s. \0d. 
a hundred-weight. The iron made from the sand sells at four pieces 
for the Fanam, or about lOf. Ad. a hundred-weight, tlic pieces 
weighing, according to estimate, only three Seers, I am inclined, 
however, to think, that on an average they weigh at least a tenth 
part more ; but it would be difficult to ascertain this, as the pieces 
differ considerably in size, and are never sold by weight. 

It must be evident, that in this account the head-man, wishing 
to conceal his profit^ deceived us. For thirty dividends can only 
take place in the course of four months ; and, each dividend giving 



/ V ■ - / . .'A . / / nnt.h > fh li ■ - /v. . ih 7/ / v fin ( U, -/ 7 / 
I'nf h ' 


, *'»/ d .Alt'/ furHiin' iif rhfht dtiiil.' 4 * //* iLh j'if 


/;:/ // 



him 35 wedges of iron, he will receive in all 1050 pieces, which, at CHAPTER 
the usual price, are worth only 262 j Fanams ; so that in the course 
of the year, his expenses being 276 Fanams, he would Jose 13^ Fa- August 13. 
nams, while the lowest workman gets monthly Fanams, or about 
5s. which is more than is earned by the common labourers of the 
country. The point in which I think he attempted to deceive was 
in the number of days that the people wrought. If they smelted 
every day in the year, his profits would be very great; but allow- 
ing for many interruptions, owing to the avocations of agriculture, 
and to occasional deficiencies of sand, we may safely suppose that 
the forge is employed 6 months in the year; and then the profits 
of the proprietor will be about 100 Fanams, which is nearly in the 
same ])roportion to his stock, as the gains of the breeder of cattle 
arc to his property. At this rate, the quantity smelted in each set 
of works, taking ray estimate of the weight of each piece, will be 
about 106 hundred-weight ; and the 19 forges, stated in the public 
accompts to be in this district, and that of Madhu-giri, will yearly 
produce about 100 tons of iron, worth nearly 1000/. 

For making steel, there are in this vicinity five forges ; four in Steel, 
this district, and one in D6va- Udya-Durga. To enable the work- 
men to give them a supply, the merchants frequently make advances; 
for almost the whole is exported. It is used for making stone- 
cuttcrs-chi.scls, sword-blades, and the strings of musical instruments. 

The furnace (sec Plate XVI, Fig. 40, 41.) is constructed in a hut 
(a); and consists of a horizontal ash-pit (b), and a vertical fire-place 
(c), both sunk below the level of the ground (d). The ash-pit is 
about ^ of a cubit in width and height, and conducts frpm the lower 
part of the fire-place to the outer side of the hut, ends in a. 
square pit (c), in which a man can sit, and with a proper instrument 
draw out the ashes. The fire-place 'is a circular pit, a cubit in dia- 
meter, and descends from the surface of the ground to the bottoin 
of the ash-pit, being in all twd eubits deep. Its mouth is a little 
dilated. Parallel to the ash-pit, and at a littlp distance from the 



CHAPTER mouth of the firc-placc, in order to keep the workman from the 
sparks and the glare of the fire, is erected a mud wall (f) about five 
August i3. feet high. Through the bott.»m of this passes an earthen tube (g) 
which conducts into the fire-place the wind of two bellows (h). The 
bellows are as usual supported on a bank of earth (i), and consist each 
of a bullock’s hide; they arc wrought, as in other places of this 
country, by the workman passing his arm through a leather ring. 

The crucibles are made, in a conical form, of unbaked clay, and 
each would contain about a pint of water. In each is put one third 
part of a wedge of iron, with three Rupees weight grains) of 
the stem of the Tayvgada or Cassia aurkulala, and two green leaves 
of the Huginay, which is no doubt a Convolvulus, or an Ipomea with 
a large smooth leaf; but never having seen the flower, I could not 
in such a difficult class of plants attempt to ascertain the species. 
The mouth of the crucible is then covered with a round cap of un- 
baked clay, and the junction is well luted. The crucibles, thus 
loaded, are well dried near the fire, and are then fit for the furnace. 
A row of them (k) is first laid round the sloping mouth of the fire- 
place; then w'ithin these another row is placed (1); and the center 
of this kind of arch is occupied by a single crucible (not), which 
makes in all fifteen. That crucible in the outer row (k) which oc- 
cupies the place opposite to the muzzle of the bellows, is then taken 
out, and in its stead is placed horizontally an empty crucible (n). 
This the workman, who manages the fire, cun draw out when he 
pleases, and throw fewel into the fire-place. The fuel used is 
charcoal prepared from any kind of tree that grows in the country, 
except the Ficus Bengalensis, and the Chloroxylon Dupada of my ma- 
nuscripts. The fire-place being filled with charcoal, and the arch 
of crucibles being covered with the same fewel, the bellows are 
plied for four hours ; when the operation is completed. A new arch 
is then, constructed, and the work goes on night and day ; five sets, 
of 14 crucibles each, being every day converted into steel. When 
the crucibles are, opened, the steel is found melted into a button, 



^’ith evident marks on its superior surface of a tendency to crystal- CHAPTER 

lization ; which shov’s cleurly, that it has undergone a complete 

fusion. It is surrounded ))v some vitrified matter, proceeding from August u. 

the impurities of the iron, and probably nearly equal to the t[uan- 

tity of carbon absorbed from the sticks and leaves shut up in the 

crucible; for the steel in each crucible is by the workmen reckoned 

to weigh 1;[ S'ecT. These buttons, liowevcr, arc never sold by weight, 

and those that I tried weighed very little more than one .Vm' of 

24 Rupees. In some crucibles the fusion is not complete ; iu which 

case, the steel is of a very inferior quality, and dill’crs but little 

from common iron. 

The number of people cmplo\md at one of these works is thirteen; 
a head workman, who makes the crucibles, loads them, and builds 
up the arch ; and four reliefs of inferior M'orkmen, each consisting 
of three persons, one to attend the fire, and two to work the bel- 
lows. Each set therefore, in the working season, labours only four 
hours in the day; except every fourth day, when they must attend 
double that time. They arc all cultivators ; aud in the leisure time 
which they have from the furnace, they manage their fields. There 
is also a proprietor, who advances all the mouey req\iired, and who 
receives payment when the steel is sohl. Tifteen Pagodas worth 
of iron is purchased ; two for the head workman, and one for each 
labourer, and for the proprietor. This iron is then given to the head 
workman, who for three months is occupied in making the cru- 
cibles, loading them, and preparing the furnace. During this time 
the twelve workmen bring him clay, repair the buildings, and make 
charcoal ; but these labours occupy only intervals, that could not 
be employed on their small fields of Ragy. In the fourth month, 
when all has been prepared, they convert the 15 Pagodas w'orth of 
iron into steel, as above described. Every man then takes the steel 
which his iron has produced ; and the proprietor is repaid for his 
advances. Another quantity of iron is then purchased, and the 
same process is repeated; so that by each furnace 45 Pagodas worth 



CHAPTER of iron is, in the course of the year, converted into steel. Besides 
the money advanced for iron, the proprietor, for the immediate 
August J3. subsistence of the workmen, is occasionally under the necessity of 
advancing them money; and he must also pay the general expenses 
attending the forge. These arc: 


To the keeper of the forest, for leave to make charcoal 1 10 
To the Sunca, or collector of the customs - - 30 

To t\\c Gnu da ^ or chief of the village, for house-rent - 15 

To sacrifices . . . - - 30 

To bellows - - - - , 43 

To the Brahmans as charity - - - - 20 

Fanams 347 

Every man, however, repays his share of this; in proportion to 
his quantity of steel ; and the whole profit of the proprietor is the 
having three Pagodas worth of iron conveited into steel, for which 
he will in general be in advance about 40 Pagodas, He tliercfore 
requires a capital to that extent; unless he can borrow it from some 
merchant, which indeed he generally does. 

Tile 45 Pagodas procure 1800 wedges of iron, and on an average 
procure 4500 pieces of good steel; which, at 2 :t for the Fanani, are 
equal to - - - - Fanams 1800 

900 pieces of bad steel, at 6 Fanams - - 150 


Deduct general charges - - Fanams 247 

Price of iron .... 450 


Neat gain - 1253 

The neat gain, \25S Fanams, divided by 15, gives Fanams 
clear profit for each share. The workman’s wages are equal to one 
share, and thus amount to about 7 Fanams a month ; Avith double 
that for the foreman, because he gives up his whole time to the 



business. These waives are Mod ; but' the allowance for the i)rn- ClJ.\PTf:il 

' . . . * \ J). 

prictor is small, unless \rc consider, that he in i>cncral gets the 

money IVoin the merchant, and that Ids only claim fur rewaul is Ait{;usua. 

some trouble in settling the accompts, and the risk of some of the 

people runidug away with the advances made to them. Among the 

natives themselves, however, very little danger arises from this 

cause, as they are perfectly acquainted with the characters of the 

individuals employed. 

Taking the estimate of the natives, of 30 Rupees weight being 
the true average of the pieces of steel, the quantity of stee, 
lit for ('xportation, that is annually made in this vicinity, will be 
about 1.52 hundred weight, and its value about .‘300/. or 2/. a hun- 
dred weight. 

Having examined the iron and steel w-orks, the /ImiUlar and I Tunk. 
visited a fine tank, which is said to have been constructed l)y 
Krishna R/ipalu of P''iJ(/i/a-iiagar(i ; and it is the llnest w'ork of the 
kind that 1 have yet seen above the Ghats : unfortunately, it has 
long been out of repair, and lofty trees now’ cover all the holds 
which it watered. It is said, that it would rc(|uirc 10,000 Paguihis 
(about rj:3.5-i/.) to remove ail the mud eoUectud in its bottom, and 
to put it in complete order. A partial repair lia.s just now been 
given, and it will be able to water some part of its former helds : 
the remainder will be cleared, and cultivatoil for AV/gy, until other 
more urgent demands shall allow the repair to be completed. 

As we approached Tavina-Carap, tlie country becomes open ; and Appearance 
I oh, served that every field was cultivated, Tatina-Caray is a small ,ry. 
town; but several additions to it arc making. Some streets in the 
Pe//rtare well laid out ; and, as an ornament before each shop, a coco- 
nut palm has been planted. The fortress, or citadel, is as usual 
almost entirely occupied by lirahnmns. This might seem to be an 
improper place for men dedicated to study and religion ; but in 
cases of invasion their whole property is here secure from marauders; 
while the Sudraa^ who are admitted during the attack as defenders, 





August l-V. 

TteUai of 
Kamdfa, or 

must lose all their effects, excejjt such moveables as in the hurry 
tliey can remove. 

lith August. — I went to the chief place of a district, 

called also Chaluru. The country is the most level, and the freest 
from rocks, of any that I have yet seen above the I observed 

only place in which the granite showed itself above the surface. 
The soil ,iu most places is good, and might be entirely cultivated. 
Near7hn/«fl-Carfly it is so; but as I approached Tumeuru, I observed 
more and more waste land. I understand, that the late Amildar did 
not give the people proper encouragement ; and about twenty days 
ago he was removed from his oflicc. By the way I passed nine or 
ten villages, all fortified with mud walls and strong hedges. At 
some distance on my Ipft were hills ; and the prospect would have 
been very beautiful, had the country been better wooded; but, ex- 
cept some small pahn gardens scattered at great distances, it has 
very few trees. Tumeuru is a town containing five or six hundred 
houses. The fort is well built, and by the late Amildar was put in 
excellent repair. The Pettu stands at some distance. TJie great 
cultivation here is Ragy, but there are also many rice-fields. This 
year there will be no Kdrtika crop, as at present the tanks contain 
only eight or ten days water. 

Here, as in several other parts of the country, there are people 
of a Karndta tribe of Jieslaru, who, although they do not intermarry 
with the Telinga Bestas, are so nearly allied, that they will eat toge- 
ther. They never carry the Palankeen^ their principal occupation 
being the burning of lime-stone. Some of them arc small farmers; 
but they never hire themselves out as hinds, or Batigaru. This 
tribe are called also Cubbaru. They have hereditary chiefs, called 
Jjyamanas, who, with a council of the heads of families, settle dis- 
putes, and excommunicate those who, notwithstanding admonition 
and reprimand, obstinately persist in bad practices. If a woman 
commit adultery with a strange man, she is excommunicated ; but if 
it be with a Cubba, both the adulterer ancl the husband are fined ; the 



one as a corrupter, and the other for having been negligent. An chapter 
assembly of at least ten of the tribe i$ called, and the woman Is 
asked before the peoplp, M’hether or not she chooses to return to August i4f. 
her husband. Jf she consents, and he agrees to receive her, as is 
usually the case, he gives the assembly a dinner, and no one after- 
wards mentions the affair. Jf the parties cannot agree, the marriage 
is dissolved. This cast does not admit the connection called Cutiga, 

The women are extremely industrious, and hence are very valuable 
to their husbands, and are independent of them for support; which 
seems to be the reason of their possessing such a licence in their 
amours. After the age of puberty they continue to be marriageable. 

Except a few rich men, the Beslas of Karn&ta generally content 
themselves with one wife, unless the first has no children, or lias 
had only daughters. In such cases, even the poor struggle to pro- 
cure a second wife, to keep up the family. They are allowed to 
drink spiritaous liquors and to eat animal food. None of them can 
either read or write. They bury the dead, and seem to have no 
knowledge nor belief in a future state; but they appeared very 
willing to assent to any thing that either I or my interpreter said 
on the subject. This, however, did not proceed from any convic- 
tion of its truth ; hut merely from civility, they being unwilling to 
contradict persons who were supposed to be better informed than 
themselves. They neither make the vow of Dush'i, nor believe in 
the spirits called Virika. The goddess of the cast is Ydlunia, one of 
the iiakfis, in whose temples the Pujarh are persons of this tribe. 

They offer sacrifices to her, and to all the other destructive spirits; 
but say that they are of Fisknu's side. They have a Guru; yet, al- 
though he was here fifteen days ago, they know very little about 
him. He is a married man, is named Linguppa, and was attended 
by servants of the cast. Mis disciples, here were Cubbaru, 

C(trub(is, and some other cultivators. He slept in one of the tem- 
ples of the Hfiktis. All these circumstances would point him out to 
be a worshipper of Sica, and one of the Curubaru Janj^aam; but he 
VoL. II. E 





August 14. 

Additions to 
the account 
of the Cu) 

Customs of 



M'ore a thread, and marked his forehead with turmeric, like a wo - 
shipper of Jaina. He gave the Cubbas turmeric to mark their fore- 
heads, aiul accepted of their Dhartna, or charity. His Matarn, or 
college, is at Aleilar, near Savanuru. The Panchanga acts as Purb- 
hita at marriages, Mala-paksha, and births. For his trouble, he 
receives rice, or other provisions, but is sometimes paid In lime ; 
money being rather scarce among this tribe. 

The Curubas here say, that, at a temple of Bhairawa at llercay 
Samudra, which is near Mercasera, to the north of this place, and 
where one of their cast acts as Pujdri, the image represents a man 
sitting on horseback, with the Lingo round his neck, and a drawn 
sword in his hand. They ofler sacrifices to this image, and eat the 
flesh. The family of Rdvana have now spread all over the country ; 
but Sarur is still considered as the proper family seat. Their Guru 
has the power of restoring any outcast to the enjoyment of full com- 
munion. They have a book peculiar to the cast, called Jiraga Cha~ 
pagodu. It is written in the language of Karndta, and gives an 
account of the tribe. The Cunibaru buy their wives; a girl of a 
good family costs from 30 to 40 Fanams ; a girl of the bastard or 
Cutiga breed costs 15 Fanams, or 105. 

The Panchama Cumbharu, or Cumbharu that wear the Lingo, are 
an original tribe of Karndta. They say that they are of the Gunda 
Brirnmia family, and claim no connection with Sdlivdhanam, as the 
other Cumbharu do. They follow no other profession than the 
making of earthen-ware. Their hereditary chiefs arc called Ijya- 
manas, and pay annually to government a certain sum for the clay 
•ised in their manufacture. The IJyamana divides this assessment 
upon the families that are under his authority, so that each pays its 
proportion. They must also furnish with pots all persons travelling 
on public business. Each house, besides, pays annually three Fa- 
nams, or Qj. The l^yamanas assemble four persons as a council, 
and with their assistance settle disputes, and punish transgres- 
sions, No higher punishment is inflicted on men than a temporary 



excommunication. Women, who commit adultery, are entirely ex- CIlAPTlill 
communicated, and arc never allowed to remain as concubines ; and 
the man who seduces another’s wife is obliged to pay a fine to the August u. 
public. They, and the Pancham Baniji^as, although they do not 
intermarry, can eat together ; of course, they neither can eat ani- 
mal food nor drink spirituous litpiors. They can marry into any 
of the forty families descended tram Gunda Brinmia ; but a man 
and woman of the same family cannot be married together. The 
men are allowed to take several wives, who are very industrious in 
bringing clay, and making cups. The girls continue to be mar- 
riageable after the age of puberty ; but a widow is not allowed to 
take a second husband. None of them can read. Like all other 
persons who wear the Linga, they bury the dead. The men of this 
cast have no knowledge of a future state, and neither believe in the 
i'inka, nor take D/ticri. Their principal object of worship is Isu'ara, 
represented as usual by the Linga; in sickness they pray to the 
Saktis, who are supposed to inflict disorders; and they make vows 
of presenting their temples with money, fruit, and flov'crs, provided 
these vengeful powers will relent, and allow them to recover; but 
they never appease the wrath of the Sakth by bloody sacrifices. 

Their G uru is an hereditary Jangama, Avho resides at Gubi, and is 
called Saiik'-rdya. He comes once a year, cats in their houses, ac- 
cepts of their charity, gives them consecrated ashes, and advises 
them to follow the duties and labours of their cast. If any of them 
are in distress, he bestows alms on them. The Panc/uhiga, or village 
astrologer, reads Mantrams at their marriages, and on the building 
of a new house, and is thus supposed to render it lucky. The Jan- 
gamas attend to receive charity at the Mala-paksha, or annual com- 
memoration of their deceased parents, at births, and at funerals; 
but do not either rea<l or pray on these occasions. 

There are many the I Voculigas, ot S&dra cultivators of Kamdla Persomwho 
extraction, who wear the Linga. In this neighbourhood these are ?o! JUaw'ho 
of the following tribes: CumOi Gangrkara, Sadru, or Sadu, and Nona. 


A jouhney from madras through 



August 14. 

Custom*j of 
the ^ona 

But inany 6f each of these tribes worship Sivd without wearing his 
badge; and still mote Are worshippers of Vishnu. All those who 
wear the Lingo can Cat together, and with the Pancham Banijig(is; 
but they only marry in their own tribes. 

The 'Nona JVoculigaru, Who are here called Nonabur by the Mus- 
sulmansj consider thertiselves as Hudras, and their hereditary chief 
is the male representative of a person called Honapa Gauda. This 
chief always lives at Hosso-hully ; but he sends agents to act for 
him in different parts of the country. He wears the Linga, but 
many of the tribe worship Vishnu. This, however, produces no 
separation in cast, the woman always following the religion of her 
husband. My informants are wearers of the Linga ; and say, that 
besides the worship of this emblem, they pray and offer fruit and 
flowers to the Haktis, but never sacrifice animals. When any expla- 
nation of a future state of rewards and punishments is given by a 
more learned neighbour, they say that they believe it ; but this is 
done merely out of compliment to his superior endowments ; and 
their worship of the gckls seems to be performed entirely with a 
view of procuring temporal blessings, or of avoiding present evil. 
They believe that the Virika, or spirits of men who have died chaste, 
tan cure diseases. The married Jangamas are their Gurus, give 
them the Lingo, and receive contributions in money or grain. At 
fell ceremonies they attend for charity, but do not pray. It is at 
marriages only that the Panch&nga reads his Mantrams. Like most 
bther persons who wear the Lingo, they never take Ddseri, and they 
bury the dead. Some of them can read the Boiwo Purdna, and 
many of them understand accompts. They are not allowed to eat 
animal food, nor to drink spirituous licpiors. Their chief, or his 
deputies, with the assistance of a council, settle disputes, and expel 
from the cast all transgressors of its rules. These, as usual, are, men 
who eat forbidden meat, and women who are forgetful of their duty 
to their husbands. This cast does not admit of concubines of the 
kind called Cutigas, nor are widows allowed to marry again. The 



girls, however, continue marriageable after the age of puberty, and CHAPTER 

all the women are industrious in the labours of the field. The men 

take as many wives as they can procure. August i5. . 

15tli August. — I went three cosses to Gubi ; which, although a g«4i. 
small town, containing only 360 houses, is a mart of some impor- 
tance, and has 154 shops. The houses in their external appearance 
are very mean, and the place is extremely dirty; but many of the 
inhabitants are thriving, and the trade is considerable. It is said 
to have been founded about 400 years ago, by a family of Pol^gars, 
who resided at Hosso-hully, two miles from hence, and who traced 
their descent from Ilonapa Gauda^ the hereditary chief of the Nontt 
fVoculigaru that I lately mentioned. Ilonapa Gouda lived about 700 
years ago, and his family [x>ssessed a country which annually pro- 
duced about 3000 Pagodas. They were first brought under subjec- 
tion by the Mysore Rdjas, who imposed a tribute of 500 Pagodas, 
llydtr increased this to S500, leaving them little better than renters. 

They were entirely dispossessed by his son, and have returned to 
their original profession of cultivators; but in their own tribe they 
still retain their hereditary rank. 

From the pride of two contending sects, the Cotnaties, and the Disturbance* 
Sanijigas, Gubi has lately been in a Very disorderly state, and has 
even been in danger of destruction. The former having erected a 
temple to a sainted virgin of their tribe, who threw herself into the 
flames, rather than gratify the lust of a tyrannic Rdja, the Banijigas 
took offence, pretending that such a temple was contrary to the cus- 
toms of the town ; there never before having been in that place any 
such building. Both parties being obstinate, the one to retain the 
temple, and the other to destroy it, Pumea last year ordered the 
town to be divided by a wall ; on one side of which the Comaties 
and their adherents should live, and on the other their adversaries. 

Hie Comaties hitherto had on their side some show of reason, as 
they did not attempt to force any one to honour their saint ; but 
now they became exorbitant in their pretensions ; they would not 



CHAPTER submit to the order of Purnea ; and said, that the custom of the 
town was for all parties to live together, the Br&hmant excepted, 
August 15 . who occupied the fort ; and that it would be an infringement of 
the rules of cast for them to be forced into a separate quarter. 
The Banijigas, to show their moderation, now offered to leave the 
town altogether, and to build a suburb on the opposite side of the 
fort, where at present there are no houses. To this also the C’owia- 
ties, on the same grounds, refused their consent. The quarrel has 
lately been inflamed, by the chief of the Comatm having, during 
a procession, entered the town on horseback with an umbrella car- 
ried over his head; which are assumptions of rank, that the Bani- 
jigas have beheld with the utmost indignation. Purnea, I suppose, 
thinks that they are least in the wrong, and has appointed one of 
this cast to be Amildar, He arrived here yesterday with positive 
orders to assemble a council of wise men ; and, these having deter- 
mined what the custom originally was, to enforce that with the 
utmost rigour. The Amildar seems to be a prudent man, and not at 
all heated with the dispute ; in which moderation he is not imitated 
by any one of the inhabitants, except the Brdhmana, who look with 
perfect indifference upon all the disputes of the low casts. How far 
the plan proposed will be successful, however, it is difficult to say. 
Both sides are extremely violent and obstinate ; for in defence of 
its conduct neither party has any thing like reason to advance. If 
justice be done, both sides will complain of partiality, and murmurs 
are now current about the necessity of killing a jack-ass in the 
street. Tins may be considered as a slight matter; but it is not so, 
for it would be attended by the immediate desolation of the place. 
There is not a Hindu in Karnhta that would remain another night in 
it, unless by compulsion. Even the adversaries of the party who 
killed the ass would think themselves bound in honour to fly. This 
singular custom seems to be one of the resources, upon which the 
natives have fallen to resist arbitrary oppression ; and may be had 
recourse to, whenever the government infriogesj or is considered 



to have infringed upon the customs of any oast. It is of no avail 
against any other kind of oppression. 

At Gubi is one of the greatest weekly fairs in the country, and it 
is frequented by merchants from great distances. The country, for 
ten or twelve cosses round, produces for sale coarse cotton cloth 
both white and coloured, blankets, sackcloth, betel-mU of the kind 
called tcallagram, or neighbouring, coco-nuts, jagory, tamarinds, 
capsicum, wheat, rice, ragy, and other grains, lac, steel, and iron. 
Beside the sale of these articles, and of those imported for the con- 
sumption of the neighbourhood, this is also an intermediate mart 
for the goods passing through the peninsula. 

From Mudo-Biddery, and Subhramani, two places in the country 
which we call Canara ; from Codagu Bogundi, some place in what 
we call Coorg; and from a place in Mulaydla called Calesa, are 
brought black pepper, cardamoms, rol, the gum, and dupa, the wood, 
of the Ckloroxylott Dupada, Buch: MSS. ginger, betel~nut of Bengal, 
cinnamon, cabob-china, or cassia-buds; casturi-china, or wild tur- 
meric ; capt/idour, and a s)veet smelling root called cachora. These 
people take away /iriguy, one of th6 ckrminative seeds, blankets, 
sack-cloth, cotton cloths of many kinds, but chiefly coarse; sugar- 
candy, sugar, the pulse called tovary, tamarinds, and cash. 

From Tellichery arc brought dates, raisins, nutmegs, saffron, bo- 
rax, pepper, and terra japonka. The returns are the same as those 
above mentioned. 

The merchants of Gnbi frequent a weekly fair, at a place called 
JBiruru, which is east from thence 24 cosses. This is a great resort 
of the merchants of Nagara, and of Malayala, who sell to those of 
Gubi black pepper, Deshavara betel-nut, terrajaponka, dates, ginger, 
danya, an umbelliferous seed, garlic, fenugreek, wheat, the pulse 
called hessaru, and capsicum. They buy sugar and sugar-candy, lac, 
coarse cotton cloth, sack-cloth, and bagy, or calamus aromatkus, and 
receive a large b^ance ia money. 



AiigtiM 15. 
Commerce at 
the lair of 



CHAPTER From Scringapatam is brought money to purclusc betd^nutt sugar* 
candy, ^Mgair^ jirigay-seed^ goods, and blankets. 

Aaguitia, The merchants Bangalore, Colar, and other adjacent places, 
bring cotton cloths, and a fevr of silk, and take away betel~nut both 
JDethavara ai\d fVaUagram, black pepper, coco-nuts, cinnamon, gin- 
ger, terra japonica, capHi flour, and mrthamus, or cosmmba. If the 
demand be sudden, they bring ready money ; but commonly they 
bring as much clotli, as, when sold, procures their investment back^ 
wards; and sometimes even more. 

From Namaguttdla, Gudibunda, and Pallia, which are places ne;^ : 
Bala-pura, the mcrchauts bring sugaj', sugar-candy, and jagory. 
They take back betel-nut, coco-nuts, terre japonica, and ginger. 
The exchange is about equal. 

From Parnudi near Gutti, and other ])laces in the country ceded 
to the Nizam, merchants bring a variety ot cotton cloths, and take 
away coco-iiuts, and lac, with a balance in money. 

From Haveri, in the Marat tahcoooXry, mercliauts hung cossumba, 
terra japonica, opium, tcnt-cloth, maiUuta, or blue vitriol i'or colour- 
ing the teeth, borax, sqjira, the seed of an umbelliferous plant, nud 
asafoctida. They take away coco-iiuts, lac, and money. 

Merchants from Gubi, and its neighboui hoocl. go to IVallaja Petta^ 
near Arcot, with Deshavara betel-nut, and black pepper ; and bring 
back cloth, and all kinds of goods imported by sea at Madras. 

Merchants from Saltern, and Kriikmi-giri bring cloths, and take 
away betel-nut, pepper, and money. 

Trade is allowed to be flourishing at present. At every fair there 
are sold from 50 to 100 loads of betel-nut, produced in the neigh- 
bouring districts oiSira, Hagalawadi, Ckka-Ndyakana-HuUy, Budi- 
iialu, Hunawully, and Gubi: with ab. ut from 20 to 40 loads of Copra, 
or drietl coco-nur, from the same districts. Much, however, of these 
articles, the produce of these districts, is sold at other places. 'Ihe 
load is 8 Alaunds, each of 40 Sultany Seers. The average .rate of this 



■'fc^ould glv’^e 31,000 Maunds, or 669S luindred weight of betcl-nut ; 
and 12,480 Mannds, or 2704 hundred weight of coco-nut, the pro- 
duce of these districts, sold annually at Guhi 

The coarse cloths made in the neighbourhood by the Dev/mgas, 
Togotas, and If'^fialUarit, sell from 2 to 6- /hw<o«.v for each piece called 
Hhiray. About 100 pieces are sold at each fair, worth in the whole 
year about 20,000 Fanams, or nearly 6661. In tlic neighbourhood, 
however, there are many fairs, where these manufactures arc also 

Although this is a verv short distance from .SVw, the Caiidacti of 
gi'ain contains only 320 Seers, and the shells called Coteries arc uf)t 
at all current. The Falla, or allowance made for exidianging gold 
to copper, is or not quite per cent, on the regulated |)riee. 

The country, between Tamcitru and Giibi, consists of gently 
swelling lands, entirely resembling that through which I came 
yesterday, A very considerable proportion of it is not cidtivatcd. 
The soil near Timcuru is rather samly. Near Gubi it is in general 
good, with a large proportion of rice lauds. This is now cultivating 
chiefly for the crop called Puiuji. The tanks are too small to re- 
tain a supjily of water for the I'ais&lilia crop, "fhey answer only 
for cultivation in the rainy season ; as they merely preserve a (juan- 
tity sufficient to supply the fields, M'hen there may be an interval 
of eight or ten days of dry weather. The rains seem to have been 
here more copious than towards the north and cast; but still the 
people complain. In no place between this and Madbu-gi ri is water 
raised by theCapily, although no reason is assigned for this ucgleet, 
except that it is not the custom. 

I6th August. — I went three cosses to Afuga-KdyaliUiin-Cotay, a 
village in the Hagateru'adi <listrict. It is strongly fortiiied with mud 
walls, and contains I 90 houses. Before the last Marallah invasion, 
it had, in the Petta, a handsome market, consisting of a wide street, 
which on each side had a row of coco-nut palms. While Pursernm 
Bhow was at Sira, he sent 500 horse and 2000 irregular foot, with 
VoL. ir. F ' 



August l->. 


!Mfasu it.n, 



ot tliecoua- 





Augubt lb'. 

ol the coun- 

Auguit 17< 

one gun, to take the place, Avhich was defended by 500 peasants 
from the neighbourhood. They had two small guns, anti 100 match- 
locks ; the remainder were ■ nned with slings and stones. The siege 
lasted two months, during which the Marattahs fired their gun se- 
veral times, but they never succeeded in hitting the place. On 
some occasions they had the boldness to venture within musket 
shot of the walls ; but two or three of their men having been killed, 
they afterwards desisted from such deeds of hardiliood, and finally 
retired without one of the defendants being hurt. The peasants 
destroyed the market, to prevent the Marattahs from availing 
themselves of the houses in their approach. Notliing can equal the 
contempt which the inhabitants o\' Karndta have for the prowess of 
a Marattah army, hut the horror which they have at its cruelty. 
^Vhen Purseratn Bhow left this neighbourhood, his people carried 
ofl'all the handsome girls that fell into their hands; and they swept 
the country so clean of provisions, that three fourths of the people 
perished of Imnger. 

The country through which I have come to-day, is much like 
that which I saw yesterday. For three years the crop of Rag^ has 
almost entirely failed. Last year the rain coming in plenty, after 
the crop of Ragy had been burnt up, they had a good crop of rice. 
The year before, there being in the reservoir only a small quantity 
of water, the people had no rice; but applied the water to the cul- 
tivation of sugar. Hitherto this year the looks well; but 

there has been no rain for twenty days. There has been water 
enough, liowevcr, to enable them to sow one fourth of the Kdrtika 
crop of rice. If in ten days any rain should come, the crop of 
will be good, and much of it would still endure a drought of three 
\veeks. Notwithstanding this scarcity, the natives are not abso- 
lutely in want of provisions ; for they bring a supply of grain from 
other places that have been more favoured. 

17 th August. — In the morning I went two and a half cosaes to 
Conli. About three miles from my last night’s quarters, the country 


M hilly; but the hills are lower, and not near so rugged as those to CHAPTER 
the eastward among the Durgas. Owing probably to the vicinity 
of the iron mines, they are very bare of trees, and their surface is Auguu 17, 
covered with small stones intermixed with bare rock; but this, not 
being granite, never appears in those immense naked masses so 
common in the hills running north from Capala-durgu, or near the 
eastern Ghats. The hills here, as w'ell as the others above the Ghats, 
do not form long uninterrupted ridges, but are almost every where 
surrounded by level ground; so that in travelling among them, 
there is little occasion to ascend any great heights The vallies in 
some places are narrow, and torn up by the empty channels of tor- 
rents ; in other places they are wide, and well cultivated. I am 
informed, that this range of low hills extends all the way north to 
Chatrakal, and in its course comes near to Sira. It seems to extend 
about three miles south from Conli; and beyond that I can see 
quite a level country, extending to a low range of hills at A/w- 
samudra. In the vallies here are many palm-gardens. The people 
complain much of the want of rain ; but their crops have not suf- 
fered, and I suspect that they exaggerate the dryness of the 
country. A Br&hman here would not allow that he had ever seen 
a season in which rain had fallen in tolerable plenty. 

On my way I passed over Doray Guda, the hill producing iron- irou minr* tt 
ore ; but, not being satisfied with the view which I then took, I 
determined to stay another day to examine it more fully; and in 
the mean while 1 investigated the process that is used for smelting 
the ore. 

At each sit of works twenty men are employed. In the smelting- Manner of 
heuM there .re, 

1 man to put in the ore and charcoal, and to take out the iron. 

3 men to blow the bellows. 

d men to supply the charcoal. 

1 man to supply ore# In a forge that is about two miles from 
the mine, he must keep 6 asses. 


In the forging-house there arc, 

1 blacksmitli to manage the fire and furnace. 

2 bellows-men. 

3 hammer-mcn. 

3 charcoal-men. No Bamboos are to be procured ; the charcoal 
of trees, therefore, must be used ; but Avere the other obtainable, 
it would be preferred. 

The ore is smelted twice a day. At each time, about 166 Cticha 
Seers of cleaned ore are put into the furnace ; and the two smelt- 
ings, on an average, should produce 65 Seers of wrought iron, which 
is about 20 per cent, of the ore. The two blocks of iron from the 
smelting-furnacc are heated, and then cut into five wedges, each 
about three Seers; and twenty-five, each about two Seers. These, 
having been heated in the forging-furnace (which is open above, 
and docs not seem to give more heat than a good blacksmith’s 
forge), are beaten once by three men, with hammers weighing 
about 12 or 14 pounds, and arc then fit for sale. The iron 
from the first, therefore,, is very malleable, and the fusion is 
never so complete as to form a button of tlie metal. The iron^ 
according to the demand, sells at from three to five small pieces, 
or from 6 to 10 Seers, for the Faiiatn; and is bought up by the mer- 
chants of Chin'-ruya-pattana, and Narasingha~pura, who carry most 
of it to Seringapatam. At the first price it brings 20 8^/. a hundred 
weighty at the second price, it brings rather more than \2,s.Qd. 
It must be observed, that this account entirely contradicts that 
Avhich was given in the Ckin'-n'iyan’-durga district ; the quantity of 
iron produced from the ore here, being infinitely smaller and higher 
priced than that produced from the black-sand. The wedges are 
also smaller, and the workmen are paid by a division; all of which 
are contrary to the assertions of the people of Chin'-‘rdyan'-durga, 
The manner of division is asi follows; the master gets the produce 
of one day’s labour, and the workmen get that of three, and divide 
each day’s work thua: 




August 17. 



I.arge Pieces. 

To the man who furnishes ore, for himself and cattle - 2 

To each of the bellows-meii at the smelting-furnace I large 
piece - - . - _ - 3 



Auj^uit 17* 

Large pieces - 5 

Small l^ioces. 

To the head-man at the smelting-furnace - - 3 

To each of the 9 chaicoal makers 1 small piece - 9 

To the blacksmith _ - . , - 5 

To each of tlie bellows-men at the forge 1 piece - 2 

To each of the hammer-men 2 pieces - - .6 

Small ])icccs - 25 

Tlie labourers do no other work ; and, when the master can make 
the necessary advances, arc employed the whole year. Allowing 
that they smelt in all 320 days in the year, the lower workmen, at 
a medium price of 4 pieces of iron for the Fanarn, make only 5 Fa- 
nams a month, out of which they must j>ay ground-rent for their 
huts. This is low wages. The blacksmith has high wages; but he 
must find the hammers, anvils, forceps, &c. 

The annual expenses of the master are ; 


To the renter of mines and woods - - - 130 

To ground-rent for the forge - - - - 50 

For bellows - - - - - - 180 

For an annual sacrifice to Gitdada Umma, the mother r f the 
hill 10 

For two sacrifices to Hombaiu Devdru, the god of fui naces 30 
To a feast given by the labourers at Gauri, in honour of the 
anvil, 150 coco-nuts, and one Rupee's worth of legumes 20 
A new cloth to the blacksmith at Sivarutri - . - 10 

Fanams - 430 



CHAPTnil As, at the rate of working above stated, 80 days produce of the 
1^1 forge comes to his share, he gets S600 pieces of iron, v/hich at the 
August 17. average price are worth 450 Fanams, leaving only a profit of 20 
Fanavis, From the smallness of this profit, I doubt the accuracy of 
the account ; especially as, by way of a retainer, the master must 
advance from 50 to 70 Fanam to each man, say in all 1200 Fanams, 
and must make them occasional advances of 20 or 30 Fanams, to 
enable them to subsist till they can sell their iron. They are by this 
means bound to his service ; and, without repaying the advance, 
which very few of them are ever able to do, they can follow no 
other employment. If he cannot employ them, they may for a sub- 
sistence work with the farmers. He is obliged to build their huts, 
which is done in the intervals of other labour. It is probable, in 
fact, that all the advances are made by the merchant, in Avhich case 
his profit is sutficient. 

August 18 . 18th August. — Ii/the morning I went all over Doray Guda, which 

is about a mile in length, from five to six hundred yards in width, 
and is divided into three hummocks. The northernmost of these 
is the most considerable, and rises to the perpendicular height of 
four or five hundred feet. It is situated in the Hagalmadi district; 
but, for what reason I know not, pays its rent to the Amildar of 
Glika Nayakana Hully, This is the. only hill in this vicinity that 
produces the iron ore; but as the same hill in different villages is 
called by different names, I at one time imagined that the mines 
had been numerous. The people here were ignorant of there being 
any other mine in this range of hills ; but that I afterwards found 
to be the case. At Conli this hill is called Doray Guda, which name 
I have adopted. On all sides it is surrounded by other low hills ; 
but these produce no iron; 

The whole strata of these hills are vertical, and, like all others 
that I have seen in the country, run nearly north and south. 
Where they have been exposed to the weather on a level nearly 


with the ground, which is generally the case, these strata divide CHAPTER 
into plates like schistus, and seem to moulder very quickly. In a 
few places they rise into rocks above the surface, and then ti.ey 
decay into roundish or angular masses. All that I saw were in a 
state of great decay, so that it was difficult to ascertain their na- 
ture ; but, no doubt, they are either earthy quartz, or hornstone 
variously impregnated with iron, and perhaps sometimes with man- 
ganese. Within, the masses are whitish, with a fine grained earthy 
texture ; but outwardly they are covered with a metallic efflores- 
cence, in some places black, in others inclined to blue. 

A ledge of this rock passes through the longer diameter of Doray 
Cuda, and seems to form the basis of that hill ; but the whole super- 
stratum, both of the sides and summit, seems to be composed of a 
confused mass of ore and clay. The surface only is at present 
Avrought ; so that very little knowledge can be obtained of the inte- 
rior structure of the hill. In its sides the miners make small exca- 
vations, like gravel-pits, but seldom go deeper than five or six feet. 

On the perpendicular surface of these the appearance is very va- 
rious. In some places the ore is in considerable beds, disposed in 
thin brittle vertical plates, which arc separated by a kind of harsh 
sand, yellow, bluish, or green. In one place I observed this sand 
of a pure white, and forming little cakes, readily crumbling be- 
tween the fingers. In other places the ore is hard, forming irregu- 
lar concretions, with various admixtures of earth, clay, and ochres. 

This kind has a tendency to assume regular forms, botroulal, and 
reniform, which inwardly are striated with rays diverging from a 
center. Sometimes plates are formed of this kind of ore, which 
consist internally (*f parallel stria. Another form of the ore is 
bluish,, and very brittle. The whole is mixed with what the natives 
call Cari^cul, or black-stone, which is brown hajmatites. This is also 
scattered all over the surface of the ground, and there especially 
assumes botroidal and reniform shapes. By the natives it is consi- 
dered as totally useless. la some pits I could observe nothing like 



CHAr’lKR a, regular tlis|)osvition of the component parts ; in others, the various 
substances arc evidently stratified, both in straight and waved dis- 
August 18. positions. 

The manner of mining tlic ore is extremely rude and unthrifty. 
A man with a pick-axc digs on the side of the hill, until he gets a 
perpendicular face five or six feet wide, and as much high, having 
before it a level spot that is formed from what he has dug. Before 
him he has then a face containing ore, more or less intermixed 
with clay, sand, and hamiatites, and covered with two or three feet 
of the external soil. He then scoops out the ore, and matters with 
Avhich it is mixed ; and having beaten them well with the pick-axe, 
and rubbed them with his hands, he picks out the small pieces of 
ore, and throws aAvay the htematites, sand, clay, ochre, and large 
pieces of ore; assigning as a reason for so doing, that, as he can 
get plenty of small pieces there is no occasion for him to beat the 
trouble of breaking the large ones. The crumbling ores are also 
much neglected, as they arc transported with ditliculty. When 
they have dug as fur as they choose to venture, which is indeed a 
very little way, the miners go to another spot, and form a new pit. 
The ore, broken as I have now mentioned, Js icarricil down on 
asses hacks, and farther cleaned from earth, and broken into very 
small pieces, before it is put into the furnace. If it is to be carried 
far, it is generally transported by hnffaloes : but this unwieldy ani- 
mal is incapable of ascending the hill, wliich in many places is very 
steep, and the paths are formed on the mouldering .materials that 
have been thrown away by the miners. There is no person who 
prepares the ore for those who come from a distance : they remain 
here for sometime with their asses; and, when they have collected 
a considerable quantity, a number of buffaloes are brought to carry 
it away. ’J'he renter has no occasion to come near the mine. He 
knows the men that get a supply of ore, and each pays yearly a 
certain sum, and takes as much ore as he pleases. The renter states 
the furnaces that are supplied from hence to be six in Tumeuru, ten 



in Hagalctwfidi, seven in C/ika Nayakana Ilully, and three in Sira; CHAPTER 
but I have access to know that he conceals part of them ; yet he 
is much more correct than the revenue accompts that are kept in August is. 
Purnea's office at Scringapatam, 

No tradition remains concerning the time when this mine began 
to be wrought, for the natives think that ore has been taken from it 
ever since the creation of the world ; or, as they express themselves, 
since the hill was born ; and, as above 100 ass-loads are daily car- 
ried from it, I think it probable that the miners have repeatedly 
gone over the surface. At each time the natives remove only a 
%’'ery, small proportion of the iron; and after a certain number of 
years, new decompositions, and recompositions of the materials 
seem capable of rendering the surface again lit for their manner of 

Tile miners have a tradition, that formerly there had been dug 
into the southern face of the largest hummock an immense cavern, 
from whence the whole neighbourhood was supplied with ore. The 
roof of this is said to have given way, and to have buried the mi- 
ners of seven villages, with all their cattle. The appearance of the 
hill confirms the truth of this tradition, there being evident proofs 
of a part of it having fallen in ; and in the perpendicular surface, 
left by this convulsion, may be seen the mouth of a cavern, pro- 
bably a part of the old mine. The time when this happened, is 
likely to have been very remote; as, lower down than this con- 
vulsed surface, there is another mine, which the natives believe to 
be a natural cavern, and into which, not without some reason, they 
are afraid to enter. Indeed, none of them have attempted it ; for 
they are persuaded that it extends a great way into the earth, 
which made me curious to examine it. 

The miners have evidently wrought into this part of the mine 
from the westward ; and until they came to the ledge of earthy 
quartz, or hornstone, before mentioned, they have carried on a 
regular face of considerable width and depth. This ledge cutting 
VoL. ir. G 



CHAPTER off the mine, they had by the side of the barren rock made a hori- 
zontal cavity into the hill, and thus formed a cavern about fifty 
August 18 . feet long, twelve feet high, and nine wide. It is probable, that 
they had then met with some obstruction ; for under this they have 
formed another mine, which cuts off the communication between 
the ground and the first mentioned cavern. As there were evident 
marks of the feet of a large beast of prey at the mouth of the cave, 
I took the precaution of making a Seapny fire his musket into it ; 
and, nothing but a large flock of bats having appeared, I went in, 
accompanied by two armed men. We soon came to a place where 
a bed had been formed in the sand by some of the tiger kind ; and 
having advanced about 100 feet we reached the end of the cave, 
where another wild beast had formed its bed. This, therefore, was 
probably the usual haunt of a pair of leopards. We found also a 
porcupine’s quill; but were uncertain, whether the animal had 
fallen a prey to the leopards; or whether, protected by its prickles, 
it ventured to shelter itself in their company. The sides of the 
mine consist partly of the ore, and partly of the rock already men- 
tioned, which is much intermixed with the Caricul, or brown haema- 
tites. The place is perfectly dry. It is probable that the Work was 
deserted when the poor people in the higher mine suffered. Ever 
since, the miners have contented themselves with working on the 
surface, and even there are in constant fear. An annual sacrifice is 
offered to prevent the spirit of tlie hill from overwhelming the 
miner. She is called Canicul Divdru, or the goddess of ironstone, 
and Gudada Umma, the mother of the hill; and is represented by 
the first convenient stone that the workmen find when they come 
to offer the sacrifice. They also put themselves under the protec- 
tion of a benevolent male spirit, named Muti Raya, or the pearl 
king. He is worshipped by offerings of flowers and fruits only, 
and is represented by a shapeless stone, that is hid in the obscurity 
of a shrine, which is composed of stones and flags, and which in all 
its dimensions extends about six feet. 



l()th August . — In th*; morning I went two cosses to a village 
named Madana Mada, having been detained on the way by exa- 
mining the minerals of a hill, which, from a temple situated near 
it, and dedicated to Siva^ is named Malakamra Betta. Owing to 
the vicinity of this temple, a white Lithomarga that is found on the 
hill is considered as holy, and is used in place of the consecrated 
ashes which the followers of employ to make the marks of their 
religion. The strata arc nearly the same as near Doray Guda, and 
consist of a schistose decaying rock disposed vertically. Parallel 
to this 1 observed strata of Vhite fat quartz, from one inch to 
twenty feet in thickness. Near the temple I found the veins or 
strata of quartz running parallel to each other, and from six to 
twelve inches distant, and at similar distances sending off transverse 
bands which united the strata. The interstices of this kind of net- 
work were filled up with the common stone of the country, not 
much decayed. It seems to be a hornstonc, containing a good deal 
of iron, and some mica. The surface of this rock had a curious ap- 
pearance. The ferrugineous brown of the hornstone being chec- 
quered with the gray quartz ; while this, resisting the weather best, 
stood up considerably above the surface, and represented in minia- 
ture the whin-dykes of the island of Mull, as described in the Phi- 
losophical Transactions. In some places I saw the white quartz 
decaying into sand, and forming masses that on the slightest touch 
crumbled between the fingers. As I ascended the hill, I met with 
a curious concretion of brown calcareous tufa. It resembled very 
exactly a decayed white-aut’s ( termes) nest changed into lime ; and 
amongst its branches were impacted some pieces of decayed horn- 
stone, round which it had evidently been formed. In these hills 
such concretions, I was afterwards informed, are very common ; 
and some of them are of a pure white, in which case they are 
burned into lime. But this information I did not receive in time 
to ascertain the fact. I saw also several detached lumps of brown 
hematites ; but on the hill there is no ore of iron, that is by the 
natives considered as workable. 



Aui^iist 19. 



August J9. 




The Lithomarga is found in large masses heaped together, and 
incumbent on the rocky strata, with various fragments of which it 
is intermixed ; and it appears to me to have been formed from the 
hornstone in a particular state of decay. Its surface is generally 
shining, polished, and conchoidal. The masses, so far as I observed, 
are not disposed in strata ; but, inteniall}', some of the pieces are 
composed of alternate thin plates of different colours. That used 
for superstitious purposes is of a pure white colour, and indurated 
substance ; some is red, being coloured by an oxyde of iron ; some, 
as I have observed before, is internally stratified, and consists of 
alternate layers of the Lithomarga and of a yellow ochre ; some is 
black, resembling very dark vegetable mould in an indurated state; 
some again of the Lithomarga is of a pure white colour, and friable 
nature ; and nearly approaching to this is another clay, which is 
evidently decomposed white mica. Among the Lithomarga is found 
a black friable substance, in its appearance much resembling char- 
coal ; but It is undoubtedly of a fossile nature, and probably is an 
iron ore. It has a bluish tinge, which it probably derives from 

The temple of Mataiswara is a very poor building ; but is much 
frequented at a festival in the month of Magha. Some of the figures 
on the chariot of the image are exceedingly indecent. The woods 
above the temple are rather taller than usual in these barren hills, 
and contain many trees of the Dupada, Chloroxylon Diipada, Such: 
MSS. The resin is used as incense ; and musical instruments, some' 
what resembling the guitar, are made of the wood. From the top 
of the hill the view is very fine ; the country being composed of 
hills, cultivated fields, reservoirs like small lakes, and palm gardens, 
all intermixed. In this hilly country are some considerable flocks 
of sheep, but no herds of breeding cows. 

Madana Mada contains 40 or 50 houses, and is placed between 
two reservoirs ; one belonging to itself, and the other to a neigh- 
bouring village. So partial are the rains in this country, that thd 
one reservoir is now half full, while the other has not above a 


quarter of its water'; the two hills, from whence they are supplied, CHAPTER 

being on opposite sides of a very narrow valley. Madam Mada 

has a very fine palm garden, for the use of which the water of its August 19. 

reservoir is entirely reserved. When that fails, the proprietors have 

recourse to tiie machine called Capily, Three thousand Pagodas 

have been granted by Purnea for enlarging their reservoir ; by 

which means the machinery is expected to become unnecessary, 

and of course the revenue will be greatly augmented. The gardens 

here contain 48,000 palm trees. 

At night I was awaked by a prodigious noise in the village, which Epilepsy 
was at some distance from my tents. On inquiry of the sentry, I be*“w?ngto 
was told, that there was no one near except himself ; every other a dc'ii. 
person having gone into the village as soon as the uproar com- 
menced. I lay for some hours in great uneasiness, supposing that 
my people had quarrelled with the natives ; but, it being a rainy 
night, 1 did not venture out, and was unwilling to part with the 
sentry. Soon after all was quiet, and the people returned. In the 
morning my interpreter told me with a good deal of exultation, 
that one of the cattle-drivers had been possessed by a Pysachi, or 
evil spirit, and had been for some time senseless, and foaming at 
the mouth. On this occasion the whole people, Mussulmans and 
Pagans, had assembled ; and, in hopes of frightening away the 
devil, had made all the noise that they could : but he had conti- 
nued obstinately to keep possession, till the arrival of the Br&hmany 
who, having thrown some consecrated ashes on the man, and offered 
up the prayers proper for the occasion, at length procured a release. 

The interpreter, I suspect, made the most of his story, in order to 
remove my infidelity ; as the day before I had refused my assent 
to believe, that certain Mantrams pronounced by a Brahman could 
compel the gods to be present in whatever place he chose. It is 
almost unnecessary to observe, that the poor cattle-driver was 
subject to the epilepsy, the recurrence of which this night had, I 
beUeve, been occasioned by a violent paroxysm of intoxication, in 



CHAPTER winch the whale party had been so deeply engaged, that until 
morning I could not get a man to tie up the baggage. 

Augusts. 20th August, — In the morning I went to Chica Nayakana Hully ; 

Oaj^G^^a, visited a hill called Gajina Guta, which produces 

much Cm)i cuUu^ or reddle. This hill is reckoned ll' coss from Chica 
Nayakana Hully. The part of it which I examined consists of Ca~ 
ricul, or brown haematites, and clay. In some places the haematites 
forms a kind of rock ; in others, it is found only in small lumps 
immersed in the clay. In this hill it has every where a strong ten- 
dency to decomposition, and then in most places forms red ochre, 
but in some parts it falls into a yellow oxyde. I observed nothing 
in it like sttata. Those masses which consist of clay mixed with 
lumps of the haematites, in various stages of decomposition, bear a 
strong resemblance, except in hardness, to the hornstone porphyry 
found near Seringapatani ; for many of the lumps of haematites are 
angular, and have a glassy longitudinal fracture, while their trans- 
verse fracture is earthy. Whoever sees these masses, I am per- 
suaded, will be struck with the resemblance, and will believe that 
from the one kind of mineral the other derives its origin. In all 
this chain of hills, however, I confess, I satv no porphyry, nor even 
granite. The reddle is found in large veins, or irregular masses, 
running through the rock of haematites, or masses of clay, in very 
irregular directions ; and seems to be nothing more than the horn- 
stone of the country dissolved into clay, and then strongly im- 
pregnated with the red oxyde of iron, from a similar dissolution 
of the haematites. It always contains specks of yellow ochre. 
People come to dig it from Hegodu Deoana Cotay^ ChM-rAya-pat- 
ianOf Narasingha-pura, Gubi, and all the intermediate country 
toward the south and west, and they send it still farther toward 
the frontiers. For every ox-load of about 5 Cucha Maunds, or 
about 130 lb. they pay to the renter 12 Dudus, or about 6d, He 
says, that about 30 loads only are annually required. He keeps 
no person on the spot, and is either attempting to deceive me. 


or is himself defrauded ; for the excavations made to collect it CHAPTER 
are very considerable. It is used to paint walls, and to dye Goni^ 
or sackcloth, and the cloth used by Sannyasis and Jangamas. August 20 . 
The dye comes out with the least water, but the coloui is easily 

In the same places are found Lithotnargas of several colours, which 
seem to me to be portions of the clay less impregnated with iron 
than the reddle; and which perhaps derived their origin from 
hornstone, that contained magnesia, as some are known to do. 

In one of the excavations that have been made by digging out 
the Inematites, and which forms a cave, 1 found the nests of a flock 
of wild pigeons, exactly resembling those of the caves of Europe. 

'i his bird therefore, is perhaps one of the most universally diflused 
kinds in the old world, at least of such as are in a wild state. The 
common sparrow is equally universal. 

Chiai Naynkana Hully is a large square town strongly fortified 
with mud walls, and having Bruches, or cavaliers, at the angles. In 
its center is a square citadel fortified in a similar manner. In the 
outer town a wide street runs all round, and on both bands sends 
off short lanes to the outer and inner walls. The houses are 
at present very mean arid ruinous; and do not nearly occupy the 
whole space within the walls. They are in number about 6OO, of 
which 80 are occupied by Brdkmans. It contains a garden which 
belongs to the goverament, is in great disorder, and is rendered 
disgusting by two Banyan-trees (Ficus Bengalensis) loaded with 
large bats, whom the people will not disturb. To the south of the 
town, there was formerly a large suburb ; but about forty years ago 
it was destroyed in an invasion of the Marattahs, It was plundered 
by Purseram Bhm, when he wa.^ going to join Lord Cornwallis at 
Seringapatam ; but at that time he obtained very little, the inhabi* 
tants having hidden their most valuable effects, and withdrawn 
into the hilly country. When the Maraltah army retired to Sira, 



August 20. 

August 21. 



they sent to the Inhabitants assurances of protection, and began by 
making small daily distributions of charity to the Br&hmana. By 
this means they inveigled back a considerable number of the inha* 
bitants ; and no sooner had they got the leading men into their 
power, than they put them to the torture, until the wretched men 
discovered where their effects were hid, and thus they procured 
AGO, 000 Rupees. During the remainder of Ttppoo's reign the place 
continued languishing, the inhabitants of 800 houses only having 
ventured back. It possesses a small manufacture of coarse cotton 
cloth, both white and coloured, and made by Divdngas and Togo- 
taru. It has also a weekly fair, at which these goods, and the 
produce of the numerous palm*gardens in the neighbourhood, are 
sold. Many of its inhabitants act. as carriers, transporting goods to 
different places for the merchants of Naggara and Bangaluru. Its 
name signifies the town of the little chief; which was the title assumed 
by the Bolygars of Hagalawadi, its former masters, and who about 
300 years ago first fortified it. About a century afterwards they 
were overcome by the Poly gars of Mysore; and, in order to retain 
Hagalawadi free from tribute, gave up entirely this part of their 
dominions. Hyder mvAt them tributaries even fox Hagalawadi, and 
his son stripped them of every thing. 

2 1st August. remained at ChicaNayakam Hully, investigating 
the management of the palm-gardens in its vicinity. These occupy 
by far the greater part of the watered land in the districts called 
Honawully, Budihalu, Hagalawadi, and Chka Nayakana Hully, with 
a considerable portion in Sira and Gubi. In the dry season they 
require the assistance of the Capily, the water in the reservoirs sel- 
dom lasting throughout the year. 

Coco-nut palms are planted in rows round the Betel-nut gar- 
dens, and also separately in spots that would not answer for the 
cultivation of this article. The situation for these gardens must 
be rather low ; but it is not necessary that it should be under a 


reservoir ; any place will answer, in which water can be had by CHAPTER 
digging to the tlepth of two men’s stature. The soil which is here . 
reckoned most favourable for the coco-nut, is a red clay mixed August 21. 
with sand. It must be free of lime and saline substances. Other 
soils, however, are employed ; but black mould is reckoned very 
bad. The coco-nuts intended for seed arc cut in the second month 
after the winter solstice. A square pit is then dug, which is suffi- 
ciently large to liold them, and is about a cubit in depth. In this, 
fifteen days after being cut, are placed the seed nuts, with the eyes 
uppermost, and contiguous to each other ; and then earth is thrown 
in so as just to cover them, upon which is spread a little dung. In 
this bed, every second day for six months, the seed must be watered 
with a pot, and then the young palms are fit for being transplanted. 

Whenever, during the two months following the vernal equinox, 
an occasional shower gives an opportunity by softening the soil, 
the garden must be ploughed five times. All the next month it is 
allowed to rest. In the month following the summer solstice, the 
ground must again be ])loughed twice ; and next month, at the 
distance of 48 cubits in every direction, there must be dug pits. a 
cubit wide, and as much deep. In the bottom of each^a little dung 
is put : and the young plants, having been previously well watered 
to loosen the soil, are taken up, and one is placed in each pit. The 
shell still adheres to the young palm, and the pit must be filled with 
earth, so far as to cover the nut. Over this is put a little dung. For 
three months the young plants must be watered every other day ; 
afterwards every fourth day until they are four years old, except when 
there is .raiu- Afterwards they require no water. Every year the gar- 
den is cultivated for Vdu, Hmaru, or whatever other grain 
the soil is fitted for, and is well dunged ; and at the same time four 
ox-loads of red mud are laid on the garden, for every tree that it con- 
tains, while a little fresh earth is gathered up toward the roots of the 
palms. The crop of grain is but poor, and injures the palms ; it is al- 
ways taken, however; as, in order to keep d'own the M’eeds,the ground 
Vot.n. H 



CHAPrER. must at any rate be ploughed; as the manure must be given ; and as 
no rent is paid for the grain. On this kind of ground the coco-nut 
Allgust 21. palm begins to bear in twelve 0 i thirteen years, and continues in per- 
fection about 60 years. It dies altogether after bearing for about a 
hundred years. They are always allowed to die; and when they begin 
to decay, a young one is planted near the old one, to supply its place. 
In this country, wine is never extracted from this palm, for that 
operation destroys the fruit ; and these, when ripe, are considered 
as the valuable part of the produce. A few green nuts are cut in 
the hot season, on account of the refreshing juice which they then 
contain, and to maike cair rope : but this also is thought to injure 
the crop. The coir made from the ripe nuts is very bad, and their 
husks arc commonly burned for fewel. A sufficient quantity of 
coir for country use is made by people of the low cast called IVfial- 
liaru, who collect the green husks of the nuts, which have been cut 
for juice, or thrown down by the monkies. In order to rot the 
substance connecting the fibres, they steep the husks for six months 
in water ; and then having placed them on a stone, they beat them 
with a stick, and finally rub oft’ with their liands all the adhering 
substance. The fibrous part, or coir, is them fit for being twisted 
into yarns. The crop begins in the second month after the summer 
solstice, and continues four months. A bunch is known to be ripe 
when a nut falls down, and it is then cut. Each palm produces from 
three to six bunches, which ripen successively. A middling palm 
produces from fiO to 70 nuts. As the nuts are gathered, they are 
collected in small huts raised from the ground on posts. When a 
merchant offers, the rind is removed, at his expense, by a man who 
fixes an iron rod in the ground, and forces its upper end, which is 
sharp, through the fibres ; by which means the whole husk is spee- 
dily removed. He then, by a single blow with a crooked knife, 
breaks the shell, without hurting the kernel, which is then fit for 
sale, and is called Copra. A man can daily clean 1500 nuts. From 
SO to 30 per cent, of them are found rotten. These kernels sell to 


the merchant at from 30 to 40 Fanams a tliousancl. The merchants CHAPTER 
frequently advance to the whole amount of the expected produce, 
and sometimes are forced to wait for repayment till a second crop: August 21. 
but the price, they allow, is in general low ; and the proprietors of 
gardens, that are in easy circumstances, prefer taking their chance 
of the market. 

The old branches and leaves, of which a certain number annually 
perish; are allowed to drop spontaneously ; and are here used chiefly 
for fewel. They are also used to thatch the huts in the garden ; 
but in this country are seldom, if ever, employed in the houses of 
the natives. The shells arc made into charcoal, which is the only 
kind that the goldsmiths use. 

To stock a garden of 200 trees, requires two men, three oxen, 
and a buflalo.. These do no other work, but are sufficient for the 
whole cultivation. It must be observed, that if the palms are 
planted at the distance stated by the cultivatorSj a garden con- 
taining 200 trees would occupy above 23 acres ; and the dry crop 
of grain may be considered as fully equal to the whole expense of 
cultivation. A garden of good soil pays 70 Fanams for the hundred 
trees ; and of a very bad soil, such as that containing lime, the hun- 
dred trees pay only 20 Fanams ; and all intermediate rents are paid 
according to the value of the soil. At the first rate, the tree pay§ 
as rent about 5\dy and the acre not quite 4iS. Take the average 
produce of a middling tree, as the neat produce of a tree on a good 
soil, and we have 65 nuts, the average price of which, at 35 Fanams 
a thousand, will be 18-} pence; from which deducting the rent, each 
tree is worth about IS'd. a year to the prop^etor. To judge from 
appearance, however, I am inclined to think that the trees, are in 
genera,! planted nearer to each other. 

The coco-nuts that are planted around bet^-^nnt gardens are not 
so productive, but pay a similar rent ; which, however, is always 
low, in proportion as the soil is bad. They are planted in order to 
shelter the betd-nut palms. 



CHAPTER The Betel-nut palm, or Areca, thrives best in the rich black 
mould called by the natives Eray, or Krishna Bumi. The natives 
August 21. here look upon it as a matter of indifference, whether or not, on 
etc nut. digging a little depth, water may be found in the soil. All that is 
required, is to have a proper supply of water either from the reser- 
voir, or by means of machinery. 

In the second month after the winter solstice, the nut intended 
for seed is cut ; and, having been put in a heap, is for eight or ten 
days kept in the house. A seed-bed is then dug to the depth of a 
foot, and three inches of the mould is removed from the surface, 
which is then covered with a little dung. On this the nuts are 
placed with their eyes uppermost, and close to each other. They 
are then covered with an inch of mould, and for three months are 
watered every other day. The seedlings are then three or four in- 
ches high, and must be transplanted into a fresh bed that is prepared 
in the same manner ; but in this they are placed a cubit distant 
from each other. Here they grow for three years, receiving water 
once every other day ; and once a month they are cleaned front 
weeds, and have a little dung. 

One year after planting the seed, the gi'ound that is intended for 
the garden must be dug to the depth of a cubit, and the soil ex- 
posed for two months. Young plantain trees (Musa) arc then 
placed in it at 16 cubits distance from each other, and it is sur- 
rounded by a screen of coco-nut palms, and of Jack (Artocarpus 
integrifolia), lime, and orange trees, which are defended by a hedge 
of the Euphorbium Tirucalli, or milk-bush. At the same time seeds 
of the Agashay, or JEschynemone gramlifiora, are planted throughout 
the garden, at the distance of four cubits. When there is no rain, 
the garden must once in fifteen days be watered by channels made 
for the purpose. In the second month after the summer solstice of 
the third year, the young Arccas are fit for transplantation, Then 
throughout the garden^ at the distance of 16 cubits, and in the 
middle between every two plantain trees, are formed pits, a cubit 


deep and a cubit wide. In each of these pits a young Areca is put, 
and it must be carefully raised from the seed-bed with much ea th 
adhering to its roots ; and, after it is placed, the pit must be filled 
with earth, and then receive a pot of water. The young Arecas arc 
tlicn between two and three feet high, and have four or five 
branches. If there be water in the reservoir, an irrigation once a 
month is sufficient ; but the Capily must be used once in ten days, 
as the waterings given by it are but scanty. For three years after- 
wards the whole garden must be completely hoed twice annually. 
At the one hoeing, for every four Arecas, it must have a bullock- 
load of dung; and at the other hoeing, every tree must be allowed 
an ox-load of red soil. The mud of reservoirs is here thought to 
be very b*ad for a beteUnut garden. Ever afterwards the garden is 
hoed completely once a year only, and is then manured with dung 
and red earth. At the intermediate period of six months, it is hoed 
near the trees, and has a little dung. At the end of the first three 
years, the Agashay trees are cut. The plantains are always reserved; 
but, as the old stems are cut, which is always^done in from 12 to 
18 months, the young shoots are conducted to a distance from 
where the parent svas originally placed ; and when the garden is 
twenty years old, in these spots are planted other young Arecas, to 
supply the places of the old ones when they decay. This second 
set are again supplanted by a third, growing where the first set did, 
and thus a constant succession is preserved. In a new garden, the 
Areca begins to bear fruit in nine years ; but fourteen or fifteen 
years are required to bring forward those which are planted among 
old trees. They continue to bear for sixty or seventy years; but 
after having been twenty-five or thirty years in perfection, they 
begin to decay. 

In a few gardens here, the mode of raising betel-nut that is in use 
at Madhu-giri has been adopted ; and it is said to be prefevable, but 
is attended with much trouble. The plantain tree, however, is 
always preserved, and is considered as useful to the old palms. 







CHAPTER Yam, or Dioscoreas, are considered as prejudicial ; but I observe^l 
them in several gardens, the proprietors of which said that they 
August 21. allowed them only to climb on the old palms, and to these they did 
little harm. 

There are annually two crops of bctcl-mit : one in the second 
month after the summer solstice; the other in the two months Avhich 
precede the shortest day. The last crop is superior both in quantity 
and quality. The nut, on being cut, is skinned in the course of two 
days, and put into a large pot with as much water as will cover it 
two inches. It is then boiled for about three quarters of an hour, 
until a white scum rises. The largest are then cut into eight pieces, 
an<l the smallest into two, with the others in proportion to their 
size. During the four following days they are spread out in the 
sun to dry, and every night tl>ey are gathered in a heap. When 
the fruit has been allowed to approach too near to maturity, the 
nut loses its colour; and a deceit is attempted, by adding a little 
reddle to the water in which it is boiled. This frequently deceives 
the consumer, but never the experienced dealer ; and seems to b& 
done purposely to enable him to defraud the unwary, 

A garden of lOOO trees, allowing eight cubits square for each 
tree, ought to contain rather more than acres; but a young gcir- 
den, containing trees at sixteen cubits, will require acres. If 
it receive a suHieieut supply of water from a reservoir, it re- 
quires the coirstant attendance of two men and two buffaloes ; but 
if it be watered entirely by the Capibf, it requires an addition of 
two men and four oxen. The rent in the first case is 25 Yanam 
for the hundred trees, and in the latter case only 12. The labour 
of two men and four oxen is therefore estimated at \$0 Famm a 
year, and we may allow 120 for two men and two buffaloes. The 
great digging of the garden requires additional labourers to the 
amount of 40 Fanam. The nut is prepared by a man who receives 
two Dudus for every Mound, or about 6 Fanam for the garden. 
The bundles of nuts are cut by a person of the Bayda cast, who 


sets 3 Fanams for the thousand bunches, or about 10 Fanams for CHAPTER 
® VU. 

the garden. The whole annual expense therefore of a garden of 

1000 trees is about 426 Fanamn. The produce is reckoned from 40 
to 60 Mounds ; the average is .50, which, for each tree, is exactly 
the same quantity that -vras said to be procured at Madhu-giri 
Nothing is paid to the Amildar for the plantains or other fruit ; 
but on this account the custom-house, according to the size of the 
garden, charges annually from three to five Fanams. Where the 
Capily is used, the rent for each tree is rather under a penny. 

When the reservoir supplies the water, it is rather above two pence. 

Even in this case, when the trees are at 16* cubits distance, the rent 
of an acre docs not exceed 20s.; which is less than rice would give, 
and not a third part of what is paid for the same quantity of ground 
at MadhU’girL On the same produce, the rent is rather greater 
here; so much superior at the former place is the skill of the cul- 
tivator. The Areca tree is never cut till its leaves have turned 
brown. Its stem has then acquired great hardness, and in building 
cottages is very useful. 

The monkies and squirrels .are very destructive, hut it is reckoned Monkies .nn. 
criminal to kill either of them. They are under the immediate 
protection of the Ddshis, who assemble round any person guilty of 
this offence, an<l allow him no rest, until he bestows on the animal 
a funeral, that will cost from 100 to 200 Fanams, according to the 
number of Dhkria that have assembled. The proprietors of the 
gardeus used formerly to hire a particular class of men, who took 
these animals in nets, and then by stealth conveyed them into the 
gardens of some distant village ; but, as the people there had re - 
course to the same means, all parties have become tired of this 
practice. If any person freed the poor people by killing these mis- 
chievous vermin, they would think themselves hound in decency to 
make a clamour ; but inwardly they would be very tyell pleased ; 
and the government might do it, by hiring men whose consciences 





August 21, 
Jslalo of the 



August 22. 

M'oulil not suffer by the action, and who might be repaid by a small 
tax on the proprietors. 

The Marattah invasion has mined one half of the gardens; the 
trees having been cut for the cabbage, which is composed of the 
young leaves collected, at the summit of the tree, in a large bud. 
New gardens are now plantingVithout advances from government. 
Many of the old proprietors, having been reduced to poverty, have 
sold their right of replanting to others, who were in better circum- 
stances ; for all palm-gardens become private property, and may 
be sold or mortgaged, which, in the Raja's dominions, is not the 
case with any land that is cultivated for grain. The proprietors 
complain, that for old trees they are obliged to pay the same rent 
as for young ones. An old garden thus becomes much more valua- 
ble to the government, as on the acre there M'ill be .nore trees that 
pay rent. If allowed to live to the full age of 80 years, J-f will pay 
rent; but, if cut at 45 years of age, when they begin to decay, -f- 
only would pay. The produce of the country however suffers by 
alloM’ing the trees to live after they begin to decay; and as the 
profits of the cultivator are at present sullicicntly great, they might 
be allowed to cut the trees whenever they pleased, by fixing on the 
ground a rent equal to the present: the fixing the rent on the 
tree, is indeed a bad custom for all parties. 

In the country between Sira and Seringapatam, there are scarcely 
any kitchen ganlcns. The farmers have a few spots, where for 
family use they raise greens; but I see no gardeners who make 
this business a profession, except in the island of Seringapatam^ and 
in the country to the eastward of the Durgas, as it is called, or that 
M'hich lies to the eastward of the chain of hills which runs north from 
Capala-Durga, and on which there are so many fortified strong-holds. 

!£2d August . — I went three cosses to Arulu Gupay. Except the 
ridge of hornstone hills on my left, and a short detached ridge on 
my right, the country was free from hills. The soil was however 


by no means so good as that in the level country which lies between CHAPTiiR 
the Durgat and the ridge of hornstone ; for in many places the 
rock appeared above ground, and lumps of white quartz almost Augu&t 22. 
intirely covered many fields. The rock here was gray granite. I 
believe the hornstone is confined to the ridge in which Doray Betta 
is situated. In the small ridge to my right, the rocks were gray 
granite; the black>stone already described as accompanying this 
in the eastern Ghats; and the same containing white spots, which 
probably were quartz. 

At a small village by the way, I v/as shown a well, from whence Skidy munnu, 
what the natives call Shidy munnu had been taken. It was in the ““ 
back yard of a Br&hman's house. About two months ago he had 
dug 20 feet through the common soil of the country, which in 
many places is very deep. He then came to a stratum of this sub- 
stance, which he continued to procure until prevented by water. 

It is a loose scaly earth, of a silvery white colour, and is mixed 
with small fragments of quartz. It is so friable, that it cannot be 
handled without falling to pieces, and is no doubt Schistose Mica in 
a state of decay. The micaceous matter is washed off by water, 
and, in the houses of inferior persons, serves the same purposes that 
the powdered mica, or abracum, does in the palaces of the great. 

They are in fact the same, only the abracum is purer. Shidy munnu 
is said to be found in great quantity near Color. 

Arulu Gupay is a large village in the Hagalawadi district. It is AntiuGupay, 
fortified with a mud wall and ditch; but its market, which is a tufitVy SAo! 
street running the whole length of one side of the town, is quite 
defenceless. It contains about a hundred houses, and a temple of 
curious workmanship dedicated to Narasingha, It is not of great 
size, but the whole is built of what the natives call Sila Cullu, or 
image-stone, which is indurated pot-stone. This has been cut and 
carved with great pains and industry, but is totally devoid of ele- 
gance or grandeur. The general design is clumsy, and the execu- 
tion of the figures miserable. It wants even strength, the usual 
Vox.. 11. I 




August 22. 

August 23. 
ot the couu* 






concomitant of clumsiness among the buildings of rude nations; 
and the walls, although not above fourteen feet high, and built of 
large stones which have suffered no injury, are yielding to the 
pressure of the roof, and probably will soou fall. It is said to have 
been built by one of the Sholun Rayas. 

g3d August . — In the morning I was detained by a very heavy 
rain, which has the people high spirits. In the afternoon I 
went two COSSC3 to Turiva-Caray, the residence of an Amildar. I'lie 
country affoi'dcd a melancholy prospect. Like that near lianga- 
and the other places towaul the eastern Ghats, it rises into 
gentle swells, and occasionally projects a mass of naked granite, or 
of quartz blackened by iron; bnt it has once been completely cul- 
tivated ; and every spot, except tliose covered by rock, bears 
marks of the plough. Scattered clumps of trees denote the former 
situations of numerous villages : all now, however, arc nearly de- 
serted. I saw only two houses ; and a few fields ploughing for 
Horse-gram seemed to he the commencement of cultivation, from 
the time the country had been laid desolate by the merciless army 
of Furseram Bkow. 

Turiva’‘Caray consists of an outer and an inner fort, strongly de- 
fended by a ditch and mud wall. It has besides, at a little distance^ 
an open suburb, and contains 700 houses ; but is by no means com- 
pletely rebuilt. It has no merchants of any note ; but contains 
SO houses of Dtvdnga weavers, and 150 of farmers. It possesses two 
small temples, similar to that at AruluGupay; and which, like it, 
are said to have been built by a Sholun Raya, who was contemporary 
with Sankara Achdrya, the restorer of the doctrine of the Vedas. 

This prince is very celebrated, by having built temples through- 
out the country south from the Krishna river. All of them tliat I 
have seen are small, and entirely built of stone. Their architecture 
is very different from the great temples, such as that at Kunji ; the 
upper parts of which are always formed of bricks, and whose most 
conspicuous part is the gateway. This last mentioaed system of 


architecture seems to have been introduced by Krishna raya, of CHAPTER 
Vijaya-nagara ; at least, the 18 most celebrated temples in the lower 
Carnatic are commonly said, by the Brahmans, to have been rebuilt Augnst 23. 
by that prince : for It must be observed, that scarcely any temple 
of celebrity is admitted to have been founded in this Yugnm, or age 
of the M'orld ; and many of them are supposed to be coeval with 
the universe. The small rude temples so common in the country, 
and whicli, from the simplicity of their form, arc probably of great 
antiquity, are all dedicated to Saktis, or to spirits Avorshipped by 
the low casts, and never to any of the great gods. Many of them, 
no doubt, are of very late erection ; but they seem to me to pre- 
serve the simple form of temples erected by rude tribes ; and the 
worship performed in them appears to be that which prevailed 
throughout India before the introduction of the 21 sects Avhich the 
Brahmans reckon heretical ; although some of them were probably 
antecedent, at least in southern India, to the three sects of Brah~ 
mans who follow the doctrine of the Vedas. 

This place formerly belonged to the Hagalawadi Polygars, avIio, BuiWinjp by 
although called Chica Ndyakas, or little chiefs, seem to have been a 
powerful family. One of them, who lived about 250 years ago, ga's. 
constructed in this neighbourhood four temples, and four great re- 
servoirs. Acconling to the legend, Gawcjrt supplied him with money 
for carrying on these. This god appeared to the chief in a dream, 
informed him that a treasure was hidden under an image which stood 
in the suburbs, and directed him to take the money and construct 
these works. The treasure was accordingly found, and applied as 
directed. The image, from under which the treasure had been 
taken, was shown to me ; and I was surprised at finding it lying at 
one of the gates quite neglected. On asking the reason, why the 
people allowed their benefactor to remain in such a plight, they 
informed me, that, the finger of the image having been broken, 
the divinity had deserted it; for no mutilated image is consid. red 
as habitable by a god. At one of the temples built with this money, 





Aagost 24. 

August f5. 
of ths cow- 


I saw a reiy line black atonct well polished, and cut into a rude 
imitation of a bull. It was about eight feet long, six high, and 
four broad ; and seemed to be of the same kind with the pillars ia 
Hyder'a monument at Seringapatam> The quarry is six miles distant. 
The reservoir here is in very 6ne condition, and was constructed 
with Ganeaa's treasure. It formerly watered some excellent Areco 
gardens ; but, in consequence of Purseram Bhm's invasion, most 
of the trees perished. For some days his head quarters were at this 
place. The coco-nut palms, that formerly surrounded the betel-nut 
gardens, still remain, and mark their extent. The Amildar says^ 
that he has only one half of the people that would be necessary to 
cultivate his district, and that most of them are destitute of the 
necessary stock. 

S4th August — I was detained all day at Turiva-Caray by the vio- 
lence of the rain. The strata here consist chiefly of gray granite, 
or gneiss ; for the matters composing it are sometimes nearly stra- 
tified, the dark green mica, or talc, being in some strata much 
more predominant than in other. This gives it a veined appear- 
ance } but it is perfectly solid, and, except this appearance, has 
nothing of a slaty texture. Here may be observed beds parallel to 
the strata of granite, and consisting entirely of this green matter in 
a state of decay. Its very greasy feel makes me suspect that it is 
rather talc than mica. Here also, as well as in many parts of the 
country, the gray granite is intersected ia aU directbas by veins of 
reddish felspar, intermixed with fragments of white quarts. These 
veins are frequently a foot wide ; and sometimes, in place of being 
disposed in veins, the felspar runs in beds, or strata, which are pa- 
rallel to those of the granite, and are several feet in width. 

S5th August — In the morning I went two ceases to Cada~hully, a 
small village fortified with a mud wall. The country nearly resem- 
bles that between Arulu Gupay and Turhoa-Caray , but the soil is 
more inclined to be stony. It is, however, in a rather better state 
of coltivaticm, and perhaps a fourth part of the arable fiekls is bow 


occupied. At this village there was a sheep-fold, strongly fortified 
by a hedge of dry thorns, and containing four huts, which the 
shepherds usually occupied. These people, alarmed at my appear- 
ance, and suspecting that I came to take away their flocks for the 
use of the army, did not approach the village all night ; hut pre- 
ferred exposing their cattle to the danger of tigers. These beasts 
of prey are said to be numerous here, and at night frequently prowl 
under the- walls; we therefore burned fires rountl the tents, as was 
our usual practice in suspicious places. My motive for stopping at 
this poor place was, to examine the quarry from whence the fine 
black stone used in Hyders monument was taken. When I assigned 
this reason to the people, it appeared so absurd to them, tliat their 
fears were greatly increased. 

This quarry is situated about half a mile east from the village, 
and rises in a small ridge about half a mile long, a hundred yards 
wide, and from twenty to fifty feet in perpendicular height. This 
ridge runs nearly north and south, in the common direction of the 
strata of the country, and is surrounded on all sides by the com- 
mon gray granite, which, as usual, is penetrated in all directions 
by veins of quartz and felspar; but neither of these enter the 

This stone is called Caricullu, or black-stone, by the natives, who 
give the same appellation to the quartz impregnated with iron, and 
to the brown haematites; and in fact they all run very much into 
one another, and differ chiefly in the various proportions of the same 
component parts ; but have a certain general similitude easily de* 
fined, and are found in similar masses and strata. The black-stone 
of this place is an amorphous hornblend, containing minute, but 
distinct rhomboidai lamellar concretions of basaltine. 1 imagine 
that it is the same stone with that which by the antients was called 
Basaltes, and which was by them sometimes formed into ‘ioiages, as 
it is now by the idolaters of Lidia. 

The surface of the ridge is covered with large irregular a^aasts, 

6 \ 



August 25 , 

Quarry of 





DaUapvm, or 




Sila Cullu, 

which, where tliey have been long cxposetl to the air in the natural 
process of decay, lose their angles first. When these masses have 
thus become rounded, they decay in concentric lamcllte; but where 
tlie rock itself is exposed to the air, it separates into plates of va- 
rious thicknesses, nearly vertical, and running nortli and south. 
In the sound stone, tlierc is not the smallest appearance of a slaty 
texture, and it splits with wedges in all directions. The north eiul 
of the ridge is the lowest, ami has on its surface the largest masses. 
It is there only that the natives have wrought it ; they have always 
contented themselves M'ith splitting detached blocks, and have 
never ventured on the solid rock, where much finer pieces might 
be procured than lias ever yet been obtained. The Basxca, or bull, 
at Turira-Caraj/, is tiie finest piece that I have seen. 

Immediately north from the village is a (piarry of RaUapum, or 
pot-stone, which is used by the natives for making small vessels ; 
and is so soft, that pencils arc formed of it to write upon books, 
which are made of clotii blackened, and stiftened with gum. lloth 
the books, and the neatness of the writing, arc very inferior to 
the similar ones of the people of Ava, who, in fact, are much far- 
ther advanced in the arts than the Hindus of this country. This 
pot-stone separates into large amorphous masses, eacli covered with 
a crust in a decaying state ; and some of them are entirely pene- 
trated with long slender needles of schorlaccous actynolite. 

In the same place I found the calcareous tufa in a solid mass, 
and procured a specimen distinctly marked with the impression of 
a leaf, 

Immerliately parallel, ami contiguous to the pot-stone, is a 
stratum of quartz in a state of decay ; which separates into schis- 
tose plates, disposed vertically, and running north and south. 

At Ifadunu Bella, or Kite- hill, a coss east from Belluru, masses of 
a harder pot- stone, called 5/7a may be procured; and from 

thence probably Sholun Raya convened it to build his temples at 
Arulu Gupay^ and Turiva-Caray. 


13l6th August. — In the morning I M'ent three cosses to Belluru, CHAPTER 
The greater part of the country consists of barren heights covered ,^*1^ 
with low bushes, and has never been cultivated. More than one August 26. 
half of the arable fields appear to be now Avaste ; but near Belluru ^fXe'cou” 
there is a good deal of fine rice-ground,- and more of it is under the ‘•'y- 
Kar/iica crop than I have seen in any other place. The tank of 
Belluru is a fine work, and at present contains water to ripen 40 
Candaais of seed, sowing at 200 Seers a Cundaca. Another heavy 
rain will secure them in 30 Candacas of the Faisukha crop. Here the 
sprouted-sced cultivation is preferred to all others. One half of 
the cattle tiled last year of the epidemic distemper. There was 
plenty of forage. The people have not suffered from famine since 
the invasion of the country by Lord Cornwallis ; but on that occa- 
sion their misery was terrible. On the approach of the British 
army, the Sultan laid waste the whole country between this and the 
capital, and forced the inhabitants of the open country to retire to 
the hills, where they built huts, and procured provisions in the best 
manner that they could; no steps having been taken by their 
prince to obviate the famine likely to ensue. They were chiefly 
.supported by the grain of the small villages that are hid among 
the hills and woods, and which it was not thought necessary to 
destroy. A large proportion, however, perished of hunger, or of 
the diseases following too scanty a diet; and in the whole A'l’/oa- 
nuingala country, or which this forms a part, one half of the inha- 
bitants arc now wanting, although they have had eight years to 
recover. This is the calculation of the ollicers of government. To 
judge from the desolation that 1 see around me, I should conclude 
the loss to have been greater. 

In this part of the country a good many sheep arc bred : in the Sheep, 
morning 1 met with three large folds of them. 

To the eastward of Belluru is a range of barren rocky hills. One Hills called 
of them rises to a considerable height, ami is c.illed Uaduua Cullu 
BettOf or Kite-rock hill, from it&abouuding with that kind of bird. 





August 26'. 

■Worship of 
the village 
deity by the 
Cauda » 

Customs of 
the Cunimay 

So far as is known to the natives, these hills produce neither wood 
nor ore of any use. 

Belluru is a large town, and both suburbs and citadel are strongly 
fortified witli a mud-wall, and ditch. The walls of the citadel have 
been lately repaired ; hut those of the suburb are in the same 
ruinous state in which, on the approach of Purseram Bhow, they 
were left by Tippoo's troops. 

In all this part of the country it has been customary, when anew 
village was founded, for the person appointed to be hereditary 
Gauda, or chief, to place a large stone in or near the village. This 
stone is called the Curuvu CuliUf or calf-stone, and is considered as 
representing the Grama Ti^v&ru, or god of the village. The here- 
ditary always officiates as Pujari, or priest; and at the an- 

nual village feast, after having rubbed it with oil, offers a sacri- 
fice, with which he feasts his relations and the chief men of the 

The Cummays, or as they are called by the Mussulmans, the Cum~ 
viavar, are a kind of Brahmans different from the others of the 
country ; but I could not learn whence the difference arose. They 
eat in common with the others, but do not intermarry. They con- 
sist of four tribes, which never intermarry, anrl are called Canara, 
Arava-Tocala, Urichy, and Boburu Cimmays. The three first tribes 
are of Karndta descent ; the last are of Tdin^a extraction. They 
are of the same Gotrams, or families, with the other Brahmans^ and 
like them are divided into three sects, the Smartal, Sri Vaishnofcam, 
and Madual; but some of them are of a sect called Bhugavaia, 
These, although they follow Sankara Achdrya, wear the mark of 
Vishnu ; and their name implies that they are worshippers of that 
god. They observe the Ekadasi fasts at the same time with the 
Tayngala Sri Vaisknavam Brdhmans, which occasionally dift'er souiC 
hours from those observed by the Smartal, These fasts have given 
still farther room f r tliffcrences among the Brahmans^ the Vaua- 
gatay Sri VaUhn(eva?n, the Vaitrdya Mata Maduals^ and Utraya Mata 


Aladuals, all diftcrins; from each other, and IVoin those before men- ClIAl’T'lUl 
. . \’I1 

tioned ; and, as might reasonably be expected on such a subject, 

they dispute about the proper time with great bitterness. The 
length of time for which the fast should last has given rise toother 
disputes; some thinking that they ought to abstain from eating 
S-i hours; others, that the fast should be protracted to two day.s. In 
these fasts, all those who aim at being thought good men abstain 
totally from both food and drink. JAddka people, or those ^rho 
prefer to their duty the gratification of their appetites, salisly the 
cravings of their stomach's with fruit. The greater j)art of the Vui- 
(lUiti lirakmans here, although they employ much of tlnrir lime in 
reading the I 'alas, or eighteen do not pretend to undcr- 

.stand citiicr. They get a copy of some portion of either of these 
books, and every day employ a certain number of hours in reading 
it aloud, which they perforin Mutli a most disagreeable cant, and 
twang through the nose. This, however, they consider as sufii- 
cicntly meritorious to entitle them to the love of god, and the ve- 
neration of men; and a large proportion of their countrymen an*, 
of the .same opinion. 

!27th — I went three cosscs to N/igaiiiangala. The country Auguste?, 

through w'hich I came resembles what I saw vesterdav : but the 
greater part of the heights, although barren, appear as if they had 
been formerly cultivated. At present very little of the conntiy is 
under cultivation, and it looks very bare. Within sight w'cre many 
ruinous villages. 

Ndgamangalu is a large stjuare mud fort, and contains in its ecu- yi'i'ram'in- 
tera square citadel, which, like that oi'Chicu Nayakana Jlully, leaves 
room in the outer town for one street rvith short lanes on each side. 

In the inner fort arc tw'o large temples, and some other religious 
buildings, in good repair; and a iT/rt//«/, or palace, a Cut then/, or 
public oflicc, and several large granaries, in ruins. The tow n am! 
all these public buildings were erected by’^ a prince named Jagiidt’rt 
liaya, wl»o seems to have been of tlie same family with thcOvbbr* 

VoL. n. K 



chapter oi Mysore; for the two houses had frequent intermarriages. Ac- 
cording to tradition, Jagadha Raya, who founded this city, lived 

Augusts?, about 600 years ago. Hi- dominions extcndetl from Jagadh'u^ 
Paliana on tlie east, to the frontiers of the Jlfanzur-dbdd Potjgar 
and of the ikeri Raja on the west. They were bounded by Hagala” 
U'adi on the nortli, and included the Bclliiru district. On the south 
they were hounded b\' tlie territories of the Raja of Mysore, and 
of the Vir'-Rdya, who possesses the country that we call Coorg, and 
who was then proprietor of Mahu-Rdyana-Durga. About three 
centuries ago, the successor of Jagadeva Raya, dying without chil- 
dren, was succeeded by his kinsman, the Curlur of Mysore. This 
town was originally called P'liam-pura, or the city of snakes ; but 
its name has been changed into Ndgamangala, which signifies the 
blessed with serpents. Hefore the invasion of Purscram Bhoxo it 
contained 1500 houses, which arc now reduced to 200, that arc 
scattered amid the ruins. At the same time the Maruttahs destroyed 
150,000 palm trees. In the whole district there arc only about 
one half of the necessary cultivators, and they come in slowly, the 
Nizam's country being at too great a distance. Forty houses only 
have been built since the place received Cowl, or protection from 
the Faiglish. It possesses three fine reservoirs ; but for the last 
four years so little rain has fallen, that very little of the rice-ground 
has been cultivated, and the proprietors have not been able to re- 
plant their palm-gardens. 

Fish. I observecl the people fishing in the small quantity of w'ater that 

is in the reservoirs ; and was told, that small fishes arc to be found 
in all the tanks of the country, although they frequently dry up, 
and have no communication with streams from whence they might 
get a supply. The eggs, no doubt, remain dry in the mud, and are 
not hatched until they have been moistened by the return of the 

Emigration. The greater part of the inhabitants of Ndgamangala are what are 
here called Tigularu, or Taycularu ; that is to say, are descended 



from persons who came from countries where the Tamul language 
is spoken. According to tradition, they left Ku/iji ahont 700 years 
ago ; but tliey can give no account as to the occasion of their an- 
cestors deserting their native country. Most of them have lost 
their original language : but they never intermarry with the native 
Karnatas. Some of them can read the books in the Tamul lanij-ua^e 
that belong to their east. 

Tn this district the Gaudas, or chief farmers, partly rent the vil- 
lage, and partly collect, on the public account, whatever can be had 
from the inhabitants. If a renter receives from them a much 
greater sum than what he agreed to give to the Amildar, part is 
taken from him ; but a small or reasonable profit is allowed. In 
every village a piece of ground is allotted for the Gauda. If he 
rents the village, he pays nothing for this land, and has it free on 
account of his trouble ; but if another person manages the village, 
the hereditary Gauda pays rent like any other fiinncr. If the crop 
be very dencicut, the renter is not obliged to fulfil his agreement, 
as he can raise little or nothing from tlie farmers; but if he can 
raise SO or 90 per cent, of his expected collections, he must make 
up the balance. The farmers have a fixed property in tlic fiehh. 
Av'hich are let according to a valuation made by Jagadeva Rdi/a; and 
so long as a man pays his rent according to that valuation, hr 
cannot be turned out of his po.sscssion. The Sullan made a ne\i 
valuation, but never realized it; for the outstanding balance- 
always at least equalled the additional imposts. The rice ground 
always pays by a division, and the dry-field by a money-rent. 
Ground that has not been occupied for some time pays no rent for 
the first year that it is brought into cultivation; a fourth part of 
the valued rent is laid on every succeeding year; .so that on the 
fourth year it pays a full rent. Almost every where in India some- 
what similar prevails ; and the custom arises from a conviction that 
rest injures the soil. In some places it is necessary to cut trees , 
but that is iiot the case here. 



Au^^ust 57- 

Manner of 
riMiting the 
hi l itis. 




August *27^ 

Aiig\jst 28. 
ot liic cuim- 


Conipan) $ 

Juina Bann* 


Iminediately west from N^gamangala i.s a hill, M'hich consists 
chiefly of a talcose argillite, approaching very near to a slaty pot- 
stone ; the natives indeed c 11 it by the same name ; and they use 
it for pencils as they do the other. Its structure is slaty, and 'tis 
disposed in strata much inclined to the horizon, and running north 
and soutli. Some of it is reddish, and some has a greenish hue. 
Intermixed with it arc several large masses of white quartz. The 
rock at the town is granite. 

asth August. — III the morning I went three cosses to C/iinna. 
The country is more barren than, any that I have seen for some time, 
and the heights rise into low rocky bills. Some parts of it are co- 
vered with low trees, especially with the Elate s^lvestris, or wild- 
ilatc. Chinna is a poor ruinous place. It M'as formerly of some 
note; hut about 30 years ago it wa.s destroved by tlie Marat lah 
army, then attacking IL/de.}, and it has never since recovered. 

I found near this a herd of draught oxen belonging to the Com- 
pany, and in excellent condition. ^ This seems to be owing to the 
care which is bestowed, during the rainy season, on collecting hay. 
lly taking the same trouble, the herds of the natives might be kept 
ill a verv dii'ferent state from that In which thev now are. 

Here arc a .set of jicople, among whom is the chief of the village, 
that are called Jaina Eanijigas. They seem to be different from 
those called Jaitiu, as they do not wear the Liuga. There are about 
forty families of them, scattered through the villages north and 
cast from Seringapaiam. The Gauda relates, that Ritma Anuja Acha- 
rt/a, having obtained the victory in a great dispute with the priests 
oi' Juhm at Touuru, caused these, with as many of their followers as 
were obstinate, to he ground in oil-mills. Tiie remainder, who had 
been converted by this powerful mode of argument, received Chak^ 
ruutlkum from the Brahman^ and iheir descendants arc these Jaina 
Banijigus. They neither eat nor intermarry with Jainas\{\\o retain 
their former worship; but adore Vishnu, and arc disciples of one of 
the hereditary chiefs of the Sri Vaisimavam Brahmans, who gives 


them Chakrantikam and holy water, and accepts of their Dharma. 
They arc traders, farmers, and cultivators. 

*i9th August. — I went one coss to Mail-cofay, or the lofty lor- 
tress. The country is steep, and nearly uninhabited. '1 here are, 
however, many places on the ascent that have a (;Ood soil, and that 
have formerly been cultivated. Tlic other lands arc covered with 
copse wood. 

MaU-cot(Uf, ii\ the Sanskrit laniifuao-e, is called by the uncouth 
name of Daksliina Bhailarik/tsramam. It is situated f)n ;i high rocky 
hill, and commands a noble view of the valley watered by the ('a- 
X'h'j, and of the hills of Afysorc to the south ; of those; of the Ghats 
to the west; and toward the cast, Savana-Durga and Siva-Ganga 
close the prospect. It is one of the most eeleb'rated places oi' Jiunlu 
worsliip, botli as having been honoured with the actual presence of 
an Axatdra, or incarnation of Vishnu, M'ho fomulcd one of the tem- 
ples; and also as being one of the jn incinal seat;; of llie Sri Vaish- 
mvcani Brdhntans, and Iniving possessed very large revenues. About, 
forty years ago, it contained almost a thousand houses inhabited I;y 
Brahmans, who did not allow many of the S/nlras to reinain in the 
place. A few .shop-keepers and Ci)n;poscd the remainder 

of the inhabitants. Soon after this period the Maraltahs gained a 
victory over Hijdcr, and encamped for some time on the south side 
of the hill. The Brahmans here were too cunning to be caught, and 
the place was entirely deserted ; but even the temj)les of their gods 
<lid not escape Maraltah rapacity. For the sake of the iron-work, 
and to get at it easily, they burned the immense wooden Baths, or 
chariots on ndiich the idols are carried in j)roccs.sion ; and tlie bre 
spread to the religious buildings, some of which were entirely con- 
sumed. A suflicient number, however, .still lannain. 'flic three 
principal are, a temple placed on the very summit of the rode, and 
dedicated to Narasingha, one of the Avutdras of Vishnu ; the greril 
temple of ChillapuUa Bdya ; and a nobliJ-tank, 




(>l the Coun- 

MiilUrvtd. , 



VI I. 

'JVinj'i*' of 
( 'hiUapuHa 

The lar^o tcnij)lc is a scjuarc l)uil(ling of great dimensions, and 
entirely snrromidefl by a coloniKuic; but it is a moan piece of archi- 
tecture, at least outwardly. The columns arc very rude, and only 
about six feet bigh. AI>ovc the entablature, in place ofa balustrade, 
is a clumsy mass of brick and plaster, much higher tlian the co- 
lumns, and excavate<l with numerous niches; in which are huddled 
together many thousand images composed of the same materials, 
and most rudely Torrued. Unwilling to give offence, I did not see 
any of the interior parts of it, although no remonstrance would 
liavc been made again')t ni\' entering the inner courts ; but I wished 
to get some information from the ; and my not presuming 

to apj)roac]i so holy a place evidently gave satisfaction. The pre- 
sent structure, rvas built, or at least put into its present form, by 
Jlitma /Imija ; but, as 1 have before mentioned, the temple 

itself is alleged to be of wonderful antiipiity, and to have been not 
only built by a god, but to be dedicated to Kmhna on the very 
spot where that Jvalara performed some of hi.s great works. Al- 
tl'.ough the image represents Krislnin, it is commonly called Cliilla- 
pulla Ji/iya, or the darling prince ; for CliillupKlla is a lenn ol‘ endear- 
incut, which mothers give to their infant.s, somewhat like our word 
darling. The reason of such an unconimon appellation being given 
to a mighty warrior is said to he as follows; on Il/nm ylmija'.'s 
to jUail-coltn/, to perform his devotions at that celebrated shrine, he 
was informed that the place had been attacked by tlic 'Jure king of 
Dehit, who had carried away the idol. The liruhnmn immediately 
set out for that capital; and on his arrival he found that the king 
had made a present of the image to his daughter ; for it is said to be 
very hamlsoniG, and she asked for it as a plaything. All day the 
princess played svith the image; at night the god assumed his own 
beautiful form, and enjoyed her bed ; for Krishna is addicted to such 
kinds of advcnturc.s. This had continued for some time w'hen Kama 
Anuja iivnveil, and called on the image, repeating at the same time 



some powerful ; ou which the idol immediately placed CIIAP'mi 

itself on the llru/iman's knee. Having- clasped it in his arms, he 
called it his CliilJdptillcL and ihcv were both instautaneoiislv >. on- -il* 
vcyed to Mail-cotaii. The princess, <|uitc disconsolate for the loss 
of her image, mounted a horse, and followed as fast as she was able. 

She no sooner came near the idol than she disappeared, and is sup- 
posed to have been taken into its immediate substance; which, iu 
this country, is a common way of the gods disposing of their fa- 
vourites. A monument was built for tlie princess ; but as she was a 
Turc, it would have been improper to place this building within the 
walls of the holy ])lace ; it has therefore been erected at the foot of 
the hill, under the most abrupt part of the rock. 

The tank is a very fine one, and is surrounded by many luiildings Fine tank, 
for the accommodation of religious jjcrsons, and for the intended 

recreation of the idols when they arc carried in procession. Were 
those kept in good order, they woultl have a grand appearance ; 
but the buddings are filtliy and ruinous. The natives believe, tliat 
every year, at the time of the grand festival, the water of the ff/wyt’s- 
is eonvcycil by subterraneous passages, and fdls this tank ; yet they 
candidly acknowledge, that not the smallest external mark of any 
change takes place. On this occasion it is customary to throw iu 
bits of money. My attendant messenger, who is a Bniltmtti, says, 
that he w'as pre.sent wlicn all the water was taken out by orders 
from the Sultan, who expected by this means to find a great trea- 
sure. All that was found, however, was a potful of copper money. 

The jewels belonging to the great temple are very valuable; and Ji'wds be- 
even the Sultan was afraid to seize them, Tliey are never exposed 
to the risk of being carried away by any Uesperate ruilian, but are 
always kept in the treasury at Scringapatain ; and during the time 
of the festival are sent to Mail-cotay, under a strong military guard. 

This property was respected by the British captors, and the jewels 
are sent to the place as formerly. 

A jouRXi.v riioM .MAnruVs through 



Au«ubt ‘2y. 

Pni.npu‘< ut 
j.IiL* Hindus, 

The town has iicvi r reeovered itscli’ since tin' first Jllur<if/ah iii- 
A'asion. JJydcv, imlccd, allomal to the llruhmaiis tlie full enjoyment 
of their revenues ; luit his son first reduced their lands to 6000 
Pr/s;W(/)' a year ; then to four; then to two, and at lenu;th to one 
thousand; finally, he entirely took away their land, and gaive them 
an annual pension of 1000 Panadas. After his fall, General Harris 
granted them lands to the amount of 6000 Piigodds ; hut at present, 
from want of eultivat.ns, they ])rO(hicc only 4000, oi‘ 3i'. Cul 

TJiese lands are managed Oy an Ainildiir, appointed hy the govern- 
ment, and accountable to it for his conduct. The houses at present 
amount to 500, of which 200 arc inhabited by llrdhmati^. The only 
people here who live by industry are twenty families of weavers, 
and a few shopkeepers. In the great temple four hundred /ird/c 
7W//W form the higher class of the servants ; and from thence they 
receive a daily allowauee. There is also a class of servants of a 
St'idra extraction, and consisting of musicians, <laneing-girls, and 
Val'daiaxam, or Salthhuuis. The bouses here are belter than any 
belonging to 7//w///,v that I have seen above the Ghals; for the 
begging of the VJ/vi/iwif/i/.v is a lucrative employment, and several 
Gurus make this their chief place of residence. The houses are 
roofed with tiles, and have an odd look, from being entirely covered 
with thorns, 'fliis is done to pnrvcnt the monkies from unroofing 
the houses ; for those mischievous animals are here very numerous, 
and to destroy them is reekoned a grievous sin. The very person 
wlio applauds his Guru for having ground the Jamas in an oil-mill, 
will shudtler with horror at tln^ thougiit of a monkey's being 

I expected licro to he able to get some account of the Mysore 
family, who long had been generous henefaetors to the lirdhmans of 
MaU-colay ; hut in this I was entirely disappointed. I was told, that 
they gave themselves no eoncern about worldly affairs; and that to 
the liistory of the low casts was of ni» consequence 



seem not at all interested about tlicir younj^ Ruju ; and the family 
has been so Ions? in obscuiit}', that it is no longer looked up to 
Avith awe ; whieh among the natives in general is the only thing 
that supplies the ])Iaee of loyally. Their military men are the only 
class that seem to have a strong altaehmcnt to their prinees ; and 
they serve faithfully, so long as they' arc regularly paid, or gratilied 
by apennis.sion to plunder; but i)rovided these pay them better, they 
are eqnallv Avilling to serve a jMnssulman or Christian leader, as a 
Hindu prince. 'J’error is therefore the leading principle ot every 
Indian government; and among the people, in place of loyalty and 
patriotism, the chief principles arc, an abject devotion to their spi- 
ritual masters, and an obstinate adiiercnce to custom, chiefly in 
matters of ceremony and cast. 

SOtli Jngnst . — I remained at Mail-colai/, endeavoni ing to get a 
fuller account of the <SVi FmVowtv/w lirdlinutns, or ^lajj/n^ar ; but 1 
liad not so much success as I e.xpcctcd. I could not j)roenre an 
inrerview with any of the tiums ; for each of them an excuse was 
made; some were sick, some were fasting, and most of them were 
absent on their «luty of heggiug, as it is called. [, however, met 
Avith a Faidiliu Brahman, who was a very aeeviratc man ; and it was 
not owing to eitlicr want of abilities or ine'ination in him, that I 
did not procure the information whieh I wauled, lie was of the 
'J’apigala sect, and said that the /fadagalay separated from them In 
the time of Vedanta Achunja, who Avas horn about 30 years after the 
death of lidme Anuja. Tayngala signifies southern language, Arhilc 
IVadugalay signifies that of the north. In the country where the 
3 i/ww/ language prevails, the former are most numerous; and tlie 
JVadagatay are most numerous in Tdingana; but there arc Brahmans 
of both sects in either country ; nor docs the difference in opinion 
prevent them from intermarrying, if they be of the same nation. 

The books of the Brahmans do not mention tbe lime Avhen the 
heretical sects arose ; they only notice the persons by whom the 



Avigust '.’p. 

August .‘10. 
Sri Vaishna^ 
ram Ih'dh' 







CllAPTKU Ailse doctrines were first promulgate*!. These sects are, or were, 
eighteen in naniber; and their aiitliors, according to this Br^lman, 
Augu^tao. extracted their doctrine from the six books of the eighteen Fur&- 
ms that are reckoned of a bad nature. These sects were very pre- 
valent, and the linthmans very low, till the time o\' Sankara Acharya, 
whom even this Sri f 'ais/innvam acknowledges to have been Isrrara 
himself, who about 15‘20 years ago entered a woman of the sa- 
cred oast, and w-us born at Srhura-giri, near the western Ghats. He 
liad great siiccess against the heretical sects, and entirely destroyed 
twelve of them ; but was contented to permit si.x of them to exist 
for some time longer. These .six scct.s were, PdsJiandi, Charvacat 
Buddha, Jahia, Vamana, and Pashu or Ganapatyam. The Pashandi 
include all the people who wear the Linga ; and the Pundariuns, or 
all those that w'orship Siva, and pretend to be exempted from the 
authority of the Brahmans. These are still very numerous, but 
consider this name as a rej)roach. The Charvaca w'orship a bull. 
Tlierc arc many Jainas about Chin'-rdya-patiana. A few Buddhas 
remain in the Codagu country, which we call Coorg. The Vamanas 
are followers of a person of that name, and deny altogether the 
existence of a deity. The Ganapafyain believe in God ; but allege, 
that the Frdas and Sdstrams, with all the books esteemed sacrccrby 
the Hindus, are mere fables. These two last sects are very thinly 
.scattered, and are held in great abhorrence ; on which account they 
do not openly profess their doctrine, but call themselves by some 
ether name. ]\Iv informant does not know' whether any of the 
other twelve sects now remain atnl profess their doctrine, but he 
says, tliaC at any rate !)y far the greater part, were oidiged to adopt 
some of the six doctriiies permitted by Sankara Achdrya to remain, 
as being true. How' this could happen, or how a Smartal Brdhman 
could admit the truth of the doctrines of an or deist, 1 do 
not profess to understand. The fact, I suppose, is, that these six 
sects had influence enough with the governing powers to prevent 


tlic intrigues oi' Sunkara Acharya from having cifcct. It is certain, 
that long after his time by far the greater part ol' tlie people vere 
not followers of his college, or Mata. 

About six hundred years after the time of Sankara Acharya, the 
snake Sesha entered a woman of the sacred cast at Sri Permaturu, 
and was born as Rama Anaja Acharya. At that time the greater 
part of the people who lived below the eastern Car//«/.y were Paxhundia; 
and of those who lived above the CAiats, the greater part were 
Jahtas : hwi Rama Anaja not only converted a great many Rrali^ 
mans from the doctrine of Sankara Acharya, but also persuaded 
many of the heretics to become followers of the Jirulimans. Among 
others was Vishnu Vurdana Raya, a Jaina prince, and king of the 
whole ci)untry, who resided at Yadaca-pari ; that is to say, lliceity 
of the cow-keeper, a place that is now called Touiiru. J5y the as- 
sistance of this king, he converted the Jainas, and ground their 
obstinate priests in an oil-mill. As a Hrdhman, he could ii'it put 
these people to deatii ; but having publicly convicted them of he- 
resy, it became the king’s <luty to punish their infidelity. This 
great leader of the Brahmans matle 700 Matas, or colleges, for San- 
fiydsis ; all of which, except four, have gone to ruin, lie also 
appointed hereditary chiefs, of every one of wliich the represen- 
.tativc in the male line continues at present to enjoy his elevared 
dignity. The Sannydsis are considerc'l as of the highest rank ; but 
tlu; hereditary chiefs will not receive from them cither Chakrdn- 
iikam ox Upadesa ; for this tvould be too humiliating an acknow- 
ledgment of superiorily. Each iiaru, married or unmarried, has a 
certain number of families, both Rrdhmuns and Sadras, that arc 
hereditarily subjected to the authority of his college, or house, 1 he 
Sannydsis are addres.sed by the title of Sadmalu, to' Sadmyata ; the 
liereditarv chiefs by that of Acharya. Every Brahman in this 
country is called Swdmi, or lord. 

The appearance ot' Rama Anaja being one of the most important 
eras in the history of southern India, 1 was au.xious to ascertain the 

# J 



liiUtUl Juvju, 


CIIAPTKR exact time of tliat event The Brahman \vho had hitherto given 
me information was not in possession of the book that contained an 

Au^uit 30 . account of t/ic life and actions of the founder of his sect, and which, 
I found, was considered as too sacred for profane eyes to behold. 
Having sent for the owner of the book, and requested permission 
for my informant to copy the date, he replied that he would not 
venture to take such a step without the advice and consent of the 
leading men in the place. A council was accordingly assembled at 
my tent, and it was judged allowable to give me the information 
which I wanted. To avoid delay, and to encourage the man, 1 of- 
fered the owner a small sum of money to pay the writer for copying 
the date, and of this he readily accepted. At two o’clock the whole 
party went to consult the hook ; and at seven in the evening, no 
one of them having returned, I sent for my first informant. He 
tohl me, that, this having been a fast day, none of them, M’hen 
1 .saw them, had eaten any thing; and that, immediately on 
leaving the tent, they had all dispc'rscd, and could not be as- 
sembled without an order Womxha Parputly, ox civil officer; and 
that singly no man would do any thing. Application having been 
made to the Parputtp, he immediately called an assembly, and 
they agreed to copy I'or me a life or journal of the proceedings 
of llama Annja, leaving out only such Manlrams and passages 
as were fit only for the ear of a Brainnan. Four or five hour.s, 
they said, would be sufiicient ; and my interpreter rvas ordered, 
until the work was finished, to attend his brethren the Brahmaiis 
at the temple. 

yairdgis. There is here a Matam, or convent of Vairdgis, who claimed being 
my countrymen, as I belonged to the Bengal establishment. They 
saici, that their cast was descended from the children of persons of 
. all kinds, who, not having had any heirs, have made a vow to the 
image of llama at Apiidya (Oude) to consecrate to his service their 
eldest son, should the god interpose, and grant them a family. 
Many of these consecrated persons have married, and the whole of 



their descendants arc Vairagis. Their cliief convents arc at Ay6dya, CHAPTER 
and Jaya-pura; but smaller ones are scattered in every part of 
India. Their Gurus are also rairdgis, but are always descended August 30. 
from the children of Br&Innans, They say, that in Hindustan pro- 
per the only Pujdris in the temples of Vishnu are the Brahmans of 
their cast. In that country many of them are learned ; but those 
here acknowledged their ignorance. They abstain from animal 
food, and hold in abhorrence the custom, which prevails liere, of 
marrying tlieir aunt’s daughter. In every part of India a man’s 
marrying his uncle’s daughter is looked upon as incestuous. The 
Vairdgis of Sudra origin always assume the appearance of beggars ; 
but they frequently trade from place to place in horses, arms, 
pearls, shawls, and other valuable articles ; and on such occasions, 
to secure their property, they travel in large bodies well armed ; 
not trusting entirely to their professions of poverty. They never 
trade ,in shops. They are at constant variance with the people of a 
tribe called here Gossain (properly Gosw&mi) ; and in the engage- 
ments that take place between these two sets of vagrants, lives are 
frequently lost. The forms assumed by the Vairdgis in begging are 
various. Some of them constantly remain in some painful or dilh- 
cult posture ; and, according to the postures which they assume, 
are called Urdabdhu, or TicrawaUa. Some of them, called Parama- 
hansa, or Digarnbara, go quite naked, with their hair matted, and 
thickened with dirt ; these beg from door to door, frequently pre- 
tending to be idiots, and to live in wastes and woods on leaves and 
wild fruits. The remainder are called lidmanandL There is in this 
country a set of scoundrels who call themselves Vairdgis; but who 
are disowned by those who pretend to be really so, and are by them 
called Bers/a. These fellows extort compassion by burning them- 
selves with torches, and cutting themselves with swords. If pos- 
sible, they surround a woman who is with child, and threaten to 
torment themselves before her, unless she gives them money. The 
•won\ari in general complies, being commonly tender-hearted, and 



CHAPTER also being afraid lest her child should be disfigured by her looking 
their distortions and agonies. 

J* ITT* 

August 30 . The hill on which stands consists of many different 

Strata. Itinds of rock ; but to most of them, the French term Roche feuillelee 
seems applicable. They are all aggregates, with their component 
parts disposed in a striated or foliated manner. They are of very 
great tenacity, being extremely difficult to break, especially across 
the fibre; they split somewhat more easily in its direction, but even 
in that strongly resist all external violence. These rocks are dis- 
posed in vertical strata running north and south, and the fibres or 
lamina; are placed in the same direction. In small pieces this stfuc-' 
ture is often not easily disceniible ; but it is always very conspi- 
cuous in large masses, or when the rock begins to decay. The 
strata 2S(i intercepted by fissures crossing them at right angles; 
but never, so far as I observed, containing any extraneous fossil, 
such as ([uartz or felspar. In decay, this rock has a tendency to 
form lon^ cylindrical masses, which from their fibrous nature have 
somewhat the appearance of petrified logs of timber. The nvost 
common of these strata are various kinds of gneiss, which may be 
cut here into pillars of any size, and afford admirable materials for 
fine buildings. Some of it is very small grained, and assumes the 
form whicli by some mineralogists is called regenerated granite. 
In some of the buildings here are columns of this kind, which ai'C 
of on excellent quality, and cut remarkably well. The people could 
not tell from whence they had been brought. Many other strata 
consist of a granitel, composed of hornblend-slate, quite black, and 
^ixed with white quartz. When broken longitudinally, the quartz 
forms veins ; when transversely, it forms spots. It might perhaps 
be called a hornblend porphyry. Here arc also strata of schistose 
Mica; one of which is decayed into a kind of earth called Nama^ 
and is a source of some profit to the place. It is supposed to have 
been created by Gariida, or the mythological eagle on which 
Krishna rides; and near this is used by all the Sri Fauknacam 



Brahmmis, and their followers, to mark their foreheads. Some of it 'CllAPTEll 
is, for this purpose, sent even to Kdsi, or Bei.ares. Some Vaishm- 
mms work it by digging the Mdiole substance out of the beds in August 30. 
whieh it lies, and throwing it into large vessels of water. It is 
well stirred about; and, while the mica swijns, the fragments of 
quartz remain at the bottom, and arc taken out by the hand. The 
mica is then allowed to subside, and forms into a mass, whieh is 
divided into small pieces, and afterwards made into balls by being 
moistened in water. These are so'ld for use, and are perfectly 

3lst j4ugust. — In the morning my interpreter informed me, that August si. 
last night, until a' late hour, he had attended the council of Brak- tln» Prihmmi 
mans at the temple. After a long deliberation, it was determined 
that they would give him a verse, or Sldkam containing the era that maiiou. 

I wanted to knoiv, enigmatically expressed, as is usual in these verses. 

They also explained the enigma to him in the vulgar language, and 
gave him a copy of this, w'hich he might show ; but they enjoined 
him by no means to expose to profane eyes the Slokam, a reejuest 
that he treated Avith great contempt. It was also determinsd, that 
they would neither copy any part of the book, nor permit it to be 
seen, under pretence of its having been carried away by the il/a- 
rattahs. What could induce them to adopt such an excuse, I cannot 
tell. Before a hundred people at my tent, and these the chief in- 
habitants of the place, a man venerated for his years, his learning, 
and his piety, declared himself possessed of the book, and received 
money to defray the expense of copying a part of it; and now he 
was not ashamed to declare, that thirty years ago he had been 
robbed of it. To do him justice, he offered to refund the money ; 
bdt my interpreter refused it, having no orders to rescind the bar- 
gain. It had, indeed, been by his advice that I had made the ad- 
vance. He alleged, that in his cast r • promises of reward are 
looked upon as good for any thing ; but that the immediate view of 





Abfpnt 31 . 

il^ory of 
B&ma Anuja. 

the money produces strong effects; and, after receiving the money, 
the faithful performance of what a Brahman uudertakes may very 
generally be expected. 

I then went to Tonuru-Caray, liy the Mussulmans called Muh, 
Talau, or the pearl-tank, a name given to it by one of the Mogul 
officers who visited the place. From MaiUcotay it is distant three 
cosses. The intermediate country is very rough, containing only a 
narrow fertile band on the sides of a water-course, which, aftei’i 
heavy rain, conveys some water from Alaii-cotay into the reservoir 
of Tonuru. This band is at present cultivated only in part, all the 
<lry fields being entirely unoccupied. Although these arc almost 
a continued bed of loose nodules of white quartz, they have for- 
merly been cultivated; and to make room for the plough, the 
stones have in many places been gathered up into ridges. At pre- 
sent, the country is quite bare ; but the remaining stumps show', 
that the whole way between the two places an avenue of trees for- 
merly sheltered the road. 

At Tonuru 1 found soine intelligent Rw/iwaws, who told me that 
the translation of the verses given me at Mail-cotay was a false one; 
and that the real meaning of them is, that llama Anuja Aefuirya was 
born in the year of the Kali-yugarn 4118, or the year 1025 of the 
Christian era. These Brahmans repeated another Slokam, which 
makes the birth of Rama Anuja to have happened in the year of 
S(iUv&hanam 932, or A. D. 1010, a difference only of 15 years. 

The account of Rama Anuja, given here, is as follows. Yadavi 
Puri, now called Tonuru, was formerly a place of great note, and tlie 
residence of a powerful king named Belatla Raya. Nine princes of the 
same name had preceded him, and his empire extended to a great 
distance. Like his ancestors, he w'as a Avorshipperof Jii/wa ; and it is 
said, that irt his capital city seven hundred temples were dedicated 
to that god. At this time Rdma Anuja, having taught new opinions 
in the country below the Ghats, was persecuted by SholaRaja, or 



the king of Tajijore, who was a strenuous supporter of the Smartal CHAPTER 
Brahmans. Rama Anuja was obliged to retreat from tins persecu- v,^v^ 
tion, and come to the court of Belalla R/iya. The daughter of this August 31. 
prince was then possessed by Brimtna Raeshasu, a female devil, who 
rendered the princess so foolish, that she was unable even to dress 
herself. The king had carried his daughter to all the temples of 
his idol; and all his priests, who were generally admitted to be 
very skilful magicians, had attempted to free the princess from the 
monster; but all these efforts were vain. Rama Amy a hu.\-ing ob- 
tained permission to try his power, he presented the princess with 
some consecrated (Tulsi), and sprinkled her with holy 
water ; on which she was immediately restored to her understand- 
ing. The king then declared, that he would follow Rama Anuja as 
liis Guru, and worship Vishnu; whereupon the Brahman gave him the 
name of Vishnu Vardana Raya, and bestowed on him Chakrantikam 
and Uyadtsa. 

The priests of Jaina, as may be naturally supposed, w'ere enraged 
with the Brahman for having converted their king ; and a grand 
dispute took place before the whole court. After eighteen days of 
disputation, the Jainas were fully confuted: some of them took Chak- 
ranlikam, some made their escape, and the remainder were put to the 
terrible death w'hich I formerly mentioned. The king then present- 
ed a large sum of money to his new Gum. With this that Brahman 
pulled down all the temples of the Jainas, and with the materials 
built the great reservoir. He also repaired three temples of Vishnu 
that had long been quite deserted, and in one of them he resided 
three years. He then had a dream, in which Nardyana ordered him 
to go to Mail-cotay, and to repair the temple of R&mapriya. This 
is the original name of the idol now called Chillapulla Raya; and I 
have already related the fable concerning the origin of that name ; 
which was told here also, with very little variation. On his return 
from Dehli with the image, R&ma Anuja repaired the temple, and 
VoL. 11. M 



CHAPTER promulgated the laws that are now observed by the A'a^ngar BrAk^ 
mans. He resided there fourteen years ; when, the Shota RAja that 

August 31 . had persecuted him having •.:.;d, he went to Sri Rangam^ near 
Tritchenopoly, and there also had very great success against the 
inhdcls, converting them by means similar to those v'hich were 
used at Tonum. 

Tmwu.ox I'eniains of the ancient city arc some ruins of the walls, 

which are sufficient to show that they were of great extent. The three 
temples said to have been repaired by Rama Aniija are in good pre- 
servation, and must either have been founded by him, or entirely 
rebuilt ; which last is the most probable opinion. Before that time, 
they were perhaps small buildings belonging to a persecuted or newly 
established sect. Their present size is very considerable. The SultAn 
had converted one of them into a fort, and made it the residence of 
an Asoph, or lord lieutenant; but it has now been purified, and I 
found that an infidel could not be admitted within the gate. At 
no place in the peninsula have I found that a European could get 
admission into the shrine, or chamber in which the idol is placed. 
In most cases, indeed, the door will be opened ; but as there is 
no light in any of these places, except that of a glimmering lamp, 
I have never been able to discern the form of any of the idols that 
are worshipped by the BrAhmans : they are said, however, to be of 
the same form with the images without, thousands of which are 
placed about the temples as ornaments, and which any one may see, 
handle, or purchase. These are not at all objects of adoration ; 
the divinity not having been placed in them by the powerful 
irams of a Brahman. 

Great tank. The reservoir, or Yadetvi Nutidi, is a very great work. Two moun- 
tain torrents here had united their streams, and forced a way 
through a gap between two rocky hills. Rama Amija stopped up 
this gap by a mound, said to be 78 cubits high, 150 cubits long, 
and at the base 250 cubits thick. The superfluous water is let off 



by a channel, which has been cut with great labour through one of CHAPTEE 
the hills, at such a height, as to enable it to water a great deal of 
the subjacent plain, which is three or four miles in extent. When August si. 
the reservoir is full, it contains a sufficient quantity of water to 
supply the cultivators for two years; but owing to failures of rain, 
the water frequently continues lower than the opening of the out- 
let. Although the torrents bring down much sand, it so happens 
that the reservoir is never affected by that circumstance ; for the 
two streams enter in such tlirections, as to force all the sand to- 
ward the extreme corners, without diminishing the main depth. 

A few years ago the Sultan destroyed this favourite monument of 
the great Hindu doctor, which had been built with the spoils of re- 
futed heretics, and was hence doubly valued by every true follower 
of the Purdnas. Tippoo cut a narrow trench through the mound; 
and the water, having got vent, rushed forth with such violence as 
to sweep away two thirds of the whole. Although the demolition 
of this work by Tippoo was but a just retaliation for the enormities 
by which it had been erected, nothing could be more absurd or 
impolitic, both as giving offence to his subjects, and as injuring 
the resources of the country. The motive that induced him to act 
so foolishly is doubtful. Some say, that he expected by draining 
the reservoir to find a great treasure, and that he thought he should 
be able to effect this without the demolition of the w'ork, which, 
contrary to his wishes, was swept away by the violence of the tor- 
rent undermining the foundations. Others attribute the action to a 
sudden ebullition of bigotry, which was his ruling passion. Near 
the place there is a monument dedicated to one of the fanatical 
followers of Mahmud Ghizni, who had penetrated this length, and 
had here suffered martyrdom. Very early a monument had been 
erected over his grave, and the had buried one of the ladies of 
his family by the side of the stair which leads up to the tomb of the 
reputed saint When he destroyed the reservoir, he had been on a 





August 31 . 

Jmtdar of 
Mail- cot ay. 


visit to this sacred place; and his zeal against the inhdels had been 
inflamed into rage by the reco"ection of tlic martyrdom : the monu- 
ment of the Mussulman was enlarged, and endowed with the spoils 
which the Br&hmans had tom from the priests of Jaina. The former 
establishment in the mausoleum of this fanatic is supported at 
the Company’s expense; and a robust intelligent saint (Peer) 
receives annually 200 Pagodas, and performs the proper ceremo- 
nies. From the Mysore government the temples annually receive 
300 Pagodas. 

The town is increasing fast, and will, no doubt, be soon a con- 
siderable place ; for orders were given by General Harris for the 
immediate rebuilding of the tank, and the Amildar has already 
made great progress in the work. This Br&hmnn, whom Ilyder, in 
one of his invasions of the dominions of Arcot, carried away from 
Kunji, has been appointed Amildar of the lands which were restored 
to the Brahmans o( Mail-cotay. When informed of their conduct, 
he was greatly enraged, and sent immediately for the leaders of the 
council. He did this, partly to inform them of the necessity there was 
for performing their engagements with me; and partly, by the jour- 
ney, to punish their folly. He told them, that as the English gen- 
tlemen had always protected the BrAhmans, there could be no reason 
for concealing their hooks, of which no one would attempt to de- 
prive them. He then told me, that under the former government 
these poor people had got into such habits of lying, as a kind of 
skteen from oppression, that they were now utterly incapable of 
speaking the truth. The BrAhmans of Tonuru are very communi- 
cative, which the Amildar attributed to their poverty. 

The strata here are similar to those at Mail-cote^ ; but are so 
intersected by fissures, as to be of no use for building. 

On the rising ground north from the reservoir a severe battle 
was fought between the Marattahs and Ilyder. The latter was com- 
pletely defeated, and all his army destroyed, except one corps, with 



which he fled into Sermgapalam, passing 

1st Setotemher. — I went three cosscs to the- northern hank of the •* , 

* ^ Quarry of 

Caverif, at S*:ruigaj)at(ii>i. By the way, I examined the quarry of gianitc. 
gray granite at C/iica Mully Bella, wliich is the host in the neigh- 
bourhood. It is about six miles north from Ser'utgapaUnn. The 
workmen have never cut upon the solid rock, hut have contented 
themselves with splitting the lower blocks that cover the surface 
of the hill, and a stone 12 cubits long is reckoned a very large one. 

Longer ones, if wanted, might no doubt he obtained by cutting 
into the solid rock. This granite, in its appearance, has nothing 
either of a flbrous or foliated texture; hut in fact its parts arc so 
disposed, that the stone splits much easier in one direction than in 
any other. The workmen cannot judge of this by external appear- 
ance ; but they try the block by chipping it in various parts, until 
they find out the direction in which the wedge will have its most 
powerful effects. In decay, the plates of which the rock consists 
arc abundantly conspicuous. This stone is easier wrought than that 
of Mail-cotay ; hut, owing to the coarseness of its grain, cannot be 
cut into such fine figures. 

by the western end of the 



Chka Molly Bella and the French rocks, as we call them, are two Appearanc# 
small rocky hills, which rise up in the middle of the country between 
Tonuru and the Cavery, In no other place, except Kari-ghat 
bill, is the surface too steep for the plough. All the low ground has 
formerly been cultivated, though in many places the declivity of the 
fields is great. North from the canals a very small portion of the 
arable land is at present in cultivation and even under the canals 
there is waste land, although, these noble works are now full of 
water, and send forth copious streams to all the fields between them 
and the river. Owing to the steepness of the ground, many of the 
rice plots are not above six feet square and the ingenuity and la- 
bour with which they have been formed almost equal those of the- 
Chinese terraces.. 


CHAPTF.R l«t— 4th September 1800. — I remained at Seringapatam repairing 

VH. my equipage, and making ready for the journey. The Caveryxinow 
Sept, i — ^ 1 .. full, and contains a large rapid stream ; but its water is by no means 
RiverCV.e/y. and is rcckoucd unwholesome. The town is so low, that at 

this season many of the houses are damp and unhealthy ; and the 
air of the eastern end of the island is still more prejudicial to the 
human constitution. 






/^N the 5tli oi September, I went one coss to Pal-hullp. Ow ing to 
some mistake, my baggage missed the way ; and, after having 
wandered tlie wliolc day, arrived in the evening with the cattle 
so fatigued, that on tlie day following it Avas impossible to move. 

6th September. — Pal-hully formerly contained a thousand houses ; 
but during the siege of Scriugapatam, as it was in the immediate rear 
of the camp of General Harris, it was entirely destroyed. A hundred 
houses have been rebuilt, and the inhabitants are daily returning. 
It is situated on the bank of the lower of the two canals that are 
forced by dams from the Cavery to Avater the district called Mahd- 
sura Ashta-gn'im. This canal mnv contains a fine stream, like a 
small river. It never becomes entirely dry, and enables the fai'iner, 
even in the dry season, to have a crop of rice on part of his fields. 
Here Avere formerly many palm-gardens ; but the army, in order 
to procure fire-Avood, and materials for the trenches, dcstroyetl the 
whole. They have now been planted again. In this district a good 
deal of sugar-cane is raised ; and some persons have lately come 
here to make sugar. Formerly all the juice was made into Jagory, 
The present stock is sufiicicnt to cultivate the greater part of the 
watered-land, but more than half of the dry field is waste. 

Although the river abounds Avith fish, very few are caught by 
the natives; for that kind of food is not a favourite one with the 
people of Mysore. 

About the villages swine are now beginning to accumulate, as a 



St*pl. 5. 


C.inal.s for ir- 

State of tlie 
M a ha. sura 
A.shta-gi dm 






Sept 7. 

State of the 
district of 

Sept. 8. 
or Hussein^ 

tirta river, 
and its 


great proportion of the farmers eat pork. Under the SuUan's go- 
vernment it was necessary to conceal tliese impure animals. 

7th September. — I went three cosscs to Gungural-Chatur^ which is 
situated in the Mahusura Nagara 7'aluc, or district of the city of 
Mysore, and distant three cosscs from that place. The country is 
uneven, but contains no hills. Its strata consist of gneiss, schistose 
hornblende, and schistose mica, and run nearly north and south. 

Much of the surface, especially toward the west, is broken, stony, 
and barren ; but a great proportion has been formerly cultivated. 
This, however, is by no means the case at present ; for I have seen 
no part of the country that has suffered more by the operations of 
war. It has never, indeed, recovered since it M'as ravaged by a 
Marattah, whose forces the terror of the natives has augmented 
to a hundred thousand cavalry. This part of the country con- 
tains scarcely any reservoirs or rice-ground, and is very bare, 
having few or no trees. At all the villages in this neighbourhood 
there have been palm-gardens, which were watered by the hand, 
for machinery has never been eniployed here. All the villages be- 
tween Gungural-Chatur and Seringapatam are open ; but the former, 
although it has always been a sorry place, is fortified. 

8th September. — I went three Sultuny cosscs to Muluro. At the 
distance of one coss from Gungural-Chatur I came to Sicany-pura, 
which by the Mussulmans was called Hitsseiiipoor. It had been 
given in Jaghir to Mcer Saduc, the favourite minister of Tippoo 
Sultan; and, although an open town, it has been a neat place with 
wide streets, which crossed each other at right angles. More than 
half of the houses are now in ruins. On the approach of one of 
our foraging parties, it was entirely destroyed by Purnea and 
Cummtr ud' Deen Khan, and a few only of the houses have been 

At a short distance west from Sicany-pura is a fine little river called 
the Lakshnmna tirta, which comes from the south-w'cst, and rises 
among the hills of the country wliich we call Coorg. At all times 



it contains a stream of water, and in the rainy season is not ford- CHAPTER 
able. It supplies six canals to water the country. The /inas, or 
dams, that force the Avater into these canals, are fine works, and Sept. 8. 
produce beautiful cascades. One of them is broken down, but the 
other fiA'c are in good repair; and, in fact, one of them that I saAV 
supplied more water than Avas Avanted ; for a quantity sufficient to 
turn a mill Avas alloAvcd to run back into the river through a sluice. 

OAving to a Avaut of cultivators, a great deal of rice-ground is waste. 

It is said, that the Avhole land formerly Avatered by the canals of 
iX\Q Lakshrnana amounted to 7000 Candacas soAving; but the Can- 
dacas are small, and contain only from 100 to 140 Seers each. If the 
seed be sown here as thick as at Seringapatam, the 7000 Candacas- 
Avould amount to about 18,000 acres, 

Tlu; country on this day’s route is no where steep, and rises into State of the 
gentle acclivities ; but near the road the soil is in general poor culti'vaiion, 
and hard, and from thence very little cultivation is visible. This of stock., 

part of the country is at present covered Avith Ioav trees. The pas- 
ture is better than common, owing probably to a greater quantity 
of rain. On cither hand, I am informed by the officers of govern- 
ment, the soil is much better, and about one half of the arable land 
is in cultivation. I am persuaded, hoAvever, that this is not the 
case, and that almost the Avhole of the country has been at one time 
ploughed. The custom here is to separate the fields either by 
hedges, or by leaving between them uncultiA'ated spaces from four 
to ten feet wide, which are covered with Mimosas, or other trees ; 

Avhich adds greatly to the beauty of the country, and, by preserv- 
ing the moisture, probably contributes to the fertility of the land. 

I think that I can every Avhere observe traces either of the hedges, 
or of these woody spaces, except in a fcAv spots covered Avith the 
Elate sylvestris, or Avild date, and of these the soil is said to be 
saline. Perhaps, hoAvcver, the devastation may have been com- 
mitted before the memory of the present generation, and before 
the formation of the present village accompts, and one half of the 
Vot. IL N 





Sept, 8. 

Condition of 
the Mubsul- 
Hums, and 
their attach- 
ment to the 
late Sultan, 

Anaaits on 
the Cavery 
and Laksk- 


whole lands entered in them as arable may be cultivated. The 
greater part of the cultivators perished during the invasion by 
Ix>rd Cornwallis, chiefly owing to the ravages committed by a 
party of MamttahSy and to the consequent famine. None died last 
year owing to the war, although many lost their efl’ects ; and at 
present the inhabitants amount to about one half of the number 
that were living in the early part of Tippoo's reign. Last year, 
three fourths of the cattle perished by the epidemic distemper. 

The Mussulmans who were in Tippoo's service arc daily coming 
to this part of the country. Those who have any means caiTy on a 
small trade in grain ; those who are poor hire themselves to the 
fanners, either as servants or day-labourers. Being unacquainted 
with agriculture, they are only hired w'hen other's cannot be pro- 
cured. Their wages are, of coui-se, low, and their monthly allow- 
ance is thirty Seers of grain (worth three Famms) and one Fanam in 
cash ; all together about 25 . Sd. They, however, prefer this to en- 
listing in the service of the Company along with the infidels who 
killed the royal martyr. 

Muluro is an open village which contains about forty houses, and 
is pleasantly situated about two cosses south from the Caoery. On 
this river there are here Anacutt, or dams, watering as much land 
as those of the districts called Ashta-grdms do. The dams on the 
Jjakshmana are said to be of greater antiquity than those which 
Chica Deva R/iya, the Curtur of Mysore, constructed on the Ctf- 
•oery ; but the memory of the person's name by whom they were 
erected has perished. 

In this part of the country there are no hereditary Gaudoi, or 
chiefs of villages, whose duties are performed by renters. Some 
of these really rent their villages, and agree to pay annually a cer- 
tain sum. Others receive wages, and account for what they col- 
lect. Neither can legally take from the cultivators more than the 
custom of the village permits. This custom was established by one 
of the Mytore Rdjas, 


In Kyi/er's government two Br&hmans, with the title of IlircaraSy CHAPTER 
resided in each district (Taluc). Their duty was, to hear all com- 
plaints, and to report these to the office of the revenue department. Sept. 8. 
They were also bound to report all waste lands. This was found to itispccto«^' 
be a considerable check to oppression, and to defalcations on the 
revenue; but, no doubt, was inferior to the visits of the Resident vent abuses, 
and Dewan, who in this part of their duty are indefatigable. Such 
visits were however impracticable to princes like Hyder or the 

Ttppoo disused these Hircaras ; and this measure of economy con- Defect in tlie 
tributed much to the oppression of the people, and to the diminu- fernmenf.*^' 
tion of the revenue. It is not supposed that, during the latter 
part of his government, more than a fourth part of the nominal 
revenue entered the treasury ; the coimtry having been depopu- 
lated by various means, and every rascal through whose hands any 
of the public money passed having taken a share; for to such 
delinquents the Sultan was remarkably lenient, an error of govern- 
ment which flatterers call liberality. 

Water for drinking is here very scarce and very bjid, yet the Scarcity of 
people have never attempted to dig wells. 

9th Seplmbtr. — I went to Emmigumi Cotagala. The country is Sept. 9. 
nearly of a similar appearance to that which I saw yesterday, and 
bas been equally desolated. In one place there is a small rocky ny. 
hill ; but every other part, near the road, seems 'capable of culti- 
vation. As we approach the western Ghats, the vegetation becomes 
evidently stronger, and the fields have somewhat of a summer 
verdure. A large proportion of tliem have even the soil entirely 
hidden by grass. I am told, that this season the rains have been 
much less copious than usual, but yet the crops look well. The 
quantity of grain called Car-ragy gradually increases as we advance 
to the westward : about Seringapatam, and in the country toward 
the easteto Qhatt, no such crop is known. Here the capsicum. 




Sept. 9* 

Cut tay Mala- 
lawadi town 
and district. 


Scarcity of 

Sept. 10. 
of the coun- 
try, and cli- 

ripens with the natural moisture of the climate ; there it requires 
to be watered. 

About midway is Cuttay Malalawadi^ a large mud fort, and the 
chief town (Kasha) of a district (Taluc). About thirty years ago 
it was fully inhabited, and had a large suburb (Petta)] while the 
cultivation all around was complete. At that period a Marattah 
army, commanded by Badji Row, laid every thing waste, and most 
of the inhabitants perished of hunger. So complete was the de- 
struction, that even the excellent government of Hyder did not 
restore to the district more than one half of its former cultivation. 
Tlic town never regained its inhabitants, and was occupied by forty 
or fifty houses of Brahmans, who lived scattered amid the ruins. 
The suburb, however, was completely rebuilt. In the invasion of 
Lord Cornwallis every thing was again ruined; nor could any place 
recover under the subsequent government of Tippoo. At the com- 
mencement of the late war, the population amounted to about a 
fourth of the former inhabitants, and few or none have since pe- 
rished ; but they lost much of their property, the town having been 
burned and the fort dismantled by the orders of Tippoo, as he re- 
tired after the unsuccessful attaek which he made on the Bombay 
army at Seduseer ( Siddheszcara ). 

CotagaUi, although it gives its name to a district, is an open vil- 
lage containing about twenty houses, and situated about a mile 
from another called Emmaguma ; whence the names of the two arc 
commonly mentioned together. 

The water for drinking is here also very bad and scarce. The 
M'ells have not been dug to a greater depth than twelve feet. 

10th September. — I went three cosses to Priya-pattana, which in 
our maps is called Periapatam. The country strongly resembles that 
which I have seen on the two preceding days ; but is still less cul- 
tivated. Some parts near Cotagala are rather hilly, and there are 
no remains to show that these have ever been cultivated, llie 


trees there are high, and extend even to the summits of the hills ; 
which I have not observed to be the case any where to the east- 
ward. Near Priya-pattam are many small pools, that contain water 
all the year, although they never overflow so as to give origin to 
rivers. They are surrounded by meadoAvs; but, on account of their 
diminutive size, cannot be called lakes. Near the villages on this 
day’s route there are many palm-gardens in a very neglected state. 
The tanks also are ruinous, although many in number ; for even 
here the rain is not sufficient to bring a crop of rice to maturity. 
I am told, that in the Coduga, or Coorg country, the rains are fully 
sufficient for this purpose; accordingly, great quantities of rice 
are raised there, and much of it is exported, partly towards Cka- 
trakal, and partly towards Seringapatam. Every day, on an average, 
seventy oxen loaded with this grain pass Cotagala. 

Priya-pattana, or the chosen city, formerly belonged to a Poly- 
gar family named Nandi RAj. These princes were related to the 
Vlr' Rajas, or R^as of Coduga, and both families wore the Linga. 
The territories of Nandi Raj included the two districts of Priya- 
pattana and Bettada-pura, producing an annual revenue of 30,000 
Pagodas [9361 1 . 3 s. 8^rf.), and extending about tAventy-four miles 
east from the frontier of Coduga, and about thirty miles south from 
the Caoery, Avhich bounded them on the north. At that time the 
fort Avas a small square, defended only by a mud Avail. It con- 
tained the Mahal, or palace of the RAja; and three temples, one of 
Siva, one of Jaina, and one oiVeidhwara, who is one of the destruc- 
tive spirits. This last was the largest. In the centre of the palace 
the RAja had built a hall, which is now unroofed ; but many orna- 
ments, of neatly carved teak-wood, still remain. As usual in Hindu 
houses, this A/uAa/wasa square surrounded by a corridore; but 
the central area was covered with a dome, which is not common. 
Under the dome was suspended a swing, for the amusement of the 
Rija, and of his women ; for the natives of India are very fond of 



SepU 10« 

Coduga^ or 
Coorgj v/ery 
productive of 

Polt/gars of 






Sept. 10. 

Wu between 
Tippoo and 


this exercise, •which is well fitted for vacant minds. Two years 
after having finished this building, and about 16() years ago, this 
Jiaja was attacked by Ckica Deva Ildifa, the Curtur of Mporc ; and 
finding himself unable to resist so powerful an enemy, be killed his 
wives and children, and then died sword in hand in the midst of 
bis enemies. With this, it would appear, the prosperity of the 
country ceased ; as it was ever afterwards a subject of dispute be- 
tween the princes of Mysore and the Vir' Rayas, or Voorg Rtffas. 
Chica Deva, however, enlarged the place, and surrounded the mud 
fort by one built of stone, and placed at some distance without the 
old works. In this outer fort he settled a colony of Brahmans, and 
built a temple dedicated to Vishnu. 

On Tippoo' s accession, in order, I suppose, to distress the inhabi- 
tants of Coorg, and thus to make their prince, the Vir' R6ya, submit 
to his authority, he interdicted all communication with that coun- 
try ; and ordered, that all such of its inhabitants as might be found 
in his dominions should be instantly put to death. This restraint 
was severely felt by the people of Coorg, who, being entirely sur- 
rounded by the dominions of the Sultan, had no means of selling 
their produce, nor of procuring foreign commodities. The Vir' 
Rdya sent an embassy to the Sultan, and represented that it bad 
always been customary for his merchants to trade Avith those of 
Mysore and Malaydla, and that he Avas forced by necessity to require 
that this custom should not be abolished. lie received no answer, 
but a contemptuous defiance ; and immediately commenced a pre- 
datory Avarfare, at Avhich his subjects are very expert, and which 
they had been accustomed to carry on even to the gates of Mysore, 
before the dread of Hyder's vigorous government had repressed 
their insolence. In one of these incursions, seventeen years ago, 
the Vir Rdya fell into the hands of Tippoo, by whom he Avas con lined 
four years in Priya-pattana, with a yearly alloAvance of SOO Pagodas 
for a subsistence. The walls of the hovel in which he was confined 


are still shown to stranscers. One of his sisters was forced into the CHAPTER 

» VIII. 

Zenana of Tippoo, and to her intercessions the Rhja probably owed 

his life. 

The Coorg country, deprived of its active gallant prince, fell 
under the yoke of Tippoo, who built in it a fortress called Jaffer- bytheSulfa#. 
Abdd, and placed there a strong gaivison. After the Vir' Raya had 
been four years confined, he was set at liberty by twelve Gandas, or 
chiefs of villages, who entered the town in a concealed manner, 
and carried dieir master into his own dominions, where he was in- 
stantly joined by all ranks of people ; and Tippoo' s possessions in that 
country were soon after confined within the walls oi' Jiijfer-dbdd, 

The R&ja*e troops were quite unfit for besieging the place ; but he 
succeeded in cutting off all supplies, and was not only able to pre- 
vent any of Ttppoo'e forces from entering his country, but was also 
able to plunder die dominions of Mysore; to which in a great mea- 
sure is owing the deplorable state of the neighbouring districts. 

After a long blockade, the Sultan, with much difficulty, conveyed 
an order to the garrison permitting them to withdraw ; which they 
attempted to do, but on the route they were cut to pieces. Pre- 
vious to this the Raja had made repeated demands of assistance 
from the Bombay government, requesting a few regular troops to 
enable him to destroy the enemy’s fortress ; and as General Aber- 
cromby’s army ascended the Ghats about the time when Jaffer-dbud 
was evacuated, the Raja received them with every mark of kind- 
ness and attention. At the same time, he took an opportunity of 
plundering in the most cruel manner the enemy’s country in their 

On the approach of General Abercromby’s army to Priya-patfana 
the fort contained 500 houses of Brahmans, and the suburb or tana. 

Petta, which is at some distance, containerl 1000 houses, mostly 
inhabited by merchants of the sects that wear the Liuga. Tippoo 
ordered the houses in both fort and suburb to be destroyed, and 
sprung some mines to render th# to his enemy. The 



Sept. JO. 

Present state 
if Priya- 


Br&hmam were dispersed through the country ; but many of their 
beautiful girls became a prey to the lust of the Coorg soldiery,' and 
were carried into captivity. The merchants voluntarily followed a 
prince of their own religion, who has built a large town for their 
reception, and for that of the people whom in his predatory excur- 
sions he had swept from Mysore. During the ten days that General 
Abercromby waited at Priya-pattana, the gunpowder of his array 
was kept in the temple of Jaina. On his retreat it was left behind; 
but TippoOy instead of applying it to the purposes of war, caused the 
whole to be blown up, and thus had an opportunity of destroying 
an idolatrous temple, which was one of his favourite amusements. 
In the interval between the peace granted to Tippoo by Lord Corn- 
wallis, and the advance of the Bombay army under General Stuart, 
a small proportion of the inhabitants had returned to both the fort 
and suburb ; and, in order to overawe the Fir' RdyUy a strong gar- 
rison was kept in the former ; but after the affair at SidclMsxrara 
every thing was again destroyed by Tippoo^ The Vh'' RAya did not 
fail again to plunder the country ; and while he carried away a great 
number of the inhabitants, he got a large booty in sandal- wood. 
The neighbouring country does not now contain more than one 
fourth of the inhabitants that Avould be necessary to cultivate it ; 
and the people have not yet recovered sufficient confidence to 
venture large flocks of cattle on their fine pastures. Such a temp- 
tation, they think, could not be resisted by the people of Coorg ; 
and the territories of a notorious thief, the Cotay hutty Nair (Raja 
of Cotiotk)y are at no great distance. 

The fortifications at Priya-pattana are quite ruinous, the late 
Sultan having blown up the best works. In the inner fort there are 
no inhabitants, and tigers »have taken entire possession of its ruins. 
A horse that strayed in a few nights ago was destroyed ; and even 
at mid-day it is considered as dangerous for a solitary person to 
enter. It was deemed imprudent for me, who was followed by a 
multitude, to enter into any of the temples,, which serve the tigera 



as shelter from the heat ef the day, by which these animals are 
much oppressed. The outer fort contains a lew liouses oi Brah- 
vians, who are forced to shut themselves up at sun-set ; but who 
prefer this restraint to liv ug in the suburb among the vulgar. The 
Petta is recovering faster; but ruins occupy by far the greater 
space ; and the scanty population is only able to form pathways 
through the rank vegetation that occupies the streets. 

The environs of Priya-pattamt, although rich and beautiful, are 
not at this season pleasant to a person living in tents ; for the mois- 
ture of the climate, the softness of the soil, and the rankness of the 
vegetation, render every thing damp and disagreeable. Toward the 
east, the uncultivated grounds are half covered with dry thin buslies, 
especially the Cassia auriculala, and Dodoma xiscosa; but here they 
are thickly clothed with herbage ; and near the villages, where the 
ground is manured by the soil of the inhabitants, and of their cattle, 
the whole is covered with rank weeds, especially the Dcywmw w/o//e, 
Willd..? the Datura meld, the Amaranthus spinosus, the Blirabilis 
jalappa, and the Tagdes crecta ; which last, although originally a 
native of Peru, is now naturalized every where, from Hhnuda-giri 
to llamhxcara. 

The ollicers of government here had the impudence to inform 
me, that, according to Chica Deva lidpa's valuation of the coun- 
try which belonged to Nandi Rdj, it contained 33,000 villages, 
or Grams. Of these the Priya-pattana district ought to contain 
one half; but 2o32 have been utterly deserted, and their sites 
are now covered with Avoods. The remaining ones are valued 
at 14,000 Pagodas 'A y&zx-, but now produce one half only of that 
sum. The country appears to be by nature excellently fitted for 
supporting a numerous population; but the account given here 
seems to be one of those gross exaggerations common in India, and 
is entirely contradicted by the accounts which I received from the 
revenue office at Seringapatam* 

VoL. IL 

CHA Fim 

Sept. 10. 

Environs of 


Oriental ex- 






Sept.ll— 13. 
Alarm of the 
inhabitants at 
my enquiries. 

and watered 

af rice. 

lltb, IStli, and 13 th September. — I remained at Prix/a-pattanu, 
investigating the state ot' i .ic neighbouring country ; in which I 
had great diHiculty from the fears of the people, which were greater 
there, than in any place in which I had then been. The whole of 
what I wrote on the first day I was obliged to destroy, and was 
forced again to go over the same subjects, the first account having 
been evidently incorrect. 

Near Priya-pattana, the wet lands are entirely irrigated from re- 
servoirs; but in the southern parts of the district canals from the 
Lakshmana tirta afford much water to the farmers. There are none 
on the Cavery so far to the westward. Two crops are never taken 
from the same ground in the course of the year, and the only crops 
raised on watered-land are rice and sugar-cane. The rains in ge- 
neral set in early, and are copious ; but they <lo not continue long 
enough to bring a crop of rice to maturity ; for all the kinds that 
are cultivated in the rainy season require six months to grow. Small 
reservoirs, sufficient to contain six or eight weeks water are there- 
fore necessary ; and the common crop, called here the Hainii crop, 
grows in the rainy season. When the rains fail in the early part of 
the year, aCaru crop can be taken, if the reservoirs are good ; but, 
except those of Priya-patiana, few such are in the country. 

In the annexed table will be seen many of the particulars relative 
to the cultivation of rice. 



Tabic explaining’ the cultivation of vice at Pruja-jiaKaMa. 

of Uicc 




C 6 





I'rodure | 

III a 000.1 crop. 


a poor crop. 


V? .=5 


iiuj.Vif ls lot 
ufi Acie. 





^ yr 

? Bushels for 

£.;! an Acre. 

sSi 1 
- 1 




“ A 

*-> M 

» t 

- J 

B’.mIh-Is on 
..n Acic. 

Anaputti - - 

Cainihvti - - 

C<:naicalp - - 


Sana Caiwbuti 
Cam - • - 


















1 , 3160 30' 
1 ,379«0'3 


‘ -1 t 

‘> 1 1 * i 
«> 1 

^ * 1 » w 

1 Decinials. 

1^00137 ,()U),S .33 
.3300131,343 M3 
1 1 



i‘^7 7 





Dcc irnals. 
20 , 0 (> 

IS.iSO ^347 



SciJt.ll— IS. 

I shall now enter into a fuller detail. The only cultivation of 
any that is used here is the transplanted, or A\ui; yet 
the natives allow, that if they used the Mold, or sprouted-seed cul- 
tivation, the quantity of seed rccpiircd would be much smaller, and 
the produce somewhat greater. In their defence, for not adopting 
a manner of cultivation so superior to that now in use, the fanners 
allege, that it requires more labour, and that there is at present a 
dclicicncy of stock. 

By far the greatest quantity of rice cultivated here is tlic Ilainu 
crop of Anaputti : on which accordingly Chica Deva Raya formed 
his Sliist, or valuation. 1 measured what was said to be a Candaca 
land, as rated in tlie accompts of the district, and found it to con- 
tain 3foVo ‘•■cres ; on which my calculations in the foregoing table 
are founded. 

The following is the manner of cultivating the Jlahni Nati, or Hainu crop 
crop of transplanted rice growing in the rainy season. The ground, planted rice 
on Avhich the seedlings are to be raised, gets seven or eight plough- 
ings between the middle of Vaisdkha and the tenth of Jyaishtha, 
which are the second and third months after the vernal equinox. 

In the intervals between the ploughings, the field is inundated ; 





Sept 11— 13. 
Lram used 
fpr manure. 

ef the rice* 

but at each time that operation is performed, the water is let off. 
After the last ploughing, manure with the leaves of the Chandra 
maligy (Mirabilis)^ rr Womuttay (Datura metel) ; but, if these 
cannot be had, with the leaves of the Chaudingy (Solanutn, not yet 
■described, but which nearly resembles the Verbascy'olium). Then 
tread the leaves into the mud, sow the seed very thick, and cover 
it with dung. The seed is in general prepared for sowing, by 
causing it to sprout ; and the reason assigned for so doing is, that 
it is thereby secured from the birds. This precaution is however 
sometimes neglected. If the seed has been prepared, or Mola, the 
field has water during the third, sixth, and ninth days, the water 
being allowed to remain on the field all day, and being again let 
off at night. On the tenth day the field is filled with water an inch 
deep, and is kept so till the eighteenth, when that water is let oft*. 
Immediately afterwards the field is filled to three inches deep, and 
is kept thus inundated until the seedlings be fit for transplantation. 
If the seed be sown dry, it receives water on the first, second, and 
third days. On the fourth it has the manure which is given to the 
Jllbla, when that is sown. It receives water again on the seventh, 
Avhich is let off on the ninth. Water is again given on the thir- 
teenth, seventeenth, and twenty-first; and the field is then inun- 
dated, until the seedlings are fit for transplantation. They must be 
tran.splanted between the thirtieth and forty-sixth days. 

The ploughings for the fields into which the seedlings are to be 
transplanted are performed during tbe time in which these are 
growing; and are done exactly in the same manner as forthefield 
in which the seed has been sown. Stiff ground requires eight 
ploughings ; in a light soil six arc suflicient. The manure is given 
before the last ploughing. The seedlings are pulled in the evening, 
and kept in water all night. Next morning the field has the last 
ploughing, and the mud is smoothed by having a plank drawn over 
it. The seedlings are then planted, and get no water until, the 
eighth day. On the eighth, twelfth, sixteenth, and twentieth days 



the water is kept on the field, and is let oft' at night. The yellow 
colour occasioned by the transplantation is then changed into a 
deep green ; after which, until the crop ripens, the field is con- 
stantly inundated. In a l)ad soil, the weeds are removed on the 
thirtieth day ; in a good soil, on the forty-fifth. 

The Caru crop, or that raised in the dry season, being taken in 
bad years only, which do not often happen, tlie farmers are obliged 
to procui’e seed from places where the Caru rice is regularly cul- 
tivated. They are supplied from Salignima, near the Caveiy ; a 
place which is esteemed holy, as Riima Amija threw into a tank 
there his Saligruma and copper pot. The place is also celebrated 
on account of its fine rice-grounds, which are supplied with water 
from the river. The ploughing season for the ground in which the 
seed is to be sown is the second month after the autumnal equinox. 
The manner of cultivating the Caru crop differs only in the season 
from that which is used for the Haim. 

The farmers here make their sprouted-seed in the following man- 
ner. The seed is soaked all night in water, and is then placed in a 
heap on a piece of sackcloth, or on some leaves of the plantain-tree 
( Musa). There it is mixed with some bulFalo’s dung, and the leaves 
ot the Buriray (or Ocymum inullc Willd. ?), and covered with pack- 
saddles. In the evening it is sprinkled with warm water, and co- 
vered again. In the morning and evening of the second day it is 
sprinkled with cold water, and next <lay it is fit for sowing. 

Although the produce is great, the farmers of Priya-pattana never 
raise sugar-cane unless they receive advances. Jagory sells here at 
1 Rupee, or 3:^ Fanams a Maund, ov at about 9s. 4jd. a hundred- 
weight. The cane is watered from reservoirs ; the natural moisture 
of the climate not being sufficient to raise it, and machinery beitig 
never employed. The kinds cultivated are Rcstalli and Maracabo, 
both of which grow nearly to the same length, which is in general 
about six feet. The Restalii ripens in twelve months ; while eighteen 
are required to bring forward the Maracabo ; so that, as a crop of 



Sept.ll— m. 

Caru crop of 


Manner of 
or sproulcd- 






1 — 13. 

rii’c alwiiyi iiUc'rvtne between two crops of sugnr-canc, the 
rotation of the former occupies two years; wliilc in that of the 
^fai'iiaibo three arc consumed. A little Futtaputli has been lately 

Cu!tiv;i(it!u j'oi- ill,. J\I(tracaho ])lou^li twenty times, cither in As’tt'aja and 
su-ar-cauc*. Kurtikd, thc two luoiitlis immediately followinj^ the autumnal eejui" 
iiox ; or in Kartiha ajul Aldrgtmrslui, which is of course one month 
later. Thc canes arc planted in thc second or third months after 
thc wint<‘r srdsticc. In order to plant the cane, longitudinal and 
transverse furrows are tirawn throughout thc iicld, distant from 
each other one cubit and a half; at every intersection a hole is 
made, nine inches wide, ami of the same depth ; in each hole are 
laid hori/ontally two cuttings of cane, each containing three joints; 
finally under them is put a little dung, and above them an inch of 
mould. Then water each hole with a pot, from a channel running 
at the upper end of the field. On the two following days this must 
be repeated. Until the end of the third month, water every other 
•lay. Troni the third to the sixth month, thc field must, once in 
eight days, he ploughed between the rows of holes ; and at the 
.same time, should there he any want of the usual rain, it must be 
Aratered. At the first ploughing a little dung must he given, and 
at the end of six months the field must he copiously manuretl. At 
this time channels are formed winding through among thc canes; 
so that every row is between two channels. When the rainy season 
is over, these channels must he filled with water, once in eight days 
in hot Aveathcr, and once a month when it is cool. At thc beginning 
of the eighth month the u'hole field is hoed, and at the end of two 
months more this is repeated. Thc cane here is never tied up. A 
Camiaca-land is estimated to contain 7000 holes ; but in this there 
must he some mistake; for allowing Ik cubit for each hole, 7000 
Avould not plant an acre ; whereas the Candaca of land that I mea- 
sured contained SyVoV I he produce of a Candaca of land is 

stated to be about 14,000 Seen, each of 24 Avcight ; which, 



according to my measurement, would be about Iflf hundred-weigbt 
of Jagory per acre : but, if 7000 holes at the distance from each 
other of \~ cubit produced this quantity, it would be at the rate of 
above 93 hundred-weight for the acre, which is much more than 
can be allowed. 

The sugar-mill used here is the same with that which the farmers 
of Chenapatam employ. In the course of twcnty-lbur hours it gives 
as much juice as produces three boilings, each of about a hundred- 
weight of Jagory. 

A farmer, if he has four plbugh-^, and four constant labourers, 
can cultivate a Camlaca-lamI alternately v/ith sugar-cane and with 
rice; but at wcedings, and such other occasions, he must hire ad- 
ditional workmen, lie will, however, cultivate thirty-five Scer.i 
sowing of Ragy. 

The Pyr’aurimha, or dry-crops, at Priya-pattana arc, Ragy with 
its concomitants Avaray, Tovary, Navoay, Harulu, Tadaguny, and 
mustard, Ilurnli, Udii, Cap Kllu, AlaP Ella, wheat, Carlay, and 

The only Ragy cultivated here is called Cara ; which does not 
differ in species, botauically speaking, from thcGyd’ AV/gy culti- 
vated to the eastward ; but the seed of the CryU' Ragy, cultivated 
as the Cara kind is, will not thrive. There arc three kinds of Car' 
Ragy : the Balaga, or straight spiked Ragy, which is always sown 
separately from the others ; the Rily Alodgala, or white Ragp with 
incurved spikes, and the Cari Alodgala, or incurved black Ragy : 
the two latter arc sometimes kept separate, and sometimes sown 
intermixed. The cultivation for all the three is quite the same, and 
the value of the different kinds is equal ; but the produce of the 
Cari Modgala is rJther the greatest. 

A rich black soil is here esteemed the best for Ragy; next to 
that the red soil usually preferred to the eastward ; but it is sown 
also on sandy land, and grows there very well, if it have plenty of 


Scpt.ll — IJ 


Labour per* 
fiirmcil by 
one plough. 

ha, or dry- 

Kinds of Car 
or Cy- 
iwsunm euro- 

Soils fitted 



CHAPTER A few days after reaping the former crop, the field is ploughed, and 
ploughings are repeated once or twice a month, as opportunity 
Sypt.ii— 13. offers, till within fifteen days of the sowing season, which lasts all 
and produce the two months following the vernal equinox. In the course of 
oiCar Ragy, jjjggg fifteen days two ploughings are given; and then the field is 
manured with dung, and ploughed again. After the first shower of 
rain that happens, sow the Ragy seed broad-cast, and plough it in; 
at the same time put in rows of the accompanying seeds, at two cubits 
distance, by dropping them in tlie furrow after a plough. On the 
fifteenth, twenty-second, and twenty-ninth days, draw the hoe 
called Cuntay through the field, in order to destroy superfluous 
plants. On the forty-fifth day remove weeds witli a knife. The 
ilagy is ripe in four months. The fields rated in the public ac- 
compts, as being of a size sullicient to sow a Candaca of Ragy, in 
fact require somewhat more. I measured one, and found it to con- 
tain acres ; and making allowance for the difference between 

the public accompts and the quantity said to be usually sown, we 
may estimate that 7 acres are sown witli one Candaca of Ragy seed. 
One acre will therefore sow pecks; and, thirty-tAvo seeds 
being reckoned a good crop, .will produce in favourable circum- 
stances rather more than bushels, beside what grows in the 

A second In very rich soils, nothing is put in drills along with Ragy ; but 
immeiliately after tliat grain has been cut, a second crop of Carlay 
(Ciccr arietinum) is,. sown, Avhich docs not injure the ground. Some- 
times a second crop of Shamay {Panicum miimre E. M.), or of Huts' 
EUu (Verbesina satka lloxb: MSS.), is taken; but these exhaust 
the soil much. When rain does not come at the proper season, the 
Ragy fields are sown with Iluruli, Carlay, Huts' Ellu, or Cari- 
Shantay. The two leguminous plants do not injure the soil ; but the 
Huts' Ellu and Shamay render the succeeding crop of Ragy very 
poor. Ragy straw is here esteemed the best fodder for cattle; and, 
except in times of scarcity, that of rice is never used. 



The pulse called Iluruli is, next to Ra^y, the most considerable CMAPi’ER 


dry-erop. It is of two kinds, wliite and black; but they are never 
kept separate. It grows best on a light or stony soil, and the largest 
crops are had after a fallow of three years; but when there is a suf- Iu/m bifiu- 
ficient number of farmers, no ground is kept fallow ; the fields of a 
poor soil, not fit fo; Ragy, are cultivated alternately with Iluruli, 
and with Afar' Eilu, or Cari Shamay. The crop of JTuruU that is 
sown on jR«»y-land when the rain fails is very poor. I’or Iluruli 
plough two or three times in the course of ten days, during the 
month immediately preceding the autumnal equinox. Then after 
the first rain sow the seed, and cover it with the plough. It ripens 
in three months. The husks are reckoned good fodder. The quan- 
tity of seed is half as much as that o\' Ragy, or about 1 ,VV an 

acre; and, twenty seeds being reckoned a gooil croj), an acre will 
piaxlucc rather less than 7 bushels. 

Cari Shamay is the next consitlcrablc dry-crop. How lar CanHlmmay. 
this differs from the Sal Shamay, which h ihc Panicum miliarc E. M., 

I had no opportunity of learning, llowevcr, it is probably a mere 
variety. It is commonly sown on the poorer soils alternately with 
Iluruli; but is also occasionally sown on iic/gy- fields, when in the 
early part of the season there has been a failure of rain. In tlie 
last case, the crop Shamay is great; but the succeeding crop of 
Ragy is very bad. The cultivation commences in the month pre- 
ceding the vernal equinox. Plough then three or four times, sow 
broad-cast, and harrow with the rake drawn by oxen. It ripens in 
three months without farther trouble. The straw is here never 

given to cattle. For the .same extent of ground the same quantity 
of Shamay seed is required as oi Ragy. The proilucc in a good 
crop is twenty fold, or ratlier less than fourteen bushels an acre. 

The next, most considerable crops arc the leguminous plants 
called Carlay and Udu, of which about equal quantities are raised, 

G/r/ay alway.s requires a black mould ; and is cultivated partly tVfay.or 
as a second crop after Ragy, and partly on fields that have given num. 
VoL. 11. P 



CHAPTKR no Other crop in the year. In this case, the produce is muchi 
gi'cater, and the manner of cultivation is as follows. In the two 

Scpt.ii— 13 . months preceding the autumnal equinox, the Rag-y having been 
cut, the field is ploughed once a month for fourteen or fifteen 
months. Then in the course of four or five days plough twice. 
After the last ploughing, drop the seed in the furrows at six inches 
distance from each other, and it ripens without farther trouble. 
The seed is sown as thick as that of Ragy, and a Candaca sowing in 
a good crop produces 1400 Seers, which is at the rate of rather less 
than seven bushels an acre 

Doda Udu. There arc here two kinds of the pulse called Udu ; the Doda, or 
great, which is reaped in the dry season; and the Chittu, or little, 
which comes to maturity in the rains. I had no opfwrtunity of 
learning how far the great differs from the little Udu, which is the 
Phaseolus minimos of Dr. Roxburgh’s MSS. It is cultivated on good 
Kagy-ioWs, and is taken as an alternate crop with that grain. After 
cutting the Ragy the field is ploughed once a month, for a year. At 
the last ploughing some people sow the seed broad-cast, and cover 
it with the plough ; others drop it into the furrow after the plough. 
In this last case, the young plants are always too thick; and when 
they are a mouth old, part of them must be destroyed by the hoe 
drawn by oxen. If sown broad-cast, the weeds at the end of a 
month must be removed by the h&nd. The seed required is -Jy of 
that sown of Ragy, or rather less than a peck for the acre. The 
broad-cast sowing gives least trouble, and produces about 3^^ 
bushels an acre. The drilled Udu produces -f-more. It ripens in 
three months. 

Chittu f/aw, 



Jvoxb: MSS. 

The Chittu, or lesser Udu, is cultivated at the same season with 
the Car' Ragy, and requires four months to ripen. Owing to a.more 
luxuriant growth, even when sown broad-cast, it requires the use 
of the hoe drawn by oxen. It is not, however, so productive as the 
great Urfw; lathcr less than three bushels an acre being a good 
crop. The quantity of seed sown is the same. Cattle eat the straw 


10 / 

of Udii, when mixed with tlie husks, and with those of Huruli, CHAPTER 
Carlay, Avaray, and Tovary, and with the spikes of Ragy, after these 
have been cleared of grain. This fodder is reckoned superior to Scpt.ii— is, 
even the straw of Ragy. 

The next most considerable erop is Car’ Eliu, or Sesamim. It is Car Ellu, or 
sown on Ragy-Jields that consist of a red soil, and does not exhaust 
them. The field is ploughed as for Ragy, hut is not allowed manure. 

The seed is mixed wdth sand, sown broad-cast, and harrowed with 
the rake drawn by oxen. It ripens in four mouths without farther 
trouble. The seed is equal to -j-V of the Ragy that would be sown 
on the same field, which is less than half a peck an acre. The pro- 
duce is about twenty seeds, or about 2-\ bushels an acre. The straw 
is burned, and tlic ashes arc used for manure. 

The next most considerable crop is Mar' Ellu, which is the same MaEEUvm 
]dant that in other places is called Hals' Ellu, and which Dr. Rox- 
burgh considers as a species of Verbesina. It is sown on poor soils 
alternately with Huruli, and is cultivated in the same manner. It 
is sown also on /{rt^y-fields, when the crop has failed for want of 
rain. The rich only can have recourse to this, as the next crop of 
Ragy would suffer unless it received an extraordinary quantity of 
manure. On this gi’ound it produces most. On the poor soils it 
produces about twelve fold; but the quantity sown on an acre 
amounts to less than six Seers. 

A very small quantity of the wheat called Juvi Godi (Triticum 
monococcum) is raised here on fields of a very rich soil, from which 
alternate crops of Carlay and of it are taken. The manure is given 
to the Carlay : the wheat requires none. From the winter to the 
summer solstice plough once a month. Then in tlie following month 
plough twice, sow broad-cast, and cover the seed with the plough. 

It ripens in four months without farther trouble. The seed required 
for an acre is about 4 tVo pecks; the produce is ten seeds, or rather 
less than twelve bushels. 





Sept 11— 
Jitagara^ or 

einployed in 

Farmers and 

1 have reason to think that this account of the cultivation of dry 
grains is not materially erroneous. 

The labouring servants of the farmers are here called Jitagara, 
or hired men. They eat once a day in their master’s house : a good 
worker gets also 40 Fanams, or about 1/. 6s. lOd. a year; and an 
indifferent man gets only 30 Fanams, or about 1 /. A woman gets 
yearly 5 Fanams worth of cloth, and 4 Fanams in money, and eats 
twice a day at her master’s expense. Their diet consists of liagi/- 
Jlour boiled into a kind of porridge. The seasoning consists of a few 
leaves bruised with capsicum and salt, and boiled in a little water. 
It is only the rich that use oil or Ghee (boiled butter) in their diet. 
Milk is in such plenty,that the Jitagara may Itave as much Tyre, 
or sour curds, as they please. 

Owing to tlie devastations of tvar, the people near Priya-paitana 
are at present so poor, that they are cutting off the unripe ears of 
corn, and parching them to satisfy the cravings of appetite. Be- 
fore the invasion of the Bombay army under General Abercromby, 
the poorest farmers had two ploughs ; some rich men Imd fifteen ; 
and men who had from eight to ten were reckoned in moderate cir- 
cumstances. A man who hail two ploughs would keep 40 oxen 
young and old, 50 cows, two or three male buffaloes, four females, 
and 100 sheep or goats. A rich man would have 200 cows, and 
other cattle in proportion. One plough can cultivate 10 Colagas of 
rice-land, and 5 Colagas of llagy-6c\d ; altogether a little less than 
four acres. This is too small an allowance ; and the farmers seem 
to under-rate the extent of a plough of land, as much as they ex- 
aggerate their former affluence. They pretend, that the officers 
of government are forcing them to cultivate more than their stock 
could do properly, by which means their crops are rendered poor. 
The officers deny the charge, and say, that since Tippoo's death 
this has not been practised. In Indian governments, however, it is 
a common usage. 



By the ancient custom, Xht'GaudaSy or chiefs of villages, were CHAPTER 
liercflitary, and the heirs still retain the dignity ; but the power is 
lodged with the renters, who offer the highest sum ; and every year, Septii — is. 
in the month preceding midsummer, a new or agree- 
ment, is made. A former cannot be turned out of liis possession so 
long as he pays the fixed rent ; hut if he gives over cultivation, 
the officers of government may transfer his lands to any other 

The rent for dry-field is paid in money, according to an old va- Rcutondry- 
luation made by Chica Deva Raya of Mysore; and most of it pays 
40 Fauams a year for every Candaca, or almost 3 s. Gd. an acre. This 
includes both good and bad soils; care having been taken, in lay- 
ing out the fields, to include in each nearly an equal proportion of 
the four different kinds of soil. In some. high places, where there 
is no good soil, the Caudaca lets at twenty Fanam, or at about 2()d. 
an acre. Some laud that is now cultivated for rice, having been 
dry-field at the time when the valuation Avas made, continues to 
pay the old rent. 

By far the greater part, however, of the wet-land pays by a Rent of wa- 
tlivision of the crop, made as follows; the produce of a Candaca-- 
having been taken, 

Cand^ CoL 

The former gets for his labour - - - 10 

The A/e/y, or priest to the stake of Cassia Fistula - 0 5 

The Saktis, or destructive spirits - - - 0 2 

Tlie Avatchman, TalUari, or Barica, as he is here called - 0 2 
The Hhanaboga of the Hobly, or accomptant of the division 0 1 
The Nirgunty, or conductor of water - - 0 2 

The ironsmith - - - - - -02 

1 14 

Tlie remainder is equally divided between the government and 
farmer, the latter taking the sweepings at the bottom of the heap. 



CHAPTER In every village there are some free-lands that pay bo rent. In 
this district there are fVee-lands to the annual value of seventy-eight 
Pagodas, which formerly belonged to the Panch&ngaa, or village 
astrologers; but since Tippoo's death they have been given to 
Vdidika Brahmans, These formerly had many villages entirely be- 
longing to them, which were reassumed by Tippoo, and have not 
yet been given back. The same is the case with the lands that 
formerly belonged to the temples. The Talliari of each village, 
who is a kind of watchman and beadle, has, as pay, from twenty 
to thirty Fanams worth of land free from rent. Here this officer 
performs the annual sacrifice to the village god ; for most of the 
hereditary Gaudas wear the Linga, and will not put any animal to 
death. The hereditary Gauda and ironsmith had each a portion of 
land, for which they paid only half rent. The full tax was im- 
posed on these lands by Tippoo, and is still continued. Some Gaudas 
manage their villages on account of the government, and pay in 
the proceeds of their collections. These persons receive wages. 
Kitchen Ih this part of the country there are no professed gardeners; but 

garden*. every farmer, for his own use, raises a few greens and vegetables 
in a small spot behind his house. 

Plantations The plantations of palm-trees were formerly extensive, and there 
of palm-trees, jg soil fit for them; but they have been much reduced by 

the disasters of war. They belong chiefly to Br&hmans. Having 
assembled some of the proprietors, they gave me the following ac- 
count. The Areca, or Betel-nut palm, requires an Eray, or black 
mould, oil a substratum of lime-stone ; and of such a nature that 


water may be had at no greater depth than three cubits. This soil 
does not agree with the coco-nut palm ; but rows of these are al- 
ways put round the plantations of Areca, in order to shelter them. 
Areca, or To make a new plantation of Areca, take a piece of proper ground, 

Bettl-nuU , , . . i , , ^ , r, . , • . 

and surround it with a hedge of the Eupnorbium Tirucalh, and some 
TOWS of young coco nut palms. Then, at the distance of twelve 
cubits, dig rows of pits, two cubits deep, and one and a half ia 



d’iameter. These pits are six cubits distant from the nearest in the CHAPTER 
* . . VIII. 

same row. In the second month after the vernal equinox, set in 

these pits young plantain trees (Musa), and give them water once; Sept.ii— 13. 
after which, unless the weather be uncommonly dry, they require 
no more. Two months afterwards hoe the whole garden, and form 
a channel in the middle between every two rows of plantain-trees, 

Tlie channels arc Intended to carry off superfluous water, and arc a 
cubit wide, and two feet deep. In the month immeiliately follow- 
ing the winter solstice, hoe the whole garden a second time. In 
the following month, between every two rows of plantain-trees, 
make two rows of holes at six cubits distance, and one cubit wide 
and deep. Till each hole half up with fine mould; and, in this, 
place two ripe nuts of the Arcca, six inches asunder. Once in two 
days, for tliree months, water each hole with a pot. The shoots 
come up in Vuisdkha; after which they get svater once only in five 
days. The holes must be kept clear of the mud that is brought in 
by the rain ; and for three years must, on this account, be daily 
inspected. In the mouth following the autumnal equinox, give a 
little dung. Ever afterwards, the whole garden must be hoed three 
times a year. After they are three years old, the Arcca palms 
must be watered every other day in hot weather; when it is cool, 
once in every four or five days ; and not at all in the rainy season. 

The waterings are performed by pouring a potful of water to the 
root of each plant. In the beginning of the seventh year the 
weakest plant is removed from each hole ; and at each digging, for 
three years more, every tree must receive manure. After this, for 
three years, the young palms have neither dung nor water. In the 
fourteenth year they begin to bear, and in the fifteenth come to 
perfection, and continue in vigour until their forty-fifth year, when, 
they are cut down. 

When the Areca plantation is fifteen years old, in the month im- Seiel-Uaf, or 
mediately following the vernal equinox a hole is dug near every 
tree, one cubit deep and one and a half in widtli. After having 



CHAPTER exposed the earth to the air for a month, return it into th^holes, 

' and allow it to remain for anotlier mouth. Then take out a little 

Scpuii— 13. Qf jjjg earth, smooth the surface of the pit, and bury in it the ends 
of five cuttings of the Betel-leaf-vine, which arc placed with their 
upper extremities sloping toward the palm. Once every two days, 
for a month, water the cuttings, and shade them with leaves. Then 
remove the leaves, and with the point of a sharp stick loosen the 
earth in the holes. In the first year the waterings must be repeateti 
every other day, and the whole must once a month be hoed ; while 
at the same time dung is given to every plant. In the second year, 
the vines are tied up to the palms; once in two months the garden 
is hoed and manured; and it is in the hot season only that the plants 
are watered. At the end of the second year the vines begin to 
produce saleable leaves. In the third year, and every other year 
afterwards, so much of the vines, next the root, as has no leaves, 
must be buried. Once in six months the garden must be hoed and 
manured ; and in the hot season the vines must be watered every 
other day. 

Manner of The owners of these plantations are annoyed by elephants, mon- 
squirrels ; and, besides; both palms and vine are subject 
tioas. to diseases; one of which, the Jniby, in the course of two or three 
years kills the whole. Except when these causes of destruction 
occur, the vine continues always to flourish ; but, as I have before 
mentioned, the palm begins to decay at forty-five years of age, and 
is then removed, care being taken not to injure the vine. Near this 
is made a fresh hole, in which some persons place two nuts for seed, 
and others plant a young seedling. In order to support the vine, 
during the fifteen years Avhich are rcquiretl to bring forward the 
new palm, a large branch of the Haruam, or Erythrina, is stuck in 
the ground, and watered for two or three days; when it strikes 
root, and supplies the place of an Areca. The plantain trees are 
always kept up. The crOp-season of the Betel-nut lasts Aewq^Of Kar- 
iika, and Mdrgasirsha, 



It is sfiid, lliiit a Candaca of land, rice-mcasure, will plant 1000 CHAPTER 

* VIII. 

jireca U'tcs; but it is evident, that, at six cubits distance, above 

iJOOO trees ou<;ht to be j)laced in the Candaca of SyV'/o acres. Con- j,*.y*J*j~**' 

sidcrable allowances must, however, be made for the hedge, and 

for the ground occupied by the surrounding coco-nut palms. If 

for tlicse M'e take forty feet, the remainder of the Candaca would 

plant 1200 Arecas. Of these, in an old garden, part are useless; as 

the young trees put in to supply the place of decayed ones do not 

bear fruit. Perhaps the 1000 trees may therefore be considereil as 

a just account of the actual number of productive Arccas on a 

Candaca of land. The produce of these, stated by the proprietors, 

amounts to forty ox-loads of wet-nut, yielding thirty Mounds of 

the Iktd as prepared for the market. The quality of the nut is 

equal to that of the IValagram ; and it is bought up chiefly by the 

merchants of Mysore and Scringapatam. As these make no advances, 

it is evident that the proprietors are in easy circumstances. 

On examining the people of the town on this subject, they said, 
that seven good trees, or ten ordinary ones, produce a load of fruit 
containing dOOO nuts. A good tree therefore gives 857, and an or- 
dinary one 600 nuts. Sixty thousand nuts, when prepared for sale, 
make a load of between seven and eight Maunds. One thousand 
ordinary trees at this rate should procure 75 Maunds, or more than 
double of what was stated by the proprietors. I am indeed inclined 
to believe, that their statement was merely accommodated to the 
share whieh the government actually receives on a division, in 
which it must be always defrauded. The 75 Maunds from a Can- 
</«c«-land agrees nearly with the produce that Trimula Ndyaka stated 
at Mad/m-giri, and on his veracity I depend. The towns-people 
also say, that the mode of cultivation, as stated to me ny the pro- 
prietors, is only what ought to be done but that the present culti- 
vators never give themselves so much trouble, and very seldom 
hoe their plantations throughout ; which is indeed confirmed by 
their slovenly condition. Purnea has here a garden containing 
VoL. II. Q 



CHAPTF.U 900 Arecasy whicli, his servants say, produce al)out 5'2 loads of raw 
Vilf- fruit. This would make the produce of 1000 trees rather more than 
Scpt.ii — ij. 4C|- d/l'/tfwf/.v of prepared nut. 

Iteiit of palm Wliilc a iicw plantation is forming:, the owner pays for every hun- 
plaiitauoiw. plantain trees, th roe Famims a year, which will be fdteen Fu~ 

vams, or about ]0.y. for the CV/Wtfc-rt-land. After the garden grows 
up, the government gets M'hat is called one halt of the boiled Betel- 
nut, or about 15 Maimds of that commodity, for the CV/«//r/c«-land. 
This is worth 75 Famtms ; which makes the rent paid to the govern- 

ment about 15-v. an acre, or 2/. lO v. 4^/. for 1000 bearing trees. In 
an old garden nothing is paid for the plantains, or hetd-leaj. Snoli 
a moderate tax will account for the Brahmans being the chief pro- 

Pasture and I have already had occasion to mention the goodness of the pas- 

ciitilc. in this neighbourhootl ; and at this season, at least, it keeps 

the cattle in excellent condition. These are all bred in the house, 
and arc of the small short kind. Formerly they were very nume- 
rous. A good cow gives daily two Fucla Seers of milk, or a little 
less than two ale quarts. A good buffalo gives three times that 

Qimate. The following is the account of the climate which was given me 

by the most intelligent natives of the place. The year is, as usual, 
divided into six seasons: 1. Fasanta Ritu comprehends the two 
months following the vernal equinox. During this the air is in 
general very hot, with clear sun-shine, and strong winds from the 
eastward. No dew. Once in ten or twelve days squalls come 
from the east, accompanied by thunder, and heavy showers of rain 
or hail, and last three or four hours. II. (irishna Ritu contains the 
two months including the summer solstice. The air is very hot, 
and there is no dew. The winds arc westerly; during the first 
month weak, but after the solstice strong. It is said, that formerly, 
during this period, the weather used to be constantly clouded, 
with a regular, uninterniitting, drizzling rain; but for the last half 



century such seasons have occurred only once in four or five years; CHAPTER 

and in the intervening ones, although the cloudy weather continues, 

the constant rain has ceased, and in its place heavy showers have Scpt.ii 13. 

come at intervals of three or four days, and these are preceded by 

some thunder. III. Vanha lliiu includes the two months preceding 

the autumnal equinox. The air is cool. The winds are light, and 

come from the westward. Formerly the rains used to be incessant 

and heavy; but of late they have not been so copious oftener than 

about once in four or five years : still, liowever, they arc almost 

always suflicieut to produce a good crop of grass and dry grains, 

and one crop of rice. Priya-patlana has therefore been justly 

named the Chosen City by the natives of Karmta, who frequently 

suffer from a scarcity of rain. At this season there is very little 

thunder. IV. Sarat llitu contains the two months following the 

autumnal equinox. In this the air is colder, and in general clear; 

but once in three or four days there arc heavy showers from the 

north-east, accompanied by thunder, but not with much wind. In 

the intervals the winds are gentle, and come from the westward. 

Moderate dews now begin. V. HSmanta Ritu includes the two 
months immediately before and after the winter solstice. The air 
is then very cold to the feelings of tJie natives. They have never 
seen snow nor ice, even on the summits of the hills ; but to these 
they very seldom ascend. Bettada-pura I conjecture to be about 
1800 or 2000 feet perpendicular above the level of the country, 
which is probably 4000 feet above the sea. It is a detached peak, 
and is reckoned higher than either SiddMswara, or Saihia Paravata, 
from whence the Ccroery springs. These two are the most conspi- 
cuous mountains of the Coorg country, and are surrounded by lower 
hills. At this season there are heavy dews and fogs ; so that until 
ten o’clock the sun is seldom visible. There is very little wind ; 
but the little that there is comes from the west. This is reckoned 
the most unhealthy season; and during its continuance intermittent 



CHAPTER fevers arc very freciiient. VI. Sayshti Ritu includes the two montlis 
immediately preceding the vernal e(|uinox. Tlie dews decrease 
Si'pt.n— 13 . gradually in the first, and disapr. .ar in the second month. There 
is no rain, and the atmosphere is clear, with remarkably fine moon- 
shine nights. The air is cool and pleasant. The winds are from the 
eastward, and moderate. Except in lUmanta Ritu, fevers are very 
rare. In the Coorg country the air is hot and moist, and by the 
natives of this place is reckoned very unhealthy. 

Weights, The Cucfui Hecr and Muuud of the Sullany standard arc here in 
Bifd cohis'. Candaca of grain contains 140 Scera, and is nearly 

bushels. Accompts are kept in Canter' Raya Pagodas, Fanarns, and 
Dudus. Bombay cash is current; but CoKJtvVi' are not used. The 
Madras and Sultany Rupees exchange for 3;): Fanams, although the 
latter is most valuable by about per cent. The Bombay Rupee 
passes only foi- three Fanams. 

Commerce Priya-pattana enjoys a considerable share of the trade between 
facturra"'* the Mysore dominions, and those of Coorg; but the place is now 
very poor, the Vir' Raya having carried off all the rich merchants. 
For their accommodation he has built a new town called, after his 
own name, Vir Raya Petta; and, as he gives them good encourage- 
ment and protection, they arc not likely to return. There is no 
trade at Modicarcy and Naenudu, the two 'places wliere the Raja 
usually resides. From Mysore are sent the dry grains, cloths, ghee, 
oil, jagory, coco-nuts, tobacco, garlic, capsicum, betel-leaf, iron, 
steel, blankets, and tamarinds. The returns arc rice, salt, and all 
the kinds of goods which are imported at Tellicherry. The sales arc 
chiefly made at a weekly market in dr' Raya Petta. The quantity 
of rice that passes the custom-house of Priya-pattana annuaWy from 
Coorg, is between five and six thousand ox-loads, each containing 
from seven to eight Maunds, or about 182 lb. The only cloth made 
here, is a very small quantity of coarse cotton stuff of a thick fa- 
bric. It is manufactured by a cast of weavers called the Torearu^ 



There is at present no Gyda CaciUi, or forest-renter ; but formerly CIIAPTFJI 
there used to he one, who, liaving made friendship with the wild 
triljcs called Cad' Eniraru, and Ja'nui Curubaru, procured from Sepi 11—13. 
them honey and wax, PopU chica, a dye, Dupada wood, Gdnti 
Bent, a root used in dyeing, Cad' Anina, or wild turmeric, and 
Cadu Balt/ Alt/, or the leaves of the wild plantain tree, whicli arc 
-used by the natives as dishes. I'or timber, or grass, no rent was 

Sandal-wood grows in tlie skirts of tlic forest. Tlic people of Suiulal- 
Coorg were in the iiabit of stealing a great jiart of it ; but since the 'laii^albumT 
country received the Company's protection they have desisted 
from this insolence. It is often planted in gardens and hedges; 
and, from the richness of the soil, grows tlicre to a large size; but 
in such places the timber nas little smell, and is of no value. It is 
a Jhnty, or stony soil only, that ro duces fine sandal. It may be 
felled at any season; and once in twelve years, M’hatever lias grown 
to a proper size is generally cut. On these occasions, this district 
produces about 10,000 Afaituds, or above COOO huiulrcd-wciglit. 

The whole was lately sold to ihc agents of the Rombay government, 
and a relation of Piinica'x was employed to <leliver it. Much to the 
credit of the this person w as jnit in continoment, having 
been detected in selling to private traders some of what lie cut, 
and also in having sold great quantities that were found buried. 

During the Sullan's government a great deal of it arrived at matu- 
rity, which he would not sell In general, this was privately cut, 
and concealed under ground, till an opportunity oflcrcd of smug- 
gling it into the Vir' Rtn/a'x dominions. The Amildars have now 
received orders to cut all the sand;t!-wood in tlicir res[)-jctive dis- 
tricts, and to deliver it to the Bombay agents. They know nothing 
of the conditions of sale. At picsent, no sandal-oil is made at 

The woods are infested by wild elephants, which do much injury Elephants, 
to the crops. They are particularly destructive to the sugar-cane 





1 — l;J. 

Strata anJ 

and palin-gavdous ; for monstrous crcatuics break down the 
Dcld-vui tree to get at its cabbage. The nativ'cs have not the art 
of catcliiug the elephant in Kyddas, or folds, as is done in liengal ; 
but take them in pit-falls, by which a few only can be procured, and 
these arc frecpicntly injured by the fall. 

The strata of rocks in this neighbourhood arc much concealed ; 
but, from what I have seen of them, I am persuadctl that their di- 

rection is different from that of the strata towanl the north-cast. 

They run about west-north-west and east-south-cast, a point or two 

more or less I cannot determine, as my compass was stolen at Ban- 
galore, nor could I repair my loss at Stringapatam. The most com- 
mon rock here is hornblende. In the buildings of the place there 
arc two excellent stones : one is Avbat the Germans call regenerated 

S(?pt. H. 
and the 
neigh buuring 

rrontier of 

granite; the otlier is a granite, \vith gray quartz and reddish fed- 
spar disposed in Hakes, or alternate plates ; but in such an irregular 
manner, that it docs not appear to me that they could be so arranged 
by any deposition from water, however agitated 

I4th September. — In the morning I went three cosses to Hanagodu, 
the chief place of a division, called a Hobli, dependent on Priya- 
pattana. It has a mud fort ; but the suburb is open, and contains 
about fifty houses. The country is naturally very fine; little of it 
is cultivated how’ever, and it is infested with tigers and elephants 
tliat are very destructive. Hanagodu is one coss and a half distant 
from the southern frontier of Priya-pattana, and at a similar dis- 
tance from the present boundary of Coorg. The ViP Raya is said 
to have made a ditch ami hedge along the whole extent of the old 
eastern boundary of his dominions, which runs within three cpsscs 
of Hatuigodu. One half of this distance, next to his hedge, was 
reckoned a common, or neutral territory; but the Raja lately 
claimed it as his own ; and, the Bombay government having inter- 
fered, Tippoo was compelled to acknowledge the justice of the claim. 

The whole country between Hanagodu and the frontier of Coorg 

has for sixty years been waste. 



The Lakshmana river passes within a quarter of a mile to the east- 
ward of and at present contains niueii water. At all 

seasons it has a cousidcrahle stream; and at this place is the upper- 
most of its <hims. Advantage has been taken of a natural ledge of 
rocks which cross the channel, and stones h ive been thrown in to 
fill lip defieieneics. The wdiole now forms a tine dam, over rvhieh 
rushes a cascade about a hundred yards long, and fourteen feet 
high ; which, in a verdant ami tinely wooded country, looks re- 
inarkalily well. This dam sends ofl' its canal to tlic castwaird, and 
waters the ground tliat requires for seed A'i'cr.v of rice. If 

this be sown as fliiek as at Prii/a-pattaiui, the ground irrigated will 
amount to 26‘7S acres. On the ground above the canal, as the de- 
clivity in many places is very gentle, much might be done with the 
machine called ('opilif ; but the use of that valuable instrument is 
here not known. It is probable, that on this river several addi- 
tional dams might be formed. Here it is .said, that of the seven, 
Avliich have been built, three are now out of ri'pair. 

The Gungriairu Ikocu/igas are in this neighbourhood the most 
common race of cultivators, and arc a Sudru tribe of Karm'ita de- 
scent. Some of them Avear the Lingd, others do not. It is from 
these last that I take the follow'ing account.. The two sects neither 
cat together nor intermarry. They act as labourers of the earth, 
and as porters. The head of every family is here called duHila ; and 
an assembly of these settles all small disputes, and punishes trans- 
gressions against the rules of cast. Affairs of moment arc always 
referred to the officers of government. The business of the cast, 
as usual, is punishing the frailty of the women, and the intemper- 
ance of the men. If the adulterer be a Gniigrkara^ or of a higher 
cast, both he and the Imsband are fined by the olliccrs of go\ ern- 
ment, from three to twelve Famnts, or from two to eight shillings, 
according to their circumstances. The husband may avoid this fine 
by turning away his Avife, in which case she becomes a concubine ( f 
the kind called Cutiga; but this is a length to which the husband 



St-pt 11. 

L(i Lull m (inn 
aiul ir- 
ri^iiliou iVoiii 



// ocn/fgnSf 
wild lolldW 
llic Ihuft* 



CHAl’TKR. seldom chooses to proceed ; the dilViculty of procuring another tv ife 
being consiilL-red as a more urgent motive than the desire of re- 
I V. veuge. If, however, tlie adulterer has been of»a low cast, the woman 
is, without fail, divorced, and delivered over to the oflicers of 
government, who sell her to any low man that will purchase her for 
a wife. In this cast there are two kinds of Cutigas : the first are 
such women as have committed adultery and their descendants, 
with whom no person of a pure extraction will intermarry; the 
others are widows, who, having assembled their relations, obtain 
their consent to become lawful Cutigas to some respectable man. 
The children of these are legitimate, although tlie widows them- 
selves are considered as inferior to virgin wives. A man never 
marries a woman who is of the same family in the male line with 
himself. The men arc allowed a plurality of women, and the girls 
continue to be marriageable even after tJie age of puberty. None 
of them can lawfully drink spirituous liquors. Some of them eat 
meat, but others abstain from this indulgence. These two do not 
intermarry, and this division is hereditary. Some of them can keep 
accompts, and even read legends written in the vulgar tongue. 
Some worship fiiva, without wearing the Linga ; and some worship 
Vishnu but this produces no division in cast. They do not 
offer bloody sacrifices to the Saktis ; but pray to the images of 
the Baswa, or bull of Iszcara, of Mtirima, and of th.e Caricul, or vil- 
lage god. They do not believe in the spirits called Virika; but 
indeed that worship does not seem to extend to the south of the 
Cavery. They do not take the vow of Ddsiri. Tliey bury the dead, 
and believe that in a future state good men will sit at the feet of 
God. Even a bad man may obtain this happiness, if at his funeral 
his'son bestow charity on the Ddscris. An unfortunate wicked man, 
who has no son to bestow charity, becomes as mud. By this, I sup- 
pose, they mean that his soul altogether perishes. Their Guru is 
an hereditary chief of the Sri Vaishnavam Brdhmans, and lives 
at Mail-cotay. He gives them Chakrdntikam, holy- water, and 



consecrated vice, and from each person accepts of a Fanam a year, chai’ ’ i;ii 
as Dharma. The Panchanga, or village astrologer, acts as Purtiinta 
at marriages, at the building of a new house, and souietiines at tlic 
annual ceremony performed in commemoration of their deceased 
parents. On these occasions, he reads which the Gun- 

gricara do not understand, and of course value greatly. He is paid 
for his trouble. 

lith September. — 1 set out very early with an intention of going S-pt 15 . 
to Jiegodu Deviiua Cotau, where, as I had been infornieil, I should p,, , uu.m 
have an excellent opportunity of examining the Ibrests that invest 
the western frontiers of the Mysore dominions. I was two hours 
employed in getting’ my baggage ferried over the Lakshnona ; for 
there was only one leather boat, about six feet in diameter. Dur- 
ing this time, I was informed that the forests were six cosses from 
Jiegodu IJevami Cotup; and that the nearest inhabited place to them 
was a miserable village half way from the town, whicli afforded 
no supplies of any kind. I was also informed, that, in the ncigh- 
bourliood of where 1 then was, some peojilc Mere employed in 
cutting timber for the garrison at SerhigapaUnn, and that here I 
might sec exactly the same kind of forest tliat I could at Jiegodu 
Dcvinia Cofap, In consecpience of this information, I went half a 
coss up the right bank of the river, to a ruined village named He- llejuru. 
jurit, where the workmen had taken up their abode in an old temple. 

At this place there are evident remains of a considerable fort, M’hich 
about seventy years ago was destroyed by the Vir' Raya. Twenty 
or thirty houses had been again assembled, when, on General Abcr- 
cromby’s coming up to Priya-pattana, the Vir’ Raya destroyed it 
again, and carried away all the inhabitants. One rich farmer lias 
since returned. Part of the soil in this neighbourhood is tlie black- giaci soil, 
est that I have ever seen, some peat excepted. It is not very stiff, 
and is said to be remarkably productive of wheat and Carlay (Cicer 
arietinum); but at present it is waste. 

You U. B 


CHAPTER I7tli, and 18th September. — I remained at Ilejttru, endea- 

vourin '5 to procure an account of the forests, in which I met with 
Si'pt.16— IS, much less success than might reasonably have been expected. I 
oicbtb. ^veiit into them about three cosses, to a small tank, farther than 
which the natives rarely venture, and to which tliey do not go 
Elephants. M'ithout being much alarmed on account of wild elephants. In 
this forest these animals arc certainly more numerous, than either 
in Chittagong or Pegu. I have never seen any where so many 
traces of them. Tlie natives, when they meet an elephant in the 
day-time, hide themselves in the grass, or behind bushes, and the 
animal does not search after them ; but were he to see them, even 
at a distance, he would run at them, and put them to death. It is 
stragglers only from the herds, that in the day-time fretpient the 
outer parts of the forest. The herds that at night destroy the crops, 
retire with the dawn of day into the recesses of the forest; and 
thither the natives do not venture, as they could uot hide them- 
selves from a number. It is said, that at the above-mentioned tank 
there was formerly a village; but that both it and several others 
on the skirt of the forest have been lately withdrawn, owing to 
an increased number of elephants, and to the smaller means of re- 
sistance which the decrease of population allows. 

S'>il and ap- The soil of these forests is in general very good, and much of it 
tile forests!* black. In places where the water has lodged, and then dried 

up, such as in the print of an elephant’s foot, this black soil assumes 
the appearance of indurated tar. The country is by no means steep, 
and is every where capable of cultivation ; but of this no traces are 
to be seen in any part of the forest. Near Ilejuru the trees are very 
small ; for so soon as any one becomes of a useful size it is cut. As 
the distance and danger increase, the trees gradually are allowed to 
attain a larger growth ; and at the tank they are of considerable 
dimensi<ms. Farther on, they are said to be very stately. The fo- 
rest is free from underwood or creepers; but the tvhole ground is 



covered with loner cirass, often as hiijh as a man's head. This CIlAPTIiR 


makes walkinu; rather disagreeable and dangerous, as one is always 
liable to stumble over rotten trunks, to rouse a tiger, or to tread is. 

on a snake. These l.atter arc said to he found of great dimensions, Larocsir- 
and have been seen as thick as the body of a iniddle-r.issed man. 

The length of this kind is not in proportion to the thickness, and 
does not exceed seven cubits. Although 1 passed a great part of 
these three days in the forest, I saw neither elephant, tiger, nor ser- 
pent, and escaped without any other injury than a fall over a rotten 

These forests are very extensive, and reach to the foot of tlie 
western Ghats; Imt in this space there are many valuable and fer- 
tile tracts, belonging to the Rajas of Coorg and JVynaad. The trees 
on the are said to be the largest; yet in the dominions of 

Mysore there is much good timber. The kinds difter much less 
from those in the Magadi range of hills, than, considering the great 
<lift'erence of moisture and soil, might have been expected ; for the 
rains arc here copious, and the soil is rich; neither of which ad- 
vantages are possessed by the central hills of the Mysore Rajas 
dominions. In the Avoods of Hejaru, hoAvever, there are very few 
of the prickly trees ; Avhcrcas a large proportion of those at Magadi 
are mimosas. The following are the trees Avhich I observed in the 
forest at Hejuru. 

1 . Doda Tayca. Teciona robusta. 

In great plenty. 

2. and 3. Cadaba, Nauclea parv^olia, and Naticlea cordifolia Roxb. 
These two species, although very distinct, are by the woodmen of 
this place included under the same name. Both groAV to a large 
size, and their timber is reckoned equal to that of the Teak, or vnnr<^ 
properly Tayc. 

4. Honnay, or JVhonnay. Pterocarpiis santoUnus, 

Iff found in great plenty, and is a beautiful and useful tree. 

Kxtent and 

tlicsC toi'osls. 



CHAPTER 5. BlrUlay. Pterocarpus. 

This is the same kind of tree with that at Magadi, By the Mussul- 
18 . nmjjs it is called S'mu. 

6. Dulbcrjtia paniculata Roxb. 

Being useless, it has obtained no native name. 

7. Cagali. Mimosa Catechu Roxb. FI. Cor. No. 174. 

Gro^vs in the skirts of tlic forest only, and never reaches to a large size. 

8. Bumd. Mimosa. 

This is very like the Cagali. Its timber is of no use. The tree is 
esteemed holy, as the shaft of Rama's spear is said to have been 
made of its wood, 
t). Bituara. Mimosa odorafissima. 

At Magadi this tree was called Bella Sujalu. It is a large valuable 

10. Mutti. Chuncoa Mat tea Buch. ^ISS. 

Tlic natives here have several appellations which they give to this 
species; such as Cari, or black ; Bily, or white; and Tor, by which 
name I knew it at Afagadi. 

11. Alalay. Myroballanus ArulaBwzh.M,^^. 

Grows to a very large size; but the fruit, or tnyrobalans, are the 
only valuable part ; and, owing to the remote situation of the place, 
these are not collected. 

12. Hulivay. Chuncoa Huliva Buch. MSS. 

There is only one kind of this tree, although it has a great variety 
of names given to it by the natives. It is a large tree, and its tim-' 
her is good 

1 .'3. Ta)'i. Afyroballanus Taria Bucli. MSS. 

Very large. 

1 4. Nai Buyla. Mimosa Icucophka Roxb. 

1,5. and 16. Afurueulu. Chirongia Roxb. MSS. and Chirongia 
glabra Buch. MSS. 

These two trees, although they are lofty, do not grow to a greats 



thickness. The woodmen talk of Hen and Ghindu Muruculus, or CIIAI’TF.H 

female and male ; but they do it without precision, and do not 

apply one term to tlie one species, and another to the other. Sept. lO’— 18 , 

17. Gumshia. Gurnsia chioroxylonhwch. MSS. 

It does not grow to a large size ; but the timber is said to be very 
strong, and has a singular green colour. Ropes are made of its 

18. D/mluiia. Ai/deno/iia Panchmoun Roxb. MSS. 


Grows to a verv lartrc size. Its timber is valuable. 

ly. iih'‘i^uikhz tShn^udu Cimuvi Buch. MSS. 

A large tree. Its timber, being very rarely found sound at heart, 
is not nnieli esteemed, 
tlO. G/ieru. Aiiacurdium 

21. Nelli. Phyliinthm Emblica. 

It i") the fruit only of these two trees that is of any' use. 

22 . Goja. Cltilia stipuUiris f 

A large tree, of which tlic timber is reckoned good. 

Sc/inbcra aldots Willd. 

lias here no name. It is, in fact, an Ekodendrum. 

g-k Tupru. Diospyrus Buch. MSS. 

Here it is always a large tree, and its timber is esteemed good. 

25. Jtigala^unti. Diospyrun. 

Tlie same prejudice prevails here, a.s at Magadi, against this tree. 

26’. Cull. 

A large tree producing good timber. 

27. Cad' Ipay, Bassia. 

The leaves are ditferent in size and shape from those of the BaasHi 
longifolia, which is planted near villages. The art of extracting a 
.spirituous liquor from the flowers is here unknown. 

28. Nimilu, Calyptranthes Jamhnlana Willd. 

29 . Gaula, Pelou Hort. Mai. 

The fruit i.s said to be as large as that of the Arlocarpus integr'ifoliay 
and to be a favourite food with the elephant. 



CHAFl’Ell 30. Budigayray. 

The fruit is said to poison fish. 

S«pt.i6— 18 . 31. ^OBulady. Vitex cdatn Rucli. MSS, 

A large timber tree. 

32. Jala. S/iorea Jala Buch. MSS. 

A large timber tree. No lac is made here 

33. Nirany. 

An useless tree. 

34-. Gurivi. Ixora arborea Roxb. MSS. 

Used for torches. 

35. IVudi Schrebera Sweitenioides Roxb. 

A large tree. 

36. Chadrunshi. Bauhinia. 

A small tree of no value. 

37. Bamboos. 

Large, but not solid- 

38. Chaningy. Lagerstromia parciflora Roxb. 

39 . Goda. 

The Amutty of Magadi. I..arge and in plenty. IIt;re its timber is 
reckoned to be bad. 

Ctftf Curu~ 

40. Shilla. 

A large excellent timber-tree, of which I could get no specimen. 
It is quite different from the Shalay of Magadi. 

The Cad’ Curnbaru are a rude tribe of Karndta, who are exceed- 
iugly poor and wretched. In the fields near villages they build 
miserable low huts, have a few rags only for covering, and the hair 
of both sexes stands out matted like a mop, and swarms with ver- 
min. Their persons and features are weak and unseemly, and their 
complexion is very dark. Some of them hire themselves as labour- 
ing servants to the farmers, and, like those of other casts, receive 
monthly wages. Others, in crop season, watch tlic fields at nighty 
to keep off the elephants and wild hogs. These receive monthly 
one Famtrn and ten Seers^ or peck of Ragy^ In the interyaU 



between crops, they work as day labourers, or go into tlie woods, CHAi’TER 
and collect the roots of wild Yams ( Diojcorcas) ; part of Avhich they 
eat, and part exchange with the farmers for grain. Their manner Scpt.iG— is. 
of driving away the elephant is by running against him with a burn- 
ing torch made of Bamboos. The animal sometimes turns, and waits 
till the Curubaru comes close up; but these poor pcoj)le, taught by 
experience, push boldly on, and dash their torches against the ele- 
phant’s head, who never fails to take immediate flight. Sliould theii 
courage fail, and should they attempt to run away, the elephant 
would immediately pursue, and put them to death. The Curubaru 
liave no means of killing so large an animal, and, on meeting with 
one in the day-time, areas much alarmed as any other of the inha- 
bitants. During the Sultan's reign they caught a few in pit-falls. 

The wild hogs are driven out of the fields by slings ; but they are 
too fierce and strong for the Curubaru to kill. These poor pco[)lc 
frequently suffer from tigers, against M'hieh their wretched huts 
are a poor defence; and, when this wild beast is urged by hunger, 
lie is regardless of their burning torches. , These Curubaru have 
<logs, with which they catch deer, antelopes, and hares ; and they 
have the art of taking in snares peacocks, and other esculent birds. 

They have no hereditary chiefs, but assemble occa.sionally to settle 
the business of their cast. They confine their marriages to their 
own tvibc. The Gauda, or chief man of the village, presides at this 
ceremony, which consists of a feast. During this the bridegroom 
espouses his mistress, by tying a string of beads round her neck. 

The men are allowed to take several wives ; and both girls after 
the age of puberty, and widows, are permitted to marry. In case 
of adultery, the husband flogs his wife .severely, and, if he be able, 
beats her paramour. If he be not able, he applies to the Gauduy 
who does it for him. The adulteress has then her choice of follow* 
ing either of the men as her husband. They can eat every thing 
except beef ; and have no objection to the animal liaving died a 
natural death. They will eat victuals dressed by any of the farmer.?. 



CHAPTER but would not touch any of my provisions. They do not drink spt- 
rituous liquors. None of them take the vow of Dds6ri, nor attempt to>~i8. read. Some of them burn, and others bury the dead. They believe 
that good men, after death, will become benevolent and bad men 
destructive Dtoas. A good man, according to them, is he who labours 
properly at his business, and who is kind to his family. The whole are 
of such known honesty, that on all occasions they are entrusted with 
provisions by the farmers ; who are persuaded, that the Curubaru would 
rather starve, than takeone grainof whatwas given tothemin charge. 
They have no Guru, nor does the Panchanga, or any other kind of 
priest, attend any of their ceremonies. The spirits of the dead arc 
believed to appear in dreams to their old people, and to direct them 
to make offerings of fruits to a female deity named Bettada Chi^ 
cama; that is, the little mother of the hill. Unless these offerings 
arc made, this goddess occasions sickness ; but she is never sup- 
posed to do her votaries any good. She is not, however, appeased 
by bloody sacrifices. There is a temple dedicated to her near 
Nunjinagodu ; but there is no occasion for the offering being nuule 
at that place. 

Beita, or There is also in this neighbourhood another rude tribe of Curu- 

^r£ru called Bella, or Malaya, both words signifying mountain ; the 

one in the Karnata, and the other in the Tamul language. Their 
dialect is a mixture of these two languages, wn'th a few words that 
arc considered as peculiar, probably from their having become 
obsolete among their more refined neighbours. They arc not so 
wretched nor ill looking as theCarf Curubaru, but are of diminutive 
stature. They live in popr huts near the villages, and the chief em- 
ployment of the men is the cutting of timber, and making of baskets. 
With a sharp stick they also dig up spots of ground in the skirts of 
the forest, add sow them with Ragy. A family in this manner will 
sow nine Seers of that grain. The men watch at night the fields of 
the farmers; but are not so dexterous at this as the Cad' Curubaru 
arc. They neither take game, nor collect wild Yanas. The women 



hire themselves to labour for the farmers. The Bella Curubaru CHAPTER 
have an hereditary chief called Ijyatnana, who lives at Priya-pat- 
iana. With the assistance of a council of three or four persons, he is, 

settles disputes, and punishes all transgressions against the rules of 
cast. He can levy small fines, and can expel from the cast any 
woman that cohabits with a strange man. In this tribe, the concu- 
bines, or Cutigas, are women that prefer another man to their hus- 
band, or widows who do not wish to relinquish carnal en joyment. Their 
children arc not considered as illegitimate. If a man takes away 
another person’s wife, to keep her as a Culiga, he must pay one or 
two Fanams as a fine to the Ijyatnana. Girls arc not considered as 
marriageable until after the age of puberty, a custom that by the 
higher orders is considered as a beastly depravity. The men may 
take several wives, but never marry a woman of the same family 
with themselves in the male line. The Bella Curubaru never in- 
toxicate themselves ; but are permitted to cat every kind of animal 
food except beef, and they have no objection to carrion. Tliey 
never take the vow of Ddsbri, and none of them can read. Some of 

them burn, and others bury the dead. They understand nothing of 
a future state. The god of the cast is Ejuruppa, who seems to be 
the Same with Hanumanta, the servant of Rama; but they never 
pray to this last mentioned deity, although they sometimes address 
Siva. To the god of their cast they offer fruit, and a little money: 
they never sacrifice to the Saktis. Their Gwri/, they say, is of the 
cast JFotirneru, and from their description would appear to be of 
those people called Saldnanas. He gives them holy water, and con- 
secrated victuals, and receives their charity. At tlieir marriages, 
he reads somewhat in a language ndiich they do not understand. 

\gt\\ September . — I went four cosses to Hegodu Devatia Cotay ; Sept i<>. 
that is, the Fortress of the mighty Deva. The two first cosses of the 
way led through a forest, as thick as that which is to the south-west n> to»i.r<u 
of HyurUf and is covered with longer grass. The road was a very I'Mii Cutay. 
narrow path. The trees are small, and stunted, probably from the 
Vo I, II. S 





Scj)t. 1<). 

History of 
Higmlu Di~ 
va/ia Colay, 

poorness of the soil, M'hich is in general very light. The elephants 
are said to be very numerous here also, hut I did not see any. The 
foriiici sites of several village , could readily be disct)vcred. Farther 
on, the whole country has evidently been once under cultivation ; 
but the greater part has been long waste, and is now covered with 
trees. Here a sudden change takes place. In the rich land to the 
westward, there are very few prickly trees or bushes ; but here, and 
all towards the cast, the most common are Ahumas aiul Rhamm. 
On the way I j'assed two villages which had some cultivation round 
them. The crops were mostly of the leguminous kind, and 
seemed to be very thriving. 

The tradition concerning Ilegoilu Dhana Cotay is as follows. 
About four hundred years ago Hcgodii Diva, a brother of the Rd- 
yalu oi' yliiagundi, having had a dispute with, the king, came and 
settled here, the whole country being then one forest. He first 
built a fort at a place called Ifegodu-piira, about half a coss west 
from hence. One day, as he was coursing, the hare turned on his 
dogs, and pursued them to this spot, which the prince therefore 
knew to be male ground, and a proper place for the foundation of 
a city. At this place he accordingly took up his residence, and 
fortified it with seven ditches, lie brought inhabitants to cultivate 
the country which now forms this district, and was at the head of 
all the neighbouring Fo/ygnrs. His son, S'wguppa Jl’odcar, was con- 
<|uered by Bella Cliavia RdjaJVodcar, of AJysoi'e ; and the present 
fort was built about 130 years ago by Chica Diva, one of that rebel- 
lions subject’s descendants. He made a Cundma, or valuation of the 
country ; but 1 do not find that any person is possessed of a copy 
of the whole. The Shanaboga oi’ accomptant of each village has a 
copy of its valuation, which, from want of a check, is very liable to 
be corrupted. The dominions of Uegodu Diva extended from the 
city four cosses to the cast, six cosses to the south, four cosses to 
tlie west, and tlirec cosses to the north. Formerly the M’hole country 
Mas cultivated ; but now three cosses toward the west, and two 



cosses toward the south are entirely desolate ; and in the other CHAPTER 
two directions much land is waste. Near the place, indeed, 1 can 
110 where sec much cultivation. These devastations have been chiefly Sept. 19. 
committed durinjy the troubles with the Coorg Rajas, especially 
those which happened in Tippoo's reign. The town itself first suf- 
fered considerably in the Maraitah invasion during govern- 

ment. Previous to that, it contained a thousand houses ; but they 
are now reduced to eighty. 

The wretched inhabitants of this country have also had frequent State of /Jy- 
trouble from the Byyiadu Raja, who is besides possessed of a country ^ 

called Cotay-huttay in MalayAlam. This last territory is below the 
Ghats, and is a part of what we call Malabar; which derives its name 
from its hilly nature. Bymdu signifies the open country ; and, al- 
though situated on the summits of the Ghats, and in many places 
over-run with forests, yet it is inlinitely more accessible than the 
other territories of this chief. Ceerulu Venna, the present Raja, is a 
younger branch of the family ; but retains his country in absolute 
sovereignty, denying the authority of the Company, of the head 
of his family, and of all other persons. In the reign of Tippoo, this 
active chief assembled some of his Nairs, and regained possession 
of the territories which the former reigning prince had, on Hyder's 
invasion, deserted. The Raja, who had so basely submitted to the 
Mussulman conqueror, succeeded afterwirds to the territory of a 
relation, and now enjoys his share of the allowance which is made 
to the R^as of Malabar by the Company, to whose authority he 
quietly submits. The Bymdu Raja has at present sent the Conga 
Nair, one of his oflicers, into the dominions, to cut sandal- 

wood, and to plunder the villages. In this vicinity there are now 
a hundred cavalry, and one hundred and fifty regular infantry, be- 
sides Candashara, belonging to the Mysore Raja : hut these dare not 
face the Conga Nair, nor venture to repress his insolence. His 
master lays claim to all the country west from Nunjinagodu. Had I 
deferred visiting the forests till I came here, I should have been 




Sl’pt. 19 * 




completely disappointed ; although the best information that I could 
procure at Scringapatam pointed tl: s out as the place most proper 
for the purpose. 

JJegodu Devana Cotay is one of the most considerable <listricts 
for the produce of santlal-wood ; and I found there a Portuguese 
agent of the Commercial Resident at Mangalore^ who was employed 
to collect a purchase of this article that had been made by the 
government of Bombay from the Dcu'an of Mysore. Two thousand 
Candies, each weighing .520 Ib. were to have been delivered at a 
stipulated period ; but this has not been fulfdled. Orders, indeed, 
have long ago been issued to the Jmildars for accomplishing it; 
but a prompt execution of any such commands is hy no means usual 
in an Indian government. The apeount which this agent gave is as 
follows : the Amildars, having no legal profit for this extraordinary 
trouble, endeavour to s«pioczo something out of the workmen. 
They charge the wages given to tliese poor people at ^ of a Fanain 
a day, which is the usual rate of the country ; and, in place of this, 
give them only half a Seer of Ragy. The labourers, being thus 
forced to work at a low allowance, throw in his way every ol>stacle 
in their power. It is the lowest and most ignorant of the peasantry, 
in place of tradesmen, that have been selected. A sufiicient number 
having been seized, they are ordered each to bring a billet of san- 
dal to the Cutchcry, ortoflice of the Amildar. Every man imme- 
diately seizes on the tree nearest him ; cuts it down, Mdiether it be 
ripe or not; neglects the part nearest the root, as being more trou- 
blesome to get at, and drags the tree to the appointed place, after 
having taken oft' the bark to render it lighter. Before the office 
the logs lie exposed to sun, wind, and rain, until other peasants, 
as ignorant as the former, can be pressed to cut off tlic white wood 
with their miserable hatchets. These cut the billets of all lengths, 
according as every man thinks it will be most convenient for him 
to clean them : by this means, being less fit for stowage, tiicy are 
not so saleable. The whole is then hurried away to the place where 


the agent is to receive his purchase ; and when it < nines there, the ClttPTl'H. 
Amitihr is astonished to <ind, that one. liait* of wliat he had e:deu- ' 
latcd upon is rejccteil, as being sinal!, I'onl, or rent. The people Se^>t. ly. 
are very docile; and the agent, so far as he lias been alile, has had 
the trees brought to Ifnn, just as they were out, and frec,l from 
their branches and liark; and he lias superintciuicd the cutting 
them into billets of a convenient size, and t!ie cleai ’i g them pro- 
perly from white w’ood. Owing to a want o!' lime, lie has l)cen 
obliged to liave them dried in tbc sun ; and 1 observe, that, in eon- 
scqucnce of this a great many of the hiih'is are vent in ail direc- 
tions. lie suspects tliat the Ami/dar.s thro.v <lelays in his way, in 
order to force him to weigh the sandal wliile it ii green. He thinks 
that, in order to instruct the villagers in the manner of elcaning 
tlie wood, it would he of advantage to send a earpeuter, with pro- 
per tools, to each district. 

The agent says, that the sandal-wood oi' Prii/u-pa/ /a/m iu)(\ Mi/Zui- 
lloya/ia-Du/'ga, although smaller, is of a much better (pudity than 
that of Ncrs'para, which is inferior to that even of the districts south 
from P/'ipn-paitmui. None, or at least a very inconsiderable (pian- 
tity, grows in Coo/’g, and lip/mdii ; hut in 'llppoo'.s reigm tlic 'Jilli- 
cheny market was chielly supplied by the lldjas of these two 
countries, to whom it was smuggled by the inhalntants of J/j/.viJre; 
for the most violent orders had been issueil prohibiting the sale. 

The people of Coo/'g understand the preparation of the sandal- wood 
much better than those of My-so/'c. The proper manner, according 
to the agent, is as follows: the trees ought to be felled in the wane 
of the moon ; the bark sliould ho taken oft' immediately, and the 
trees cut into billets two feet long. These should be then huried 
in a piece of dry ground for two months, ilnring wdiich time the 
white ants will eat up all the outer wood, witliont tonehiiig the 
heart, which is the s.andal. The billets ouglit tlieu to be t.ikeii up 
and smoothed, and according to their size sorted into kinds. 

Tlie deeper the colour, the higher is the perfume ; and hence the 


CIIAPT!' R merchants sometimes divide sandal into red, yellow, and white ; but 
these arc all difftn'cnt shades of the same colour, and do not arise 
Sept. 19. from any dift’erence in the species of the tree. The nearer the root, 
in general, the higher is the i)erfume ; and care should betaken, by 
removing the earth, to cut as low as possible. The billet nearest 
the root, when this has been done, is commonly called root-jiandal, 
and is of a superior rjuality. In smoothing the billets, chips of the 
sandal arc of course cutoff, as are also fragments in squaring tlicir 
ends. These chips and fragments, with the smallest assortment of 
billets, answer best for the Arabian market; and from them the 
essential oil is distilled. The largest billets are sent to China; and 
the middle-sized billets arc used in India. The sandal, when thus 
prepared and sorted, for at least three or four months before it is 
sold, ought to be shut up from the sun and wind in close ware- 
houses; hut the longer it is kept, with such precautions, the better; 
its weight diminishing more than its smell. Prepared in this way, 
it randy either splits or warps, both of M’hich accidents render it 
unfit for many of the purposes to wdiich it is applied. If it be not 
buried in the ground, the entire trees ought to be brought into a 
slied at the warehouse, and there cut into proper billets, cleared of 
white wood, smoothed, and immediately shut up till thoroughly 
dry. The I'ir' Jit/jas [teo\ilc, although they cure the sandal properly, 
have no notion of sorting it. The Raja is the principal dealer iu 
this article, ami insists on the merchants taking it good and bad, as 
it comes to hand, at the same price. He, no doubt, thus gets quit 
of the whole refuse ; but, 1 believe, most merchants of experience 
M'ould prefer selling their wares properly sorted. 

The ofiicers of government say, that the sandal tree seldom or 
never grows in the lofty forests. It dcliglits in the skirts of the 
open country, where small intervals are left between the fields, or 
on the banks of mountain torrents. It prefers a light stony soil, 
and such only as grows there is of any value. In the soil which 
tliis tree requires there is, however, something peculiar; as it rises 



up in one place copiously, ami not at all in aiiutlicr ncin'libouring riFAPTLIl 
spot, althoug-h there be no apparent (llflcrence in tlic silual ion or 
soil. It springs partly from .see<l, scattererl by tlu! birds that i at St-ia. ij). 
its berries; and partly from the roots of the trees, that have for- 
merly been cut; and rc(}uircs about twenty years to conic to .'ir- 
fection. No pains, that I could <liscovcr, arc taken to preserve tiic 
young plants from cattle; so that they alsvay’^s rise in a very strag- 
gling manner. If formely any systematic management was observed, 
it has of late been entirely neglected. To jirevcnt any jicrson iVom 
cutting sandal without permission from governnu-nt, jaws have long 
existed; hut never were enforced v. ith by 'ii'fn/o. 

Tiiey are excessively severe, and prevent tlu: pcasauiry iVo c. ever 
stealing the tree. It is only lli'tjas, and men above the law, that 
venture on this kind of theft. 'I’he present |)!a:i adopted by the 
JXixiUin .seems to me to he the worst that could have lieen chosen. 

The woods arc as mucli destroyed as if tliey h:ul been s:)l(l to a 
renter; and, I am assured, will produce no more for at least twelve 
years; while no pains have been taken to make the most of what 
has been cut. To the conduct of this minister, liowcver, no hiauic 
is, on this account, to he attached. lie had sold the wood U) the 
Company; and the miseomluet of the oflieer, whom he had en- 
trusted to cut it down, remlered it necessary for him to adopt the 
means by which he would he most likely enabled to fultil his engage- 
ments, without attending to any otlier circumstance of less impor- 

Two means occur to me, as likely to ensure a consirlcrahlc and 
regular income from sandal-wood. One means would l)c, to grant 
long leases to an individual, who wonhl of course take every care 
of the trees, and employ every means pro|)er to render wliat was 
cut fit for the market. The reut would be fixed at so much a year; 
and restrictive clauses, to prevent the renter from ruining the woods 
toward the end of his lease, would be necessary. The diJlieulty in 
exacting the performance of these restrictive clauses would make 




Srj)U ly. 

Sepi. 520, 

Wnnt uf VC- 

me prefer the other plan ; which would be, to put the sandal-wood 
under tlie inana'^eineiit of an agent, on a footing similar to the salt- 
agents of Bengal. He would preserve the trees, Avhen young, by 
destroying all the other plants that might choak them, and by 
watching against thefts, or the encroachments of fanners. He would 
yearly cut the trees that were ripe, and no others. He would take 
care that tlie billets were properly prepared and cured; and he 
Avould oring the whole to public sale at proper times and places. 
His pay ought to be a commission on the neat proceeds. For some 
years, it is probable, the (juantity procured would not overstock the 
market; but with care the quantity raised would, no doubt, so 
lower the price, as to diminish the profit veiy much. In that event, 
tjie sandal of the least profitable districts might be entirely de- 
stroyed; and in the most convenient and profitable situation, a 
sulheient (piantity would be raised. As it is a mere article of luxury, 
or rather of ostentation, there can be no doubt of the propriety of 
making it entirely subservient to the purpose of raising a revenue; 
and the whole sandal of India is now in the hands of the Honour- 
able Company, and of the Raja of Mtfsorc ; between whom the 
necessary arrangements might be readily eompleted. 

20th Seplemhcr . — I went three cosses to llumpa-pnra. The country 
has formerly been almost entirely eultivatcfl ; but at present about 
tliice fourths of it arc waste. The sandal-wood is very common 
here, growing in intervals between the corn fiehls, and by the sides 
of torrents. The Varputtif, or revenue ollicer, of Humpa-pura had 
the ini|)udence to tell me, that although the flirmers were rather 
poor, owing to the depredations of the camp followers during the 
late war, yet there was abundance of stock ; and that every field ca- 
pable of it vas actually cultivated. The same oiliccr said, that cattle 
w ere nevci jjcrniitted to go near the young sandal-wood trees. Now 
the man must liave known, that from the tent in which we were 
sitting, I had ocular demonstration of both afilirmations being false; 
and what could induce him to make them I could not discover. 



Among the natives, however, similar departures from the truth are CilAPTRit. 
common. 'I'l- 

Purnea has lately repaired a canal which comes from the dam at Sept. so.’ 
JIamgodUt and which in the rainy season conveys th(i superfluous 
water into a reservoir, where it is preserved for cultivating a con- 
siderable portion of rice-land in the dry weather. By similar means 
much water, tljat is now lost from the CVircey, might be pre- 

We have now again got into a dry soil, with short lierbage in- Soil, 
termixed with bushes of tlie Cassia aurkulata : hut the lields have 
a verdure unknown to the eastward, and Car' liagy is the common 


All tlie high grounds that I have seen south from the Carery, as Fenew. 
well as those in many places north from that river, liavc evidently 
been once fenced with quickset hedges. Some of these at this 
place are very line; and the natives, being sensible of the advan- 
tcage of shelter in preserving a moisture in their lields, have allowed 
the Tirticalli to grow twenty feet high. M'lien from its height it has 
become too open at the roots, they plant in the openings the Euphor- 
bium antiquorum, which grows well under the shade of the other; 
and both united make a good and a very beautiful fence. The 
hedges of the country in general, even where they are kept up as 
fences, are in a very slovenly condition, and arc ruined by being 
overgrown with the Convolvulus, and' other rank climhing plants. 

Humpa-pura is a miserable open village. little east from it is Monument 
erected a stone, containing some small figures in bas-relief, which 
are much defaced. Concerning this the tradition is as follows : 

Canterua, Ruya of Mysore, having inva<lcd Coorg with a large army, 
was entirely defeate<l, and pursued this length by the Vir' Ruya, 

In the flight there perished three hiuidred and si.xty of the Mysore 
nobles, each of whom had the privilege of using a palancjuin. The 
conqueror having bestowed great Dharma, that is to say, having 
tlirown away much money on jeligious mendicants, erected this 
Vot. II. T 





Sept. 20. 

Sept. 21. 

Strata a: 



The ffoddess 

Iron mines. 



Iktta^ and 
iu mines. 

stone as a monument of his victory, anti to mark the new boundary 
of his dominions. It was but for a short time, liowever, that he_re- 
tained these acquisitions. 

Yesterday afternoon I was very unwell; and another day’s stay 
in the woods would probably have given me a serious indisposition. 

Slst September. — I remained at Humpa-pura, to obtain an account 
of the iron mines in that neighbourhood. 

Tlie strata at Ilumpa-pura are vertical, and run nearly north and 
south. Many of them consist of [)ot-stouc of a bad ijuallty. These 
are of various breadtiis. 

South from Ilumpa-pura is a cluster of high hills, named Chica 
Deva Betta, or the hill of the little spirit. It is sacred to Chicama^ 
the deity of tlie Cad' Curubaru, lately mentioned. Over the ele- 
phant she has peculiar authority ; and, before a hunt of that animal 
is undertaken, she is propitiated by a sacrifice. 

On the north side of Chica Deva Betta are three low hills, which 
produce iron ore. Mota Betta is situated about three miles E. S. E. 
from Humpa-pura^ immediately below the junction of the river 
Nuga with the Kaphii, and to the right of both. Culia Betta is the 
most considerable mine, and is situated between the two rivers, 
being distant from Mota Betta one coss and a half. West from 
thence about half a coss, is Hitena Betta, which is on the left of 
the Kapini. I could only examine Mota Betta, without occasioning 
a delay of several days in my journey ; wliich I did not think ad- 
viseable, as I M'as told that the ore in all the three places is nearly 
the same ; and this is confirmed by the hills lying nearly in the 
direction of the strata at Mota Betta. 

Mota Betta is a hill of no considerable height, about a mile in 
length, and extending from north to south. It is wrought at the 
south end only ; but uo trial has been made to ascertain how far the 
mine extends. The strata that are in view run from about north- 
west to south-east, or rather more toward the east and west ; but I 
judge merely from the sun. They point directly toward the higlt 


peak called Bettada-pura ; while those on the opposite side of the Chapter 
Kapini run nearly north and south. The strata dip toward the north 
at an angle of about 30 degrees. They consist of schistose plates ; Sept. 21 . 
and, owing to their being penetrated by fissures at right angles to 
the strata, they break with a smooth surface into angular fragments. 

The internal structure of the plates is foliated, and these leaves 
being of different appearances, and sometimes straight, sometimes 
undulated, would seem to show that they have been deposited front 
water at different times. The strata arc from one to three feet in 
thickness, and consist of granular quartz more or less impregnated 
with iron ore, which is of the same nature with the common iron- 
sand of the country. In most of the strata the quartz predominates; 
and by the natives tlicse arc considered as useless. In otlicrs, al- 
though having nearly the same external appearance, the iron is 
more abundant, ami these are the ore. From these last, ochres of 
various colours exude, by Avhich they are readily distinguished 
from the barren strata. In the rainy season, the workmen content 
themselves with collecting the fragments of ore wdiich the water 
brings down from the hill. These are like the black sand, but 
larger and more angular. From the earth with which they are 
mixed they arc separated by being washed in long woorlcn troughs, 
made of hollow trees. In the dry season, the workmen are forced 
to have recourse to the strata; but never penetrate deeper than 
the surface. Before they begin to work upon any spot, they cover 
it with a coat of earth for a year; which seems to accelerate the 
decay, and to render the ore brittle. After it has been dug up 
with pick-axes, the ore is broken into small pieces, and tlie iron is 
separated from the stony matter by washing. 

The smelting is said to be carried on in a manner similar to that Expense and 
used in other parts of the country. The iron, as it comes from the 
smelting-furnace, is sold to the farmers ; and the common forges 
of the blacksmiths are sufficient to work it up into the implements 
of agriculture. The rent paid to government is in iron, and this 



CHAPTF-Il must be formed into wedges at a forge. Hydcr made an allowance 
for the expense of doing tliis, which amounts to a Funam on the 
Sept. 21. Maund ; but his son stopped this allowance, wliich has not been 
restored. The rent paid for each furnace is 30 Aliiuiids of .50 Sdr.% 
or about 300 pieces, or 910 lb. of Avaought iron. For every ten 
pieces the owners pay, to the people who forge it, one Famnn, or 
in all 30 Fanams, worth 40 pieces of crude iron. The whole rent 
then is 340 pieces, or 255 Fanams. This and all other atlvauces are 
made by the Pyragara, or superintendant, who pays all the work- 
men by wages. If we allow the furnace to trork 320 days in the 
year, he pays as follows ; 

To rent - - - - - 

To ten makers of cliarcoal, at - Famm daily 

To four miners, at ditto 

To lour W'ushers of the ore, at ditto 

To tw'o principal hellows-inen, at ?- Fn*mm daily 

To two inferior ditto, at I- Fanam daily 


Total Fauunis r/4Sy 


These melt four times a day, and at each time get three 
Fanams worth of iron, in all _ - > 3340 

Deduct expenses .... 1743',- 

The profit will be - - . _ 21()1-J- 

From this, liowevcr, must be deducted the expense of bellows 
and other implements, with sacrilices, presents to mendicants, and 
other similar ch.irges. Each melting is cut into four bars; and from 
eight to tw'clve, or on an average ten, of these make a Maund of 
forged iron. Its prime cost is therefore 7 v with 1 Fanam 

lo the workinen who forge it; in. all. S'- Fanams for a 31aimd of 50 
Sultany Scers^ or about 216'. a huiulrcd-w t ight. 

Rvftuufu lu pyii^ between the Nuga and Kapini rivers, is a stratum of 




a similar disposition to those of the mine. It consists of very 
shining; black foliated hornblende, or perhaps basaltine, dotted Avith 
white felspar. 

The pillars of a temple of Bhairawa Bharv.^ at the same place, 
are of very fine gneiss, like some of the best at MaiUcotay. The 
priest could not inform me from whence they had -been brought. 

Bkairtma Dharu is'the god of the Curubas, and is a malevolent 
male spirit. His temple is built exactly like, the smaller temples 
of the gods of the Brahmans, and without spires, or high ornaments. 
Its roof, like those: of the temples of Isymra (also a destructive 
spirit), is ornamented with images of the bulk Tlie Pujdri, or 
priest, is a Hal Curubaru, who can neither read nor write. 

The Kapini river, at Uumpa-pura, is about sixty yards wide, and 
at all seasons contains running water. Its channel is sandy, and 
considerably below the level of the country; which circumstances 
liave prevented the natives from making dams. It takes its rise 
from a hill named 7irt/wm4, in the Bynadu. At this season the 
river is no where fordable, I crossed it on Bamboo floats, which 



ScjiL 21, 


Dharu, th* 
deity of tbe 

Kapini river. 


witli ease transport horses and palanquins, and which are a much 
better conveyance than the baskets, covered with leather, that are 
the usual ferry-boats in all parts of the peninsula. 

The aV//" a river is smaller and more rapid and rocky than the j%ariv«i; 
Kapini. It also rises in the Bynadu. Formerly there were two dams 
on it ; but the fields which they watered have for twenty years 
been deserted* By the disturbances in the country the number of 
the people had then been so much ditrrinished, that they were no 
longer able to resist the encroachments, of the elephants. This year 
the Amildar of Hegodu DSvana Cofay, has. sept a party of armed men 
to protect the place, and some farmers have returned to their for- . 
mer abodes. The country, watered by these rivers coming from the 
western is naturally by far the finest ixi JHysore, and would 

equal in beauty any. in the world, were it dege^tly cultivated ;.but 
rpin and misery eveiy . where ytare tbe traveller in tbe face. . 





Sept. 21. 
ami want of 

Sept 32. 
of the couu- 

Quarry of 
Sila, or Pra- 
iimd Cullu^ 

I have no where met with the people so ignorant, and such gross 
liars, as in this vicinity. E.Kcept the accomptant, a Br&hman, I did 
not converse with one man who did not prevaricate ; and very few 
of them would give an answer to the most simple question; Avhile 
most of them pretended ignorance on all occasions and subjects. 
The accomptant’s answers were rational, tind never contradictory ; 
and it was owing to him that 1 was able to procure any account of 
the iron manufacture. During my stay at Humpa-pura I could pro- 
cure none that was in the least satisfactory ; but, ashamed of his 
countrymen, he persuaded two of the workmen to follow me to the 
next stage, and to give me the account that I have inserted. 

September, — In the morning I went three cosses io Maru^ 
HuUy. The road leads parallel to the valley Avhich the Kapini waters, 
and runs along its north side at a considerable height above the 
river, and also at some distance from its banks. The valley is natu- 
rally beautiful. So far as I could judge from looking down upon it, 
the whole has been once cultivated, and inclosed with quick-set 
hedges ; and it contains an abundance of trees, though few of them 
are large. The hills that bound it on the north and south arc co- 
vered with bushes, so as to give them an uniform vertlure; and, 
for the matter of prospect, look as well as if clothed with the most 
lofty forests. Near the road there Avas very little cultivation ; and 
some of the soil is too poor to be fit for the plough ; but I am told, 
that in the bottom of the valley there is a good deal of cultivation ; 
for the small remainder of the inhabitants choose, of course, to 
employ their labour on the best soil. 

Ily the way I turned out of the road ; and in order to examine a 
quarry of the stone called Sita, or Pratimd Cullu, I went in among 
the hills on my left to a small village, named ArsinaCaray, The 
firat name in ihe Sayiskrit language means stone ; the latter appella- 
tion means image-stone, as it 'is used for making idols. The quarry 
is in a hollow, which is surrounded by low hills that are sacred to 
Ckkama. Many stones have formerly been dug, and have left a 



considerable cavity ; but, as the quarry has not lately been wrought, CHAPTER 
inuch rubbish has fallen in, and entirely hides the disposition of 
the strata. The whole of the strata that I observed between Maru- Sept. 2*. 
Hally and Humpa-pitra, on both sides of the quarry, run nearly 
north and south, and are much inclined to the ])lane of the horizon. 

These strata consist of a bad kind of the Fraihnd Cullu, which 
crumbles into irregular masses, and is disposed alternately with those 
of schistose mica, intermixed with parallel layers of pot-stone. All 
these strata arc in a state of decay. I have little doubt, but that the 
quarry itself is disposed in a stratum parallel to the others ; but 
thicker, more compact, and less decayed. Lying round the quarry 
were many half-formed images. The largest that I saw was about 
eight feet long, three broad, and one and a half thick ; but by dig- 
ging deeper, larger masses might probably be procured. It is an 
indurated pot-stone, or rather a pot-s^tone intimately united with 
hornblende, and is capable of a fine polish. It approaches very near 
to the liomblende.of Hyder's monument, but is softer. 

Arsina Caray, or the prince’s, reservoir, is a small village sur- Arm^aray, 

. . 1.1 III '•** 

rounded by hills, which are covered by low trees and ousnes. nurebywbich 
From time immemorial it has belonged to the Sucar of the Khdlsa; h 
that is, to the master of the mint. The farmers supply, at a regu- 
lated price, whatever charcoal he may want ; and if there be any 
balance of rent due,' they pay it in money. They are subject to the 
jurisdiction of the Amildar of Mahdsura Naggara, and hence this 
tenure of the mint-masters is not called a Jaghire. 

JHaru-Huily, commonly corrupted into signifies the 

second village ; for when the dominions of the reigning family of Puma, 
were confined to their original fee (Polyam), this was, next to My- 
sore, the most considerable place in their possession., It is, however, 
entirely exempted from the jurisdiction of the Amildar, having been 
granted by llyder as a Jaghire to Purnea, who still holds it. by the 
same tenure, and manages it by an officer called a ParpuUy, It is 
an open villagei containing thirty, houaee. of fariqers, and ten of 



Chapter labourers, with a few shop-keepers and artificers. They are very 
poor, having been completely plundered by the Lumbadies, a kind 
9epi. 22. of traders in grain, that followed General Harris. 

Car» Ragy. The chief cultivation here is Car' R:ig]/, although the people al- 
lege that the rains do not begin earlier here than at Seringapatam ; 
but ill this, I imagine, they must be mistaken. 

Siiva-bac- Most of the cultivators in the Afj/sore district wear the Lingd. 
MMryatf*'’ these the S'iv' Achdrpa IVoruligas ]»retend to a much higher dig-i 
nity than the others; and say, that only they and the Pancham 
Bamjigas cun be admitted to Uu; order of priesthood. They area 
tribe of pure KarmUa descent. They act as ollicers of governmentj 
as messengers, traders, farmers, and larmers servants. Disputes 
being settled by the or chief of the village, and their 

taking cognizance of all transgressions against the rules of cast; 
they have no hen^ditary chiefs. The chief Guru, S'xamalu, or 
throne (Singhasana), appoints an inferior Guru to a certain number 
of families. This person is a married Jangmna, and attends at births 
and marriages, and takes cognizance of all transgressions. For less 
important ceremonies, such as bestowing the Linga and Upadesa, 
any Jangania sullices. On all these occasions the Janguma reads 
Mantrams in the vulgar language. At their marriages, and wheii 
Dbana. he receives their Dluiiia, which is charity given in order to procure 
an absolution from sin, the Panc/iduga, or village astrologer, reads 
Mautrafns in Sanskrit, The Jangamas cannot read the Mantrams 
which are necessary for this purpose. The Brt/hmam, indeed, pre- 
tend that they are the only persons who have the power of taking 
away the siiis of men ; and they say, that, however willing, they 
cannot do it gratuitously ; for the quantity of sin removed is exactly 
in proportion to the Dhana, or sum of money given. The perform- 
ance of this ceremony is therefore one of the most essential duties^ 
of a Pnroliita. The Jangama Gurus attend the Siv' Ac/iuryas at the 
annual ceremony performed in honour of their deceased parents ;• 
and, besides getting provisions at their visits, an<l certain dues for 


performing all ceremonies, they get annually a Fattam or two from 
every person who is under their authority. None cf this tribe ac- 
knowledge the lirtilu/KO/s :iii their Gurus; and all of them wear the ®*pt*2^* 
Lirga, and consider Siva as the proper deit y of their cast. They 
offer fruits and flowers to the Saktis, but never ap|>case tlieir wrath 
by bloody sacrifices. Tlicy suppose, that after dc:jth had men arc 
punished in a hell called Nuraca ; and that good men go to the feet 
of Isxcara on mount Coilasa, and there become like gods. They call 
a man good, who prays constantly, who confers on religious mendi- 
cants great Dharrm, or alms, who gives much Dhana, and who 
makes tanks or reservoirs, inns, and gardens. This tribe bury the 
dead, and abstain entirely from animal food, and all intoxicating 
.substances. Tlie men practise polygamy. A man and woman of. 
the same family in the male line cannot intermarry. In ortler 
therefore, to prevent incest, they always marry in certain families 
that are known to be distinct from their own. Tlie girls are mar- 
riagefeble both l)cfore and after the age of puberty. A widow can- 
not marry, but she may become a concubine of the kind called Ck- 
tiga ; her children, however, in this case are considered as belong- 
ing to a bastard race, although they .are still much better than out- 
casts. An adulteress is not always divorced ; the Guru commonly 
makes up the dispute ; and the cuckold, having paid a fine, takes 
his wife quietly back again. Sometimes, however, the man will 
continue obstinate ; in Avhich case tlie adulterer pays the fine to 
the Gum, and keeps the woman that he has seduced as a Cutiga. 

A woman that cohabits with a person of any other tribe, ca'cii with 
a Brdhvian or Jangama, inevitably becomes an outcast. 

Near Maru-Hully also there is a quarry of Sila, or image-stone. Quarry of 
The mass of rock is larger than that of Arsina-Caray, and has lately 
been wrought for the buildings that are now erecting at Mysore. 
Although it has been laid bare to a considerable extent, nothing 
stratified can be observed. The stone seemsto be of a middle na- 
ture between that of Hyder*i monument and the Sila of Arsina-Cart^f 
VoL. II. U 



CHAPTER and to contain less hornblende than the former, but more tlian the 
latter. Large blocks may be procured, and pcrliaps of the whole it 
bept. C3. is the finest stone. 

Alarm of the 2Jd September . — In tlic morning I set out for Nuvjinagodu, distant 

adread o'f^™ 5 ^ intended, by the way, to visit a place from 

Conies. whence pot-stovie is dug. After having gone half way, I discovered 
that the guide had deserted me ; and, in order to procure another, 
I was forced to go back again to Mani-Hully. I found the quarry 
not a mile from that place; and was informed, that the stone-cutter 
who works it lives there, although I had in vain solicited the oHicer 
of government to procure me a workman of that kind to break 
some specimens of the image-stone. It must be observed, that I 
find more difficulty in acquiring a knowledge of the quarries anti 
forests, than of any other subject of my inquiries. On the revenue 
of the country the natives are more communicative than I desire; 
and even in their accounts of the produce of their fields, the culti- 
vators of the land adhere more to the truth than all ranks do, in 
answering queries relative to quarries and forests. It is evidently 
suspected, that my object in asking such questions is to find out 
materials for public works; and the natives arc terrified at the 
tliought of being again harassed with the CorvSes to which in the 
reign of the Sultan they were cruelly subjected. 

Quarry of The pot-stone oi’ Maj'u-Hultp is used for making pots, dishes, and 
pot-sione. It differs from the image-stone only in containing more 

earth of magnesia ; for it has hornblende as one of its component 
parts. It is readily scratched by the nail; but retains an excessive 
toughness; so that before it will break into fragments under the 

hammer, it is reduced to powder. Like those of the kMidred stones 
that have been already described, its masses are irregularly angular. 
The surrounding strata are vertical, and run north and south. 

The road, by which I travelled to-day, leads partly through among 
the small hills that bound the vale of the Kapini on the north, and 
partly through the valley itself. Among the hills, almost all the 

Face of the 



fields of a good soil are cultivated ; but many of the poorer ones CflArXER 
are waste: some of the laud that would appear never to have been 
cultivated seems to have a tolerable soil ; hut by far the greater Sept, ea. 
part can never be made to produce any thing, except a wretched 
pasture. In the valley, much good land is waste, much very poor 
land is interspersed, and the cultivation is extremely slovenly. The 
river winds much, and its course here is rapid. On its north side 
are several large a ruinous condition. Near one of them 
is a village, which, from the comparative goodness -of its houses, 
may be at once known to he chielly inhabited by limhmans. 

At some distance from this I crossed the Kophti by a bridge, Ciidge. 
which is here looked upon as a prodigy of grandeur; in Europe it 
would be considered as a disgrace to the architect of the meanest 
town. The arches are about five feet span; the piers arc of nearly 
an equal thickness, and do not present an angle to the stream. 

The sides of the arches have scarcely any curvature, hut arc com- 
posed of two planes meeting at an acute angle. The parapet is 
rude, and the whole is composed of an irregular mi.vture of brick 
and stone. The pavement consists of rough and irregular Hags, 
which form a very bad road. The bridge is, however, both long 
and wide, and is a great convenience for foot passengers, or mer- 
chants conveying their goods on oxen. 

25th September. — Yesterday I Iwd a febrile paroxysm, and at night Sept. 25 . 
found myself unwell. In order therefore to take medicine, I re- 
mained here another day. 

iVtwyVwagot/M signifies swallowing poison ; for it is a place sacred Nmjina^ 
to Iswara, who, on account of one of Ins exploits, is frequently temple and 
called by this name. Originally there was a small temple ten cubits 
square, and of the greatest antiquity. About six or seven hundred 
years ago, the country was entirely covered with forests. The Raja 
then in power brought iuliabitants, and enlarged the temple to 200 
cubits square. From that time frequent donations were made to 
the Brihmant; some RAjtu giving them in charity a thousand 



'Pagodas worth of land, and others giving lands to twice that annual 
value. Dha Jtdya, the Datawai of Mysore, built the bridge ; and 


his brother, who succeeded liim, r ad who was displaced by Hyder, 
was the greatest benefactor to this place of worship. This prince, 
named Carasur Nandi Raya, adopted the mark of Siva, although his 
predecessors had been followers of the Sri Vaishnavam Brdhmam. 
He made Nunjinagodu his favourite place of abode, and enlarged 

the temple to Its present size, which is a square of 400 cubits. In 
the time of this prince the Brdhmans of Nunjinagodu occupied 300 
houses; and they possessed lands which gave an annual reve- 
nue of 14,000 Pagodas, or about 4700 /. The houses of the Sudras 
amounted to 700. Tlietown was fortihed by Nandi Raya, who dis- 
persed the Sudras into the neighbouring villages, and permitted 
none to remain near the holy place, but the Br&hmans, and the ser- 
vants who belonged to the temple. Tippoo Sultan gradually deprived 
the Brahmans of the whole of their lauds, and gave them a monthly 
pension of 100 Pagodas. On the re-establishment of the Raja's 
government, they were put on the same footing with the Brah- 
mans of Mail-cotay ; and they receive the income of a whole 
district, which has last year produced 4000 Pagodas, or about 
1343 /. This district is managed by an Amildar, who is account- 
able to government for his conduct. In the reign of Tippoo, 
the temple suffered much ; but at the expense of Bucltarow, the 
Naib Dewan, it is now undergoing a repair. The fort is ruinous. 
The town at present contains 120 houses of Brdhmans, and 200 of 
Sudras. It is situated in the fork formed by the junction of the 
Ktntndm Kaundini with the Kapini or Kapila river. The Kaundim has its 
source from under the feet of an image of Vishnu, on a hill named 
Himada Gopala, in the district of Gundal, of the Rdja's domi- 

The temples on the north side of the river Kapini are of very 
great antiquity. They are ruinous, but the images are still attended' 
by Br&hmans. 



26 th September. — Having yesterday had a severe paroxysm, and CHAFFER 
being desirous of getting near assistance should my disorder have 
increased, I altered my intention of proceeding to Sattcagala by 
Coulanda, Arcotar, Hardkm-hully^ Homo, 2i\\AEllanduru, and returned ncssoi A>rin- 
to Mysore, which is four cosses distant from Nunjinagodu. At My- 
sore I met with some friends, who informed me that Seringapatam 
was then dreadfully unhealthy ; and Mysore being in a fine dry 
situation, I determined to remain there till my fever could be 

The country tlirough which I passed has formerly been mostly Face of the 
cultivated; but at present a very large proportion of the fields is 
waste. Were it in a good condition, it would be very beautiful. 

Several of the tanks are out of repair: near are two remark- 

ably fine. 

Except at Mysore and Seringapatam, I have in every part of the Difficulty in 
country experienced a difficulty in procuring forage. I have reason 
to think th;it this proceeds from the universal and long continued 
usage, of every person who belongs to the government taking 
without payment whatever forage he wants. At Seringapatam, and 
even here, the women of our Madras servants have been of great 
use. The officers of government are afraid to meddle with them, 
and they are very diligent, and bring in large supplies of grass. 

27th, 28 th, and 29th September. — Wliile confined here, I sent for Sept.c?— 29. 
the stone-cutters; who, with the utmost obstinacy, would give me 
no information whatever on the subject of the quarries. In the 
buildings here, the three most common stones are, a gray granite 
with large spots of black mica; a reddish granite; and a fine 
grained yellowish gneiss, like that of Mail-cotay. They are all pro- 
bably from the hill that overlooks the town, and many of the blocks 
are of large dimensions. While I was at Seringapatam I had seen 
specimens of theni all. 

30th September . — Having escaped two periods without any return Sept. 30. 
of the fever, I went two Sultany cosses to Waracadu, The country ofthecou^ 



CHAPTER has formerly been nearly all cultivated, and more than a half is now 
occupied. The fields arc mostly inclosed, and are all high ground, 
Sept. 30. or such as is fit for palm-gardens. There are some small tanks, the 
M'ater of which is applied to the cultivation of sugar-cane and helel- 
leaf. T\\eGauda, or chief of the village, says, that there is a number 
of people sufficient to cultivate all the fields; but the want ot 
stock prevents them from undertaking so much. They suflcred 
greatly from the depredations of the Lumbadics, or traders in grain, 
that last year followed the besieging army ; and also from the epi- 
demic distemper which, after the fall of Serbigapatmn, raged among 
the cattle. During the invasion of Lord Cornwallis most of the 
palm-gardens were destroyed. 

Waracadu. IVaracadii is a Hohlif, or <li vision of Mah&sura Ashta-gr&m district. 

It derives its name from ITarfi, wishes, and 6W«, to grant ; from a 
temple in it, dedicated to ll'arada Raya, or Vishnu, the granter ot 
wishes. This temple was built about 120 years ago by Dern 
Raya. This person was a natural son of Krishna Raya, the Curtur of 
Mysore, and held the office oi Dalauai, or prime minister, between 
forty and fifty years. This village was his favourite retreat ; and, 
besides the temple, he built a line tank from which the inhabitants 
are supplied with drink. The village is not fortified, and is said to 
contain 150 houses ; but I think that estimation grossly exaggerates 
tlicir number. 

Oct. I. Isf October. — I went two cosses to Taiuru. Part of the road 

otThe^coun- Passes among low hills covered with bushes, and abounding with 
♦ry. antelopes. The soil of these hills is in general poor, and full ot small 

stones ; but they are not occupied by naked rocks, like those on the 
north side of the Cavery. In some places the soil seems to be to- 
lerable ; and sufficient marks remain to show, that some of it, which 
is now overgrown with bushes, has formerly been cultivated. 
Among the hills are some level grounds that are now cultivated; 
and in the most extensive of these is a fortified village in a very 
ruinous condition. Towards the Kapini the soil becomes better. 


and is in a state nearly similar to that of the country through which 
I passed yesterday. Near the river is a canal, which comes from a 
dam on the Caverij at Madayem-hdly^ three cosscs below Seringa- 
pafam; falls into the Kapini at Usocotta, a coss above Taiuru ; and 
forms the space between it and the two rivers into rice fields, which 
are mostly under cultivation. The Kapini is here a fine broad river, 
and its basket ferry-boats occasioned a considerable delay in trans- 
porting my baggage. The cattle were obliged to swim. 

Taiuru is a well-built mud fort, situated on the right bank of the 
Kapini, about two cosses from its junction with the Cavery. It con- 
tains 141 houses, with 11 in a suburb. Its Sanskrit name \%Materu- 
pura, or mother-town ; and its vulgar name, in the language of 
Karnaia, has the same meaning. No tradition remains concerning 
its foundation, nor the princes who ruled it before the family of 
Mysore. It is the residence of an Amiidar, Avhose district is sepa- 
rated from the Mahdsura Ashta-grdm by the Kapini river. It has 
no commerce ; nor any manufactures, except the coarse cloth which 
the fVhalliaru weave. In the two last wars, it met with no disturb- 
ance, nor did the inhabitants suffer from famine during the invasion 
of Lord Cornwallis. Last year more than usual of their cattle died 
of the distemper ; but once in four or five years it generally pre- 
vails, more or less. 

In some villages of this district, the Gaudas, or chiefs of villages, 
are hereditary ; in others, the renter is called by that name. The 
hereditary Gaudas seem to be preferred both by the farmers, and 
by the officers of government. Being personally acquainted with 
all the inhabitants, their orders are more cheerfully obeyed ; and 
having been long resident in the place, they have better credit to 
enable them occasionally to borrow money for making up their 
rent at the fixed terms of payment. The rent of the dry-field is 
paid by three Kisis, or instalments, which all become due before 
the ihijfy harvest. In case of failure in the pay^uent of these instal- 
ments, the crops are seized, and sold by the l^arputty^ or accomptant 



Oct. 1. 

among the 

Manner of 
collecting the 





Oct. 1. 

Cnni, or 

of Uie division. This ofiiccr sells also the government’s share of 
the crops that are divided; and these sales arc made at three dif- 
ferent periods; as, by selling the whole at once, the market would 
he overstocked. 

In this country there is a class of men calletl Cam, or Shaycana, 
who are generally ll'haUiaru, and always of some low cast, and who 
subsist by acting as sorcerers and diviners. Some of them derive 
their knowledge from the stars, and are considered as men of learn- 
ing, but not as inspired by the deity; others rattle an iron instru- 
ment, and sing to invoke the gods, until their voice almost fails. 
They then appear as if drunk, and are considered as inspired. Con- 
cerning the causes and events of the diseases of men and beasts, both 
kinds arc consulted. The causes which they assign are, the wrath 
of difl'erent gods ; anil at the same time they tell, whether or not 
the god will be pacified, and allow the object of his wrath to reco- 
ver, and also how this may be obtained. In this part of the country 
the spirits of bad men are called Ninkas, and are believed frequently 
to torment the living. The diviners are supposed to be able, not 
only to tell what Vivika is afflicting a family, but also to expel the 
evil spirit. When a Virika seizes on the persons of his own family, 
he is driven out with great difficulty, and requires a sacrifice, and 
many prayers ; hut a strange Virika is not so troublesome; a diviner 
will take a Funam and a half, and immediately dismiss him. Except 
the Brahmans, Mussulmans, and those who pretend to the rank of 
Kshatri, every calst labours under this superstition. 

The Toreas arc a kind of the cast called Besta that in the southern 
parts of Mysore are very numerous, and are an original tribe of 
Karnata. They neither eat nor intermarry with the Bestas called 
Cabba, nor with those descended from families that originally spoke 
the Tdinga and Tamul languages. They cultivate the fields, and 
gardens of Betel-leaf, Areca, and kitchen herbs ; and act as ferry- 
men, armed messengers, palanquin-bearers, burners of lime, fishert 
men, and porters. They are a low kind of SUdras^ and have no 



liereditary chiefs; but government appoints a renter, who collects CHAPTER 
four or five old men of the tribe, and by their advice settles all 
disputes; and by fines, laid on with their consent, punishes all Oa. i. 
transgressions against the rules of cast. The renter must always be a 
Torta, and he agrees to pay annually a certain sum. If the members 
of the cast behave themselves properly, he must pay this sain out 
of his own pocket ; but this is seldom the case : the Toreas are apt 
to be irregular; and the fines which he levies, after paying the 
rent, leave in general a considerable profit, although they cannot 
he considered as heavy. They are as follow : for lighting, half a 
Fanam, or 4d.; for scolding, half a Fanarn; for coniiuitting adultery 
with another man's wife, two Fanams'unCi atpiartcr; and for having 
a M'ife that cliooses to commit adultery, one Fanam and a half. If 
the husband prefer giving up his wife to her seducer, he avoids the 
fine, Avhich is then paid by the guilty man: but, as the Women are 
bought by tlieir husbands, the men are very unwilling to part with 
them, especially if they be good workers. The men buy as many 
wives as they can; for the women are very industrious, and assist 
even to support their husbands. A virgin costs thirty Fananis, and 
a widow from ten to fifteen. IJoth of these sums are given to the 
women’s parents or relations. A Torea who has connection with a 
woman of higher rank is flogged, but not fined. If a man of higher 
rank corrupts the wife of a Torea, and the husband should choose to 
part with her, he may pay a shilling to the renter and keep her. 

The widows, or adulteresses, that live u'ith a second man arc called 
Cutigas ; but their children arc perfectly legitimate. The Toreas 
are permitted to eat animal foo<l, but ought not to drink spirituous 
liquors. None of them can read. Tlicy bury the dead, and believe 
in a future state of reward and punishment ; l)ut they assign no 
place for heaven or hell, nor do they pretend to know how the 
spirits of good men are employed. The spirits of bad men continue 
to do evil. Some of the Toreas take the vow of Dasiri. The deity 
peculiar to the cast is Marima, a goddess that inflicts the small-pox 
VoL. II. X 



CHAPTER on those who offend her. The Pujaris in her temples are Toreast 
and the office is hereditary ; but this order of priests are not above 

Oct, 1. intermarrying with the laity. Some of the Toreas worship Vishnu 
also, and have for their Gurus the hereditary chiefs of the Sri Vaish- 
navam lir/ihmans. Others again worship Siva, and, although they 
do not wear the Liuga, consider the Jangamas as the persons to 
M'hom they ought to givcDkurma; but, by giving to the 

Smartal Brahmans, the rich procure absolution ; the poor must of 
course trust to the mercy of God. At marriages, and at the build- 
ing of a new house, the Panchdnga, or village astrologer, reads. 

Hegonigant, There is a tribe of oil-makers, who in their mill use only one ox, 

nadas. and who are called Ileganigaru. They call themselves To/ypAawar/ajr; 

and, as they are not followers of t\\c. Brahmans, do not acknowledge 
themselves to be Sudras. They will neither eat nor intermarry with 
the oil-makers wlio use two oxen. They eat with the other tribes 
that wear the L'lnga, but do not intermarry with any of them. They 
arc a tribe oi' Karnutu extraction ; ami, besides tlieir proper busi- 
ness of making oil, they cultivate the fields and gardens, and deal 
in grain and cloth. They have hereditary, chiefs called Chittigaras, 
who with the advice of a council of ten settle all disputes, and pu- 
nish transgressions against the rules of cast. They are not allowed 
to cat animal food, nor to <lriuk spirituous liquors. The men take 
several wives. The women, even after tne age of puberty, continue 
to be man iageablc ; but widows are not permitted to marry, nor 
are any concubines of the kiml called Cutigas allowed. Whenever, 
therefore, a woman commits adultery, she entirely loses cast. The 
Johfphanada are divided into four or five families, and a man cannot 
mairy a woman of his own family. These oil-makers can keep 
accomjjis, but they never read books. They bury the dead, and 
believe in a future .state. Heaven is at the feet of Imara; but it is 
not known how the spirits of good men will there employ them- 
selves; nor can these people give any description of NuracOf the 



residence of the spirits of wicked men. They do not believe in CIIAJTKU 
Virikas, nor do they consult the diviners abovementioned. They 
all wear ihcLinga^ and of course is the principal object of their ’• 

worehip ; yet none of them occasionally pray to Vishmu The men 
are ashamed openly to worship Marivui; but in sickness, their 
women and children privately carry offerings of money and fruit 
to the priest of that idol. Their Gum is CumDaswa-Uppa, the Ni- 
damavtidy Swamalu, who sends his disciples to receive their contri- 
butions, to eat their victuals, and to give them holy water. These 
priests also attempt to take Dhana, and thereby excite the indig- 
nation of the Brdkmuns, who consider themselves as the only persons 
suflieiently in favour with God to be able to procure an absolution 
from sill. The oil-makers seem to be sometimes of the same way of 
thinking, and give Dhana to the village astrologer, or to some Vai- 
dika Br/ihman ; and in proportion to the sum which they bestow, 
they expect a remission of sin. These Bnikmans, however, ivill not 
aeknowledge that they perforin the proper ceremonies for the 
heretics. They take the money, and mutter a few ivords in Sanskrit, 
which content the donor. The oil-makers receive the Linga from 
the Jangania of their village. 

2d October. — I went five Sultany cosses to Malingy. From Taiuru Oct. 2. 
to Narasingha-pura is three cosses. Near both places the country 
is very beautiful, and well cultivated. Every field is enclosed with t'y* 
quick-set hedges, the whole being high ground without riee-land. 

In the middle between these two places, the soil is poor ; but for- 
merly it has been all cultivated, and would produce good crops of 
Huruli and Shamay. . The present stock is only adequate to culti- 
vate the richer grounds near the villages, and the greater part of 
the country is waste. 

Narasingha-pura contains about two hundred houses ; and, many ifarashghc.- 
of its inhabitants being Br&hmans, it is better built than usual ; it 
has two considerable temples, and stands on the bank of the Cavery, 




Oct. 2. 
of the couii' 

Cultivation of 
lich black 

All old inea- 


immediately below the junction of the Kapini, which is six Sultany 
cosses from Seringapatam, 

About a mile below Niarasingha-pura is a small village, named 
Nilasogy ; and about two miles from Malingy a small rivulet enters 
the Cavery, after having passed the town of Moguru, from whence 
it derives its name. IJetween Nilasogy and the Moguru rivulet the 
road passes through one of the finest plains that I have ever seen* 
It consists of a rich black mould fit for the cultivation of cotton^ 
wheat, Carlay, zwA JVomum ; but at jiresent it is almost entirely 
waste. The people say, that they have never recovered from the 
devastation which was committed in the old Marattak invasions, 
especially in one tliat happened about forty years ago. In the last 
■war also they suffered considerably from the allied armies. 
from the Moguru rivulet the country is rather higher, and the soil 
is somewhat sandy, but still very good. Some pan of the black 
mould contains calcarious nodules, and by the natives is then called 

The principal crop in this fine country is cotton, which here ia 
never raise<l in soil that contains calcarious nodules. The black 
.soil that is free from lime is divided into three qualities. The first 
gives annually two crops, one of Jola (Hokus sorghum), and one of 
cotton; the two inferior qualities produce cotton only. As, how- 
ever, next to cotton, Jola is the most considerable crop, and is 
never sown but on black soil of the first quality, it mudt be evident, 
that the two poorer soils form but a small part of the whole. 

In this part of the country a land measure was formerly in use; 
and in the revenue accompts the fields are all stated to contain a 
certain extent. According to this measurement, cubits make an 
Jlitycolu, or measuring-rod; and 60 rods square are a JVumunmr,, 
Nurguny, or Nurcumha. Wherever a foolish prince, under pretence 
of his arm being long, has not established a royal cubit longer 
than the natural, eighteeu inches may be received as a general 


standard. Taking the cubit at this length, the Nurciimba will be CHAPTER 

. . . VIII. 

acres. On measuring a field said to contain one Nurcumba, 

I found it to be acres, which comes so near as to establish Oct. 2 . 

the accuracy of the old measurement. 

In this part of the country accompts are kept in an imaginary 
money, called Oytty Varaha, which contains twelve Canter' R&ya 
Fanams. The weight used by the farmers, in selling cotton, is as 

5 Dudus— 1 Polam—\h. 0,1264- decimal parts. 

60 Pol(ms= 1 Cuttu = 7,5835. 

50 Polnms= 1 Tucu — 6,3195. 

The Colaga of grain here contains only 4^ Seers, and the Candaca 
is nearly bushels. 

So much having been premised, I proceed to state the account 
given by the farmers of the cultivation in this neighbourhood. 

The best black soil produces annually two crops, the first of Jola, joia, or Hot- 
the second of cotton. In the month following the vernal equinox, cwwr^Ai(»». 
after having manured the field Avith dung, plough twice. After the 
first good rain that happens in the two following months, sow the 
Jola seed three Colagas on a Nurcumba, or 0, 1 1 1 decimal parts of a 
bushel on an acre. The seed is sometimes sown broad-cast, and 
ploughed in ; or sometimes dropped in the furrow after the plough. 

On the 12th, 2()th, and 28th days, superfluous plants must be de- 
stroyed 'by the hoe drawn by oxen ; but if the rains are slight these 
hoeings must be somewhat later. In the intervals the weeds must 
be pulled out by the hand. In three months the Jola is ripe, and in 
a good crop produces 1600 Seers from a Nurcumba, or nearly twelve 
bushels from an acre. 

In the month which immediately precedes, or in that which fol- Cotton, 
lows, the autumnal equinox, whenever the Jola has been cut down, 
plough the field, and hoc it twice with the Ctintay, The field is 
then dunged, and after the first rain is again ploughed. The cot- 
ton seed is then put in drills, distant from each other one cubit. 



CHAPTF.R A farrow is drawn wltli a oIourIi ; at cverv three or four inches 
viir, . ... 

di.stance a seed is dropt into it, and is covered hy another fnrx'ow. 

Oct. i.’. Tlicn, to smooth the held, a liarrow of thorny hushes is dragged 
over it. Tin; hoc called Vuntaij is drawn hy o.\cn hetween the 
drills once every eight days until the cotton is ripe, which happens 
in the course of the two months innnedialely following the vernal 
equinox. At the end of the host month the earth is thrown up hy 
the plough, in ridges, toward the drills of cotton. The moment 
the cotton has been gathered, the Held is again ploughed for Jola, 
A Xurcumhd of land rc(piircs hetween .seven anti eight Seen oi' seed, 
and in a good erop produces 150 Cut/us of cotton, worth, rvhen 
cheap, 10 J'arahas, or 1120 Fanams ; and, wdnm dear, 15 Vurahas, or 
180 Favams. At this rate, a good crop will he about 271 Ih. an acre; 
wdiicli, of course, selling low, will be wu\ th 1/, 15.v. 8’ r/. A poor 
crop is h'O Cutlti/s from a Nurcumba ; wdiich, .selling dear, is worth 
72 Fanams, being at the rate of lOS-i lb. from an acre, worth 

10^. 8jx/. 

On the two inferior soils, tliat do not produce a crop of Jola, 
the cotton yields from 48 to 72 Fanams a Nurcumba, or from 7s. 1 
to IOa'. 8jr/. an acre. In the two months i'ollowing the vernal exjui- 
no\ this soil is hocil with the Col KuiluU. It is then dunsjed and 
ploughed, and afterwards hoed with the Cuntay, At the seed season 
the cotton is .sown, and afterwards managed exactly as in the first 
(juality of soil. The quality of the cotton I'aised on the two poorer 
kinds of soil is prcfxM'able to that which is raised on the best. The 
whole is sold at weekly markets in Gamg^aniiru, Singanaluru, Cola- 
pur a, Talacada, Haymigatf, Molura, Agara, Narasingha-pura, Tahir Uy 
Colcagdla, and otlicr places oil this side of the Cavei'y. It is all 
wrought up into coarse cloths, for country use, hy the casts called 
JVlinltiaru, Devangus, and Tricoluro Dasas, who reside in the neigh- 
bourhorxl. None is sent to Bangalore, Salicm, or the other maiui- 
facturing towns; hut were the whole country cultivated, a great 
supply of cotton might be procured. 



Next to Jola, Navony is the most considerable crop. It thrives CHAPTER 
best on the richest black soil ; but it is raised also on that which 
contains lime, and on other inferior land. In the two months which 

. , , . Naxonn^ or 

follow the vernal etjuinox the field is dunged, and is then ploughed Panicum ita- 
from two to four times. In the two following mont'hs, the seed is 
sown broad-cast, and covered with the plough. On the l.ith day 
the hoe drawn by oxen is used. On the 30th the weeds are re- 
moved with the Calay Cudugulu (Plate II. Figure ‘J!.). In four 
months it ripens. A Nurcumba of land sows six Sears, and in a good 
crop produces pOO, and in a had one 5 M Seers. An acre, therefore, 
sows only 0,05 bushels; in a good crop it produces 7xoVo bushels, 
and in a bad one 4-rc,Vo bushels. The u\arony does not exhaust the 

The next most considerable crop here Carlay, which so ex- Carii,t/,oT 
hausts the soil of even the richest fields, that it is seldom taken 
from the same ground oftener than once in seven years. It is gene- 
rally sown after To/tf in place of cotton, ami must be followed hy 
wheat, WtilV EUu, or Ragy. The two former may be followed by 
cotton, the Ragy cannot. In the third year, when Ragy has been 
used, the field is sown with AV/ruwy or Jola, succeeded as usual hy 
cotton. Immediately after the Jola has been cut, which is about 
the autumnal equinox, the field is ploughed once, then dunged, and 
then ploughed three times, all in the course of a month. In the 
beginning of the second month after the autumnal equinox, the 
Carlay is sown in drills like the cotton ; but the drills are only half 
a cubit distant. Between the drills, on the 15th day, the hoe drawn 
by oxen is used. On the 30th, the weeds arc removed by the Calay 
Cudugulu. If the soil be rather hard, about the 33d day the hoe 
drawn by oxen must be again used. In four months the Carlay 
ripens. Its produce, from the same extent of ground, is the same 
with that of Navony ; but a Nurcumba reejuires 45 Seers of seed, or 
an acre Carlay is sometimes sown after a fallow; in 

which case the ground is prepared in a similar manner as for cotton 



CHAPTER in the two poorer soils. The produce in this c;isc IVoni a Nurcimha 
in a good crop is 1080 Seerx, or of an acre almost nine bushels. 

Oct. 2 . fl'uir EUu is the next most considerable crop, and is sown after 

m‘saammn. or Jtagij, and before cotton. In the two months tVtllowing the 

vernal equinox, the field is dunged, ami, according to tbe hardness 
of the soil, is ploughed from once to three times. In the two months 
which precede midsummer, the seed is sown broad-cast. On tbe 
1,5th day the superfluous plants arc destroyed by the hoe drawn by 
oxen ; and on the 30th the weeds are removed by the Calt/i/ Ciulii- 
guhi. The Sesamum ripens in three months and a half. A Nurciimba 
requires six Seers of seed, and produces SGO Seers. An acre, there- 
fore, gets lyVoV quart of seed, and produces rather less than three 

Wbwit. Caru The quantities of w'hcatand JVomum raised here are nearly equal, 
crop. wheat is of the kind called Ilolatf Godi, or the Triticim spetta ; 

and there are two seasons for its cultivation, the llainii and Caru. 

It is sown on the best soil only, and always after a crop ot Carlnt/. 
The Ca7'u season, when the rains set in early, is always preferred, 
not only as the wheat is then more productive, but as in the same 
year it may be followed by a crop of cotton, wliieb is not the case 
with the Ilaitiu wheat. In the two months following the vernal 

equinox, the field for Caru wheat is dunged, ploughed two or three 
times, and then hoed with the Cuulaijy which is drawn by oxen. 
The seed is then sown,^ in drills one cubit distant, by dropping it in 
the furrow after a plough. On tbe 15th, 28th, and 35lh days the 
hoe is again used ; and two or three days afterwards the weeds arc 
removed by the Calap Cadugulu. This wheat rijiens in three months 
and a half, and is immediately followed by a crop of cotton. ANin'- 
cimba rc<|uires seven CWr/g/zj of seed, and in a good crop produces 
.540 Seers. An acre, therefore, sows a little more than one peck, and 
yields almost four bushels and a lialf. The wheat is liable to be 
spoiled by a disease called t/r«w/i A/iin ; owing to which, in the 
course of one day, it becomes yellow, and dies. 


When the rains ;ire late in comincf, the Hainu crop of whctat is 
taiceu after Cotton cannot be taken in the same year. The 

manner of cultivation is tlie same as for the Caru crop, only the 
season is diftercut. The ploughinj;s are performed m the month 
which precedes the autumnal etjuinox, or in the beginning of that 
which follows. At the end of this month the seed is sown. The 
proilucc is about one lialf only of that of the Caru crop. 

The JVomunty or Amthum Soxca, of Dr. Roxburgh (MSS.), is sown 
indiflFerently on all soils, nor docs it injure .any succeeding crop ; 
on the contrary, it is thought rather to improve the soil. The field 
is prepared .a.s for the Ilahiu crop of wheat. In the beginning of the 
.second month after the autumnal equinox, the seed is sown broad- 
cast, and covered by a ploughing. On the 15th d.ay it is hoed with 
the Cinitay ; and on the 30th the weeds are removed by the Calay 
Cudugulu. In four months it ripens. A Nurcumba requires for seed 
22 j Ht'ers ; and 10 Candaeax, or 900 Seers, are reckoned a good crop. 
The seed for an acre is therefore almost Ij gallon, and the produce 
almost bushels. 

On this .side of the river, Cabbay Bu7m, or the red soil proper for 
Ragy, is in very sm.all quantities ; .so that this grain is sometimes 
sown on the Eray liumi, or black soil ; in which case the crop is 
poor. A Nurcumba requires Seers of seed, which is at the rate 
of l-i- gallon an acre. A Nurcumba of black soil in a good crop pro- 
duces 1080&crj, while the same extent of red soil yields 1800 6em-. 
The former is at the rate of almost ten bushels, the latter at almost 
fifteen bushels, an acre. Here the Haitm Ragy only is sown. 

On red or the poorer soils Huruli is also sown. The seed is 3H 
Seers a Nnreumbu, or a trifle more than a peck for the acre. The 
produce in a good crop from a Nurcumba is -900 Seers, or from an 
acre seven bushels and a half. 

It must be observed, that the farmers here allow a nnich smaller 
produce from tliesame extent of ground, than has as yet been done 
by those of any other place. It is true, that even on their dry-field 
VoL. II. Y 



Oct. a. 

IJainu wheat. 

or Cy* 
no»ut us Co; 0- 


or }lorsc» 

Produce un- 
do r-iiited. 



CHAPTER they have in general two crops in the year ; and it may therefore 
be supposed, that by this means the soil is exhausted, and produces 
Oct. 2. little. This may in pai t account for the poverty of their crops ; 

but I am inclined to believe, that the farmers wanted to deceive 
me, and alleged their lands to be less productive than they, really 



The mountainous tract which forms the western Ghats is visible 
from Malingy^ and rises very high above the country to the west- 

Malutgy and There are 'two Mallngys: this, called Tady ; and another, which 
town covered c^hed Hossa, and is situated in the Company’s territory. Tady 

b)’ saud-hilU. Malingy is a small open village; but before the Marattah invasion 
it had a fort, and was a considerable place. The last war has occa- 
. sioned several ruins. Concerning its governors before it became 
subject to the Rijas of Mysore, no tradition is current. It forms a 
part of the Talacadu district, the chief town of which is situated on 
the north bank of the river, and contains about two hundred houses, 
and a celebrated temple dedicated to Iswara. Between it and the 
present channel of the river were formerly situated a large fort, 
and a great number of temples, M'hich for many years have been 
overwhelmed by sand-hills. The bank at Malingy is steep, and the 
principal stream of the river comes near it ; yet these sand-hills 
appear to be higher ; and, to the traveller, coming all the way from 
Narasingha-pura, they make a very conspicuous figure. They are 
said to be yearly increasing in height ; and no part of the former 
city is now to be seen, except the tops of some of the temples, and 
cavaliers. This is a curious phenomenon ; but circumstances would 
not permit me to investigate the particulars on the spot. The na- 
tives attribute it to the prayers of a woman, who was drowned while 
she was crossing the river to visit the place, and who, while dying, 
wished that it might be overwhelmed by sand. One temple only has 
escaped; the legend concerning which is extremely absurd. A men- 
dicant came one day to Talacadu^ intent on making an offering to 



Alahadeva, or Ixa'ara. The temples tledicatcd to that idol were, cn.'PTl U 
however, so numerous, that he was much at a loss how' to procun^ 
an ofreriut.^ tor each, so as to avoid giving oiTence to any idol that ’• 
might be omittcil. With his whole means, which were very slender, 
the holy man purchased a bag of pease, and on‘ere«l one at eacli 
temple; but all his pease were expended, and one idol still remained, 
to which no oft’ering had been made. Of course it was highly of- 
fended at the j)reference given to the. others by a person of his 
holiness; ami, to avoid their ijisolent boasting, it transported itself 
across the river, where it now stands at Mulingy, while its former 
companions are buried in sand. Near it is a SiUt Stisana, or in- 
scription engraved on stone; but unfortunately it is not legible, 
as it might probably have thrown some light on the history of 

The Cavery here is at present a fine large and deep river, flowing Cavn-y river. 
M'itli a gentle si ream about a quarter of a mile in width. In the 
hot .sca.son it is fordable; but after heavy rains it rises above its 
pr esent level ten or tw'elvc feet perpendicular, and then its channel 
is completely fdlcd. Once in nine or ten years it rises higher, and 
occasionally sweeps away a but ; but its Hoods arc never very de- 

The only foriy-boats on this large river arc what are called Do- Its ferries. 
Ilia, or baskets of a circular form, eight or ten feet in diameter, ami 
covered with leather. They transport with tolerable safety men 
and goods ; hut cattle must swim, which is both a fatiguing and a 
dangerous enterprize. Bamboo floats providerl with a hawser, so as 
to form flying bridges, would make an excellent and cheap con- 
veyance. From the north side of the Caveny a line canal is taken 
by means of a dam, and waters much land near Talacadu. 

3d October. — I went to Satteagala, <Ustant from AJaiuigy four Yw/- Oot. 3 . 
tany cosses; but, owing to the deepness of the roads, I was obliged 
to take a circuitous route, a circumstance that never happened to 
mfc in any other place above the Chats, A small village, named 






Caleuru, Is the last in the present dominions of Mysore. Mitlur, the 
first place iii the Company’s territory, is one coss and a half from 
Malingy, and is a pretty large cj^en village. 

From Mulur I went one cosS to Coleasiala, an open town which 
contains above 600 houses. It is the residence of a Tafmldar, 

State of the 


Works of 

or chief of a Taluc, or district ; for the officers in the Company’s 
territory differ from those in Mysore. It has two large temples, 
and is a censiderahte mart for the traders between Stringapatarn 
and the country below the Ghats, and near the Caxery. Coleagala 
signifies the plundered town; Avhich appellation was bestowed 
On it after it had been pillaged while under the dominion of Ganga 
KAjOy to whom it formerly belonged. 

From Coleagala to Satteagala the distance is two cosses and a half. 
The country through which I passed to-day is in general very fine, 
ahd much better cultivated than that between Narasingha-pura and 
MdHngy. In fact, near Malar and Coleagala the cultivation is 
equal to any that I have seen in India, and consists chiefly of rice- 
fields watered by means of several large reservoirs. In the CWca- 
gala district there Avere between forty and fifty reservoirs, Avhich 
about eighty years ago AVere put in good order by the DaUncai of 
Mysore, Doda Diva RAya fVodear, From that time until the country 
eame into the Company’s possession, after the fall oi' Seringapatam, 
they have been neglected. Six of them have noAV been completely 
repaired; and orders have been issued for perfecting the remainder, 
as soon as the dryness of the season Avill permit. I passed through 
the grounds of only one of these decayed reservoirs, and found 
them entirely waste. I saw also many dry-fields waste, especially 
near Satteagala, Avhere the soil is poor ; but in most places it is ca- 
pable of producing Huruli. In this part of the country there are 
very fcAv fences. According to tradition, the god RAma, when on 
his way to LankA, formed the great reservoir at Satteagala, and 
a fine dam named Danaglnry, that waters much land belbw the 




S&fteagala formerly belonged to Rajas who were of the same CHAPTER 
family with those of Mysore. On the death of Put' arsu, the last 
of them, without issue, he was succeeded quietly by his relation 
Canterua, the CurtUr of Mysore. The fort is of considerable size, 
and in good repair; but at present contains very few houses: 
the whole number, both in the fort and suburbs, amounts only to 
about 2.50. In a Muruitah invasion before the time of Jlyder, it was 

'entirely ruined, and most of the children and cattle were swept 
away. Before the invasion of Lord Cornwallis, about 1000 houses 
had been again assembled. At that time a i)arty of Maraitah plun- 
derers ravaged all this neighbourhood ; and they were followed by 
a dreadful famine, in which 400 of the families in Satleagaln perished 
of ljungcr. In the last war, the town was first plundered by the 
Lumhadies, or dealers in grain, belonging to the British army, and 
then burned by orders from the Sultan. The inhabitants are now 
hardly able to defend themselves from the beasts of prey, M'ith 
which, from its depopulated condition, the country abounds. 

The black soil fit for the cultivation of cotton extends over the Extent of the 
lands of the following towns and villages : Nunjinagodu, Moguru, 
Narasingha~pura, FAlanduru, Sosila, Malingy, Muluru, Cunturu, Ala- 
hully, Hama, and Mangala, and is mostly in the Raja's dominions. 

In the Coleagald district the soil is mostly red, ami is fit for the 
cultivation of rice and Ragy ; of which nearly equal quantities are 

In this part of the country the village god is Baswa, or the bull noma, the 
of Siva, whose Pujari, or priest, is quite distinct from the Gauda, ’'‘”*8® 
or chief of the village. By Major Macleod, the collector, the Gaudas. 
Goudas are not allowed to rent their villages ; but they receive a 
fixed salary, and collect the revenue from the farmers. Here this 
office was never hereditary ; but that of tire Shanabogas, or accoinp- 
tants, always was. 

In the Coleagala district are some sandal-wood trees, which are Sanaa 
now cutting by the collector, who employs a Mussulman agent. 





Oct. 3* 


Oct. 4. 

Island of Si- 
vana Samu^ 

Cataract of 



Fifteen years ago the Sultan cut the whole of the large trees. Like 
the satulal of Magadi, it tliriv’cs in the high forests of Mod-huUy 
and Mahn-dcthmint, as well as in the skirts td' the cultivated 
country ; but it is not of so good a quality as tliat on the M'estern 

The greater part of the mountains in this district produce only 
stunted trees, or buslies. Mod-hullif and Mahd-dh'cm'ara are the 
only ones that are clotlied with timber trees; but in size these arc 
greatly inferior to those of the western Cihats, Some teak and Jii- 
riday of a good size may be procured. 

4th October. — I went to visit the island of Sham Samudra, or the 
sea of Sha, and its noble cataracts. From Sutteagala, the upper end 
of the island is one Sultany coss ; and its whole Icngtli is said to be 
three cosses, or probably nine miles; but in width it is no where 
above a mile. The island, at its upper end, is not much raised 
above the level of the river; but, as its lower end does not sink, 
while the river falls very rapidly, toward its eastern end it appears 
to be very high. Owing to the rapidity of the river, and to deep 
cavities between the rocks and stones of its channels, even in the 
hot season, there is only one ford that leads to the island, and that 
is a very bad one in the southern branch. The island is therefore 
by nature very strong. 

The northern branch of the river is the most considerable, and 
soon divides into two channels, which form a smaller island, named 
Nellaganatitu. The channel of this branch nc.N.t the northern con- 
tinent is the smallest, and is nearly level until it comes opposite to 
Gangam Chuki, a place on the large island about three miles from 
its upper end. There it precipitates its water over a perpendicular 
rock, I suppose nearly two lumdred feet high. The stream is very 
considerable; but is divided by a small island into two great 
branches, and by large rocks into four or five jrortious, which be- 
fore they reach the bottom ar^ <juite broken into foam. The water 
which runs between the two islands is the-most considerable portion 



of the northern branch of the river. It runs with vast rapidity CHAPTER 
over and among immense rocks, until it comes to Garigana Chuki, 
where it rushes down into the abyss, which a little way beiow re- Oct. a 
ceives also the other portion. There it is hidden from human view 
in a cloud of vapour, which is formed by its violence, and which is 
at times visible even from Sattcagala. From this circumstance I 
could not ascertain 1;ow far this fall is entirely perpendicular. If it 
be quite so, the whole height Avill be about a hundred feet ; but at 
times I thought I could see obscurely through the cloud a projec- 
tion of the rock, which divide<l the fall into two stages. I have 
never seen any cataract that for grandeur could be compared with, 
this ; but I shall not attempt to describe its broken woody banks, 
its cloud of vapour, its rainbow, its thundering noise, nor the im- 
mense slippery rocks from whence the dizzy traveller views the 
awful whirlings of its tumultuous abyss. All these, except in mag- 
nitude and sublimity, exactly resemble those of the other water- 
falls that I have seen. The pencil of an artist might be well em- 
ployed in imitating its magnificent scenery, and would convey a 
better idea of its grandeur than my power of description can ven- 
ture to attempt. 

The island of Sivana Samudra is in general rocky, with vertical Island of 5i- 
atrata running north and south. The principal stone is a gneiss, of 
which the great buildings of Ganga Raja are constructed, and which 
may be cut into blocks of large dimensions. Near the upper end of. 
the island, bridges have been constructed across both branches of 
the river. They were formed, like that at Seringapatam, of long 
stones placed upright as pillars to support others laid horizontally, 
so as to form the road. Both bridges have long ago been broken, 
but many of the pillars still remain erect. Two dams and canals 
from the southern branch of the river supply the island Avith water, 
and, if in good repair, ought to supply Avith Avater as much ground 
as would sow 3510 Seers of rice. In order to magnify’ the Avonders 




Oct. 4. 

Munis, or 




of the island, this quantity of seed in the accompts is called <)0 Caw* 
dacas, a nominal Candaca of 39 ^S'eers having been purposely intro- 
duced. Owing to the disrepair of the dams, two thirds of this land 
is at present waste. On the island there is a good deal of land lit 
for the cultivation of dry grains ; and it would be a fine situation 
for a village, were it not possessed by a Muni ; on which account, 
and owing to the terrible disasters attributed to this demon’s wrath, 
no Hindu will settle in the place. The people of Satleagala, at the 
time of cultivation, carry over their cattle, and sleep with them in 
one of the old temples, which is a defence against the tigers that 
arc said to be very numerous. When they have committed the 
seed to the ground, they return home, and wait there until the 
time of harvest; when they again go to the island, and bring away 
their crops. 

The Munis of Karnuta, who are demons of the first magnitude, 
must be carefully distinguished from a kind of Brahmans of the 
same name, who have been saints of the greatest holiness, and whose 
memories persons of all ranks venerate. The Brahmans never openly 
worship the Munis; although it is alleged, that in private many of 
them make offerings, in the same manner as they do to the Saktis, 
or destroying female spirits. Among the followers of the Brahmans 
below the Ghats, the worship of the Munis, who arc male destruc- 
tive spirits, is very prevalent. 

The only persons who defy this devil, and the tigers, are two 
Mussulman hermitf}, that dwell at Gungana Chuki. The hermitage is 
a hut open all round, placed opposite to the tomb of Pirca IVullay, an 
antient saint, and surrounded by some neat smooth areas, and a 
number of flowering and aromatic trees introduced from the neigh- 
bouring forests. One of these hermits was absent on business ; the 
other had no defence from the tigers, but his confidence in the 
holiness of the place, and in his own sanctity, of which he seemed 
to have a very favourable opinion. He told me with great 



complacency, that lie had oft’ended Major Macleod by not answer- 
ing that gentleman’s questions ; having been at the time more in- 
clined to read the Khorun than to converse with an infidel. lie 
appears to be an ignorant bigot ; but the man who is absent is said 
to jiossess more conciliating manners. In the reign of tlic SulUiu, 
these hermits received very frequent visits aiul many presents From 
the Mussulman olhccrs, and their families. They are now almost 
deserted, and subsist on a Candaai sowing of frce-gift-land that 
they possessed on the island, and of which they have not been 

5th October . — Having remained all night near the abode of the 
hermit, in the morning I crossed over to view the cataract of the 
southern branch of the CVretry, which is also about three miles from 
the upper end of the island. The river there is very wide, and in 
its channel contains a number of rocks and small islands, the largest 
of which is called Birra Cliutci. The precipice at the southern cata- 
ract may be about a hundred feet high, and forms part of the arch 
of a large circle, down which the riv’cr is thrown in ten or twelve 
streams. In the center is a deep recess in form of a horse-shoe, 
down which the principal stream tails ; and, having been collected 
into a narrow channel, rushes forward with prodigious violence, 
and again falls down about thirty feet into a capacious basin at the 
foot of the precipice. In tlic dry season two channels only contain 
water. The inmith immediately folloMung the summer solstice is 
the most favourable for viewing these water-falls, as the river is 
then at its greatest height. The one on the soutlieni branch con- 
tains many beauties ; and as a stair has been made, so as to give 
easy access to the side of the basin, and to afi’ord a fine view of the 
whole, 1 think it is by far the most agreeable object of contempla- 
tion. The access to Gangana Chuki is very bad ; and a descent to 
the river there is both fatiguing and dangerous. Its cataract is, no 
doubt, more sublime than the other ; but in viewing it the mind 
VoL. II. Z 



Oct, 4. 

Oct. 5. 
Cataract of 
Birra Chuki » 





Oct. 5. 

City of G'ango 

History of 
O'anga Jidja, 

is impressed more with awe at its tremendous force, than with pleat- 
sure at its magnificence. 

From tlie falls ot' Birra C/ui/d I went about u mile to the eastern 
gate of the old city of Canga Raja. On the walls here some red 
stains are shown with great gravity, as the blood of the inhabitants 
who were killed when the place was taken. From this gate a straight 
wide street may be traced, for almut a mile and a half, to another 
gate that leads to the ruinous bridge over the southern branch of 
the river. On one side of this bridge is a large temple, and on the 
other the ruins of the palace, where I was shown the baths in which 
the R('{ja sported Avith his women. 

On my return to Sattmgala, an old Brahman, the historian of the 
place, was brought to me. He had no written documents ; but re- 
lated the following account, on the authority of tradition. About 
O'OO years ago Ganga Raja, of the Anagundi family, was sent hither by 
his kinsman, the king of Vjaija-nagara, to govern the neighbour- 
ing country. On examining all the places in the vicinity, he found 
none so fit for erecting a city in which he might reside, as the island 
of Sivana Samitdra, where there then were two or three small vil- 
lages. The inhabitants of these informed the prince, that they lived 
there by the perniissioii of the Muni; and unless that could be ob- 
tained, certain destruction ivould await the new built city. In 
order to obtain the favour of the Muni, the Rdja made ilaily large 
offerings of fruits and rice, and prayed incessantly ; till at length 
the demon appearerl to him in a dream, and informed him, that he 
might lay the foundation of the new city whenever a signal was 
made by the blowing of a Conch, The Rdja, having prepared every 
thing, was waiting for the signal, when an unlucky Ddshi passed 
by, blowing on his conch, as is usual with that kind of mendicants. 
This having been mistaken for the signal, the foundation of the 
city Avas immediately laid. Half an hour afterwards the Muni 
gave the true signal ; at Avhich the Rdja, being alarmed, had again 



recourse to olicriut^s and j)raycrs. Moved by these, the Mniii ap- CIIAPILU 
pcarcfl to the Roja, and iiitormed him, that, as he had begun to 
build the city at an improper time, it could not be permitted to Oct. .5. 
stand long. Out of his personal regard for the jtrince, however, 
the Minu would cause the city to flourish for three generations. 

Ganga Raja accordingly reigned there in great magnificence, and 
<Iied ill peace. 

Nandi Raja, the son of Ganga, met ivitli many miraculous adveii- Nandi R^ja. 
tures, and at length was defiled by eating, unknowingly, with a 
certain servant of the JVhallia east, who liad the power of rendering 
himself invisible, and who, while in this slate, partook of his mas- 
ter’s focal. Oil this occasion, the prince consulted the Uruhmans, 
who advised him to put lumscif to death, lie accordingly deli- 
vered the kingdom to his son, and, having persuaded his wife to 
a(,eomjjany him, tliey blindfolded a horse, and, liaving mounted 
him, precipitated themselves into the cataract at (iai/gana Chuki. 

Ganga Raja, [he second enlarged tiie city greatly, and lived with ftansalidja 
much sjdeudour. lleliad twm daughters, whom he gave in marriage 
to the two clhel' Rolijgars in the neighbourhood. The one w'as mar- 
ried to tlic Raja ()[' Kilinta/j/, a place now in ruins, and about four 
cosses from Sattcagala. ’I'lie other daughter was married to line' 

Rd/a, R/ya of Nagara-Caray, one cuss east from Madura. These 
Tn.arriagcs w ere very unhappy ; for tlie pride of the ladies gave 
their husbands constant disgust. They w'erc continually upbraided 
for not living in c(|ual splendour with their fathcr-in-law' ; and at 
length, having consulted together, they determined to humble their 
wives, by showing that their power lyas superior to that of Ganga 
RujU. Having assembled all their forces, they hcsiegefl Sivana 
Hamudra ; hut for a time had very little success. Tlic siege had 
continued twelve years, without their having been able to pene- 
trate into the island, when tin: twai Rajas found means to corrupt 
the Dalaxvai or minisier of Ganga Rdja. This traitor removed the 
guards from thcorly ford, and lluis permitted the enemy to surprise 



CHAPTER the place, while he endeavoured to engage his master’s attention 
V’ill , , 

at the game of chess. Tlic shouts of the soldiery at length reach- 

Oct. 5. jjig their ears, the prince started up from the game. J'he Dalawai, 
who wished him to fall alive into the hands of his sons-in-law, en- 
deavoured to persuade him that the noise arose merely from chil- 
dren at play ; but the having drawn his sword, first killed all 

his women aiul children, and then, rushing into the midst of his 
enemies, fought, until he procured an honourable death. The sons- 
in-law, on seeing this, were struck with horror, and immediately 
threw themselves into the cataract at Gangana Chuki ; and their ex- 
ample was followed by their wives, whose arrogance had been the 
cause of such disasters. JugaUeva Raya of Clienaputtana, and Sri 
Ranga Raja of Talacadit, the two most powerful of the neighbour- 
ing Polygars, then came, ami removed all the |)eoplc and wealth 
of the place ; and ever since the ARini has remained in quiet pos- 
session of his island. 

True date of 
these events. 

There can be no doubt, that the time of the foundation of the 
city in Sivana Samudra is later than its historian stated. Six hundred 
years from the present time would make Ganga Raja the first ante- 
rior to his ancestor Ilarifiara, the first king of lljaya-nagara. I 

afterwanls learned, that Jagadc.a's grandson was alive, and go- 
verned a large territory, in the year of Salirdfidmtm 15 K). We may 
allow a hundred years for the reigns of the three princes of Sivana 
Samudra and of the three Polygars of Chenapattana, which will make 
the foundation of the city to have hapjiened in the year of Sail- 
vahdnam 144(>, or 188 years after the foundation of Vijaya-nagara, 
and 277 years before the present time. 

Anficnt wr- At the time of the tall of Ganga Raja the second, it is said that 
Mrc^am/fhe Mysore Raja's were very petty Polygars, and possessed in all 
usurpaiions tliifty-two villages. Other Polygars governed Taiuru, IPomalurUy faiuilj. Man gala, Ellanduru, Hardcna-fiully, ^c. all places in 

what our maps call Mysore proper. The first rise of the family is 
said to have been their destroying the Rdja of Sri- Ranga- Pat tana. 



called by ns Ser'mgapatmn. This prince possessed the two districts CHAPTER 
called Ashta-gnhns, and was of the blood of the Rayalus, the sove- 
reigns of the country ; for alter the <lcath of Ruma Raja, M’ho Avas Oct. 5. 
killed on the banks of t in Krishna before the middle of the fifteenth 
century, several |)rinces of the royal family retired to diflerent 
strong holds, and for some time retained a certain power, until it 
was gradually overwhelmed by their rebellions subjects the Koly- 
gai's, or by Mussulman and invaders. 

It is said, that during the hot season some diaphanous shining Crystal, 
stones arc found in the channel of the CV/rery uhove Ga/iganaChulii. 

I could procure no specimen ; but from the description of the na- 
tives 1 suppose that they arc rock crystal. 

6th October.— I went three computed cosses, called SuUany, to Oct. ff. 
Singanaluru. The distance could not be above nine or ten miles; 
so that the cosses called here Sultany are not longer than the usual 
computed cosses or llardarks of the country above tire Ghats. 

On the road I came first to Pallia, a considerable open village, 
one coss and a half south from Satteagala, and one coss Irom Colea- 
gala. The interjacent country is beautiful, and lies immediately 
west from the range of mountains that crown the summit of the 
eastern Ghats, and which are from about 1500 to 2000 feet, in per- 
pendicular height, above the level of the upper country. Although 
there is here much waste land, the country is better cultivated 
than most parts of the Mysore dominions, and wants only fences, 
and a large supply of inhabitants, to be complete. There are many 
large tanks ; but these not having been yet repaired, there is at 
present very little rice cultivated. From Pallia to Singanaluru the 
road leads east through a fine valley, but not so well cultivated as 
that to the westward of the hills. About nine-twentieths of the 
fields are uncultivated. All the tanks have been in ruins for thirty 
years; and their cavities, which consist of a fine black mould, are 
cultivated for Jula, wheat, Carlay, and cotton. In this mountainous 




Oct, 6. 


Worship of 
the bull. 


tract, which extends from the Cavery to Gujulhatty, and includes 
the greater part of the Coleagala and Talanaly districts, that belong 
to the Company above the Ghals, it is said that the hills occupy 
one half of the space, and that arable vallies occupy the remainder. 
Viewed from a little distance to the v-cst ward, the hills appear to 
form a continued chain of mountains. 'J’he number of inhabitants 
in any part of this tract, csj)ecially toward the south, according to 
the report of the natives, is very inadecpiate to its cultivation; but 
every where, at some distance, there are villages scattered. The 
hills are not so rocky as in the range extending north from Otpala 
Djtrgfl, but they produce hardly any timber. At this season how- 
ever, from the bushes and grass M'ith which they arc clothed, they 
possess considerable verdure. On these mountains the inhabitants 
pasture their cattle, and raise a considerable number, altbougb they 
deny having any flocks fbr breeding, like the herds o\‘ Miulliu-giri. 
The pasture is sullicieut to support many more than the present 
stock. There is here no Gydda Carila, or forest renter, 

Singanaluru has a small ruined fort, which has been deserted ever 
since it was plundered by the Marattahs before the government of 
Hyder. Previous to the invasion by Lord Cornwallis, the suburb 
contained a hundred houses; but having been plundered by the 
Jirhijdrics, or Lurnbddies, that brought grain to his army, the bulk 
of the inhabitants perished from hunger. It now contains thirty- 
five houses, and has a temple dedicated to BasxcUf or the bull of 

The people in this part of the country consider the ox as a living 
god, Avho gives them their bread ; and in every village there are 
one or two bulls, to whom weekly or monthly worship is performed; 
and when one of these bulls dies, he is buried with great ceremony. 
These objects of worship arc by no means Sannyum, but serve to 
propagate the species. When a woman of the sacred cast has not 
a child so soon as site could wish, she purchases a young bull, 



carries him to the temple, where some ceremonies are performed; CHAPTER 
and ever afterwards he is allowed to range about at pleasure, and 
becomes one of these village gods. The Brahmans, however, ab- Oct. G. 
stain from the absurd worship of these animals, although they are 
considered as possessed of a Brahman's soul. On the north side of 
the Cavery this superstition is not prevalent. The bull is there con- 
sidered as merely respectable, on account of /ATiwra'.yhavingchosen 
one of them for his steed, and as the animal is occupied by the soul 
of a Brahman in a state of purgation. 

Major Macleod, the collector, has just now sent up people with Palmira tree, 
the seed of the Palmira tree, or Borassus Jhbdli/'ormis, in order to 
instruct those here in the manner of cultivating that palm. They 
are forming a plantation on good land, a quarter of a coss in length, 
and 200 yards wide. The people here were formerly supplied with 
palm-wine from the wild date ; but by the orders of the Sultan 
these were all cut ; for the rigidity of this prince's morals would RigiJity of 
not allow him to permit, in his territory, the growth of an into.xi- Ja,^,*"***^***' 
eating substance. 

7th October . — Following the same valley in which Singamhiru is Oct. 7. 
situatcil, I w'cnt two cosscs to llanuru. The soil is rather poor, couiary **aml 
and in some places stonv ; but, (wing to a w'ant of cultivators, a state, of po- 

1 * cj ' ul^ition 

great deal of good land is waste, llanuru is an open straggling 
village, which contains between seventy and eighty houses, for 
the accommodation of travellers, a Chmdlry, or inn, has lately been 
erected. Before the invasion of Lord Cornwallis it contained five 

jiundred houses ; but, having been then plundered, most of the in- 
habitants were dispersed, or died of hunger. One coss and a half 
east from llanuru is Hagl-pura, wiiich in the govcnimcnt of tlic 
former Rajas was a fort th:it contained six hundred houses. Its 
works were allowed by IlyJcr to fall into decay, and it now contains 
only four or five houses. The Shanaboga, or accomptant of this 
village, estimates, that in the Cokagala district there is only 





Oct. 7- 

Passage of 
the Caxery 
down the 

Forest of He* 
iiny Betta. 


one»fourth of tlie people that would be necessary to cultivate all 
the arable lands. The reservoir here has long been filled with 

Hamiru is estimated to be five cosses from Bud-fiully, the nearest 
place on the Cavery. Ilelow Sivana Samudra the immediate banks 
of the river are so steep and high, that there is no road near it, 
and very little cultivation : but villages are every where scattered 
in the vallics that lie among the hills, which are included in its 
great bend, as it descends the Ghats. A road passes from Hanuru 
to' Kanya-karna-hully^ vulgo Cancan-hul/y, and crosses the Cavery at 
a ford called Jiaswana Kydda, which is about half a coss below the 
place where the Ruma-giri river enters. In other places the Cavery 
tumbles over rocks and precipices, which, although not of great 
height, render the channel so uneven, that it is impassable. 

The principal hill between the Cavery and the southern extremity 
of the eastern Ghats is called llediny Betta; and on this chiefly 
grow the timber trees that are to be procured. It produces chiefly 
Tayka, Biriday, JFhonay, and Jala, which have all been before men- 
tioned. The sandal wood grows on a hill called Mahadeveswara. 

On the cast side of Hanuru is a small river of clear water, which 
some years, even in the hot weather, does not become dry. It is 
called Tati-holay, and falls into the Cavery two cosses below Bas- 
wana Kydda. On the banks of this, two cosses he\Q\f Hanuru, is 
Rudra-pura, formerly a large j)lacc. It had rice and sugar grounds 
watered by a dam and canal, from the Tati-holay ; but now the 
whole is in ruins. On this rivulet there; are still four dams in re- 
pair; but the grounds which they supplied with water arc entirely 
unoccupied. The rivulet is too inconsiderable to be depended on 
for a regular supidy of water from its dams ; so that the crops were 
uncertain : but this might be remedied by forming reservoirs to 
collect the water of its canals, and by sowing no more seed than 
the quantity collected would be able to mature. 



In this mountainous district there are two rainy seasons. The CHAPTER 
6rst is in the month following the vernal equinox, and is called 
Mungaru, During this the tVull^ EUu, or Sesamum, is sown. The Oct 7, 
second lasts the two months before, and the two immediately fol- 
lowing, the autumnal equinox. These rains bring to maturity the 
crops of Ragy, Shantay, Join, Cambu, Udu, Hessaru, Huruli, and 
Carlay. Since the country has been under the management of 
Major Macleod, the solar year of the Tamuls has been introduced. 

In t])is hilly tract are a number of people, of a rude tribe called Cotu-cadu 
Soligas, or Soligaru, who use a kind of cultivation called the Cotu- 
cadu, which a good deal resembles that which in the eastern parts 
of Bengal is called Jumea. In the hot season the men cut the bushes 
that grow on any spot of land on the side or top of a mountain, 
where between the stones there is a tolerable soil. They burn the 
bushes when these have become dry, and leave to the women the 
remainder of the labour. When the rains commence, these with a 
small hoe dig up the ground to the depth of three inches. They 
then clear it of weeds, and next day sow it broad-cast with Ragy, 
here and there dropping in a seed of Avaray, Tovary, mustard, 
maize, or pumpkin. The seed is covered by another hoeing. A 
woman in one day can hoe ten cubits square, and on the next can 
sow it. The sowing season lasts about two months; so that the 
quantity sown in a year by every woman may be estimated at 
somewhat less than the sixth part of an acre. The custom however 
is, for all the people of one village to work one day at one family’s 
ground, and the next day at another’s in regular succession. The 
villages in general contain four or five families. The women per- 
form also the \7hole harvest. 

These people have also plantain gardens. To form one of these, pianuin gar- 
they cut down the bushes, and form pits with a sharp stick. In 
each of these they set a plantain-sucker, and ever afterwards keep 
down the grass and bushes, so as to prevent them from choking the 
VoL. 11. A a 



CMArriiR garden. The plantains are very large and coarse, and are eaten 
partly when ripe, and partiA when green. Every family of the 
Oct. 7. Soligiiru pays annually to government three Fanavis, or about tN/o 

Customs of Such is the account given by themselves of their system of agri- 
the Ho/igaru. , j proceed to detail, on the same authority, the customs 

of the SoUgas. 

The Soligas speak a bad, or old dialect of tlic Karnida language ; 
but have features a good deal resembling those of the rude tril'cs 
of Chittagong^ to AV’hom in many respects they arc inferior in know- 
ledge. They liave scarcely any clotliing, and sleep round a fire, 
lying on a few plantain leaves, and covering themselves with others. 
They live chiefly on the summits of the mountains, where the tigers 
do not frequent; but where their naked bodies are expose<l to a 
disagreeable cold. Their huts are most wretched, and consist of 
Bamboos with both ends stuck in the ground, so as to form an arch, 
which is covered with plantain leaves. I have already explained 
the nature of their agriculture. The men supply the fanners witl» 
timber and Bamboos ; and they gather various esculent leaves, and 
■wild Yams (Dioscoreas). They also collect honey, which they im- 
mediately eat. They possess no domestic animals, and have not the 
art of killing game. They would wdllingly cat meat, but cannot 
get it. They are ignorant of the art of distilling, or fermenting 
any grain or liquor, and refuse to drink any thing that will intoxi- 
cate. They have hereditary chiefs, who manage the business of 
the tribe with the officers of government ; these settle all disputes 
among their clients, and give good advice to those Avho are not 
disposed to observe the rules of cast ; but they newr Ifne, whip, 
nor excommunicate any offender. Every man takes as many wives 
as he can persuade to live with him after they have arrived at the 
age of puberty. Widows are pennitted to marry again. When a 
girl conseuts to marry, the man runs away with her to some 



neighbouring village, and they live there until the honey-tnoon CHAPTEIl 
is over. They then return home, and give a feast to the people 6f 
their village. Among their women adultery is unknown. The sons Oci.7. 
remain in their father’s house until they are married. They then 
build a hut for themselves, and each contributes a share thward 
the support of their aged parents. The dead are buried ; and all 
the rags, ornaments, and implements of the deceased are placed in 
his grave. On this occasion the family, if they are able, give a 
feast. Once a year each family celebrates a feast in commemora- 
tion of their deceased parents. If this be omitted, the parent be- 
comes a Dha, or devil of low degree, and torments the undutiful 
children until they perform the proper ceremonies. The Soligas 
pray to Vishnu, under the name of Ranga Skoctmi ; and on festivals 
they give some plantains to the priests at his temples. They are 
too poor to have either Guru, or Rurohita. 

8th October. — I went four computed cosses to Caud-hully. The Oct. s, 
road is hilly, and on the whole descends considerably. There is of’,hecouu- 
scarcely any cultivation ; and the soil of a great part of the valley “y. 
is very poor : still there appears to be much now waste that pos- 
sesses a good soil, and not a little that has formerly been culti- 
vated. Even the fields immediately contiguous to Caud-hully are 
entirely rvaste. I passed many small torrents that convey the 
rain water into the Tali-holay. The two most considerable are the 
Vdudaray, half a coss from Caud-hully ; and the Caud-hully, close 
to the village of that name. From the former a canal gave a pre- 
carious supply of water to some rice grounds. Both might be 
easily employed to fill reservoirs. The water of the Caud-hully 
is excellent, and may be procured, even in the driest seasons, by 
<^iggbig a little depth in the sand of its chaunel. 

In the last war General Floyd came here to. meet a convoy Dcpre<iationt 
coming up from Kaverl-pura under Colonel Read, who was accom- 
panied by a large body of Brinjdries, or dealers in grain, and a NiiamU 







Trade be- 
tween the 
above and 
below the 

numerous rabble belonging to the Nizam's army. The country 
through which such ruffians passed is of course entirely ruined, 
and not a house is to be seen between Hanuru and Cand-hully. 

This last place then contained two hundred houses. Of these 
ninety have been rebuilt, but not a single cultivator has returned. 
At present the inhabitants are traders, and their servants and de- 
pendent's; for this is a principal thoroughfare between the country 
below and that above the Ghats. In the former Salient, in the 
latter Gutalu near Mundium, and Seringapatam, are the principal 
marts. In going to Gutalu, the Cavety is crossed a little above 
Satlcagala. Some merchants are settled here, who purchase invest- 
ments below the Ghats, and carry them to Gutalu ; where they 
again lay in goods that arc in demand at Salient. The goods that 
are sent from the upper country are turmeric, Betel-nut, black 
pepper, Cut, or terra japnnica, Danya-seed, opium, Jagory, sugar, 
and Copra, or dried coco-nut-kernel. Those that are brought up 
the Ghats are cotton -cloths, tobacco, boiled butter, rice, salt. Pal- 

mira-Jagory, and castor-oil. The custom-master, under pretence 
of having sent the books to his superior at Cokagala, will give me 
no account of the quantity : indeed, as he farms the customs, his 
showing them could not reasonably be expected. It is said, that 
in Tippoo's government the trade was much greater than it is at 


Carriage Tile goods are all transported as back- loads on oxen or asses, 

cattle. ^ weighs eight Maunds, or a little more than 194 lb. 

The hire for four computed Sultany cosses is one Fanam, or nearly 
7^d. In the Ghats, owing to the badness of the roads, the cosses 
are very short. Good cattle travel four cosses a day, and middling 
ones three cosses. A good ox costs eighty Fanams, or about 
Si. 9s. lid. and must be fed with grain. The asses are only em- 
ployed by persons of the lowest cast, who trade in grain and salt; 
yet, if any pains were taken with the breed, they would in this arid 



country be cheaper means of carriage than oxen are. A good ass, CHAPTER 
that costs five Rupees ( lOjr. lOrf.), will daily travel three cosses, and 
carry forty Seers of grain, weighing about eighty-five pounds. His 
keep is next to nothing. 

Caud-huUy is the first place of any note above the Ghats. Below Roads 
them, the two places nearest it are Alumbady and Kdverl-pura. 

Each is estimated to be twelvT cosses distant ; but the roads are 
bad, especially that to Alumbady, which is therefore never fre- 
quented by merchants. 

The people of Caiid-liully and Hanuru either pretend to be, or inhabitants, 
really are, the most stupid of any that I have ever seen, and the 
labouring class are most wretchedly poor. 

<)th October, — I went three computed Sultany cosses to Mat'^ Ort. o. 
hully, or Marat-hully. The natives here begin to compute distances hy 

by hours, and call what m'c have come to-day six Urualivulies, or tJma- 

hours’ journies. The hour, as is usual all over India, is the sixtieth hour’s jour- 
part of a day, or 2+ minutes. This mode of computing distances is 
employed every where in the country of the Tamuls', and an hour’s 
journey is by the Europeans of Madras called a Malabar-mile. I 
suppose it is the same with what Major Rennell calls a coss of the 
Carnatic : I’or coss is a word of Hind tstan proper, and is not em- 
ployed in the dialects of the south: but coss is a word now uni- 
versally received among the English in India; for which reason I 
use it as a translation for the Hardary of Karndta. 

The road from Caud-hully to Mat' -hully is so surrounded by uoad flown 
mountains, that the traveller has no view of the country below the 
Ghats, Except in a few places that might be easily avoided, the 
road is not very steep ; but it is very stony, as is the case with the 
country through which it passes. 

In several parts the country has formerly been cultivated, and Country, 
much of the valley is capable of being rendered arable ; but at pre- 
sent all near the road is quite waste. The natives say, that there 




Oct. 9. 

ra, a gud. 

by the Uiin* 


arc many sm.'ill villages In the valley, both south and north from 
that part of it through which wc came ; hut in the late war great 
numbers of the houses in them were ruined. Mat'-hully is totally 
deserted, except by the Pujari of its temple, which, he says, is de- 
dicated to Bralmhxvaray a brother of fiiva. With this god my 
Brahman is not acquainted. A C/toullrjj, or inn, has been lately 
built for the accommodation of passengers, whose resort will soon, 
no doubt, bring back inhabitants. 

Two rivulets, that contain perennial streams, join at Mat'-huJly ; 
and, running down the valley, meet 'the Palar, which comes from 
the south. The united streams turn to the east, and join tiie Caxxry 
below the Ghats. The western rivulet is the largest ; it is named 
BagaH, a.n<[ rises from the west side Alah/ultxv.'ixvara \\\\\. This 
hill is the only place in the Coleagala district that produces sandal- 
wood, and has on it a very celebrated temple, from whence it 
derives its name, and which is distant from Atal'-hully four cosses. 
It is surrounded by villages and cultivation. The smaller and 
eastern rivulet, from a fort that stood near it, is named Cotay. 

'Ihc fanners from the neighbouring villages, that came to sell 
provisions, were miserably poor. , Most of their stock having been 
carried olf in the late war, the greater number of the survivors liave 
been obliged to go down to the country below the Ghats to work 
as servants. Many died of hunger, and still inorc from the distascs 
brought on by want. The chief plunderers were the rabble belong- 
ing to the Nbam, and the Bruijarks, who are most ferocious ruf- 
fians, that not only plunder, but w'antonly murder, every defenceless 
person that comes in their way. My interpreter, who was in the party 
coming up with Colonel Read, contirms the truth of what the natives 
say. No exertions of our ofliicers could prevent the Brinjarks from 
plundering, not only the enemy, but the villages belonging to the 
Company that were in the neighbourhood of their route. Colonel 
Read s humanity and justice are too well known in the eastern 



parts of Mysore, for a single person there to imagine that every CHAPTER 
possible exertion for their safety was not employed. 

10th October . — I went three computed cosses to Nidy Cavil, which Oit- lo- 
in the language signifies the guard of the middle; this place 

being in the middle of the Ghats, and situated at the boundary of 
Karndta from the Chera Dham, which includes what we call the 
province of Coimbetore, and the district of Salient. 

Soon after leaving Mat'-hully, I reached the Palar, which comes I^alarmtt. 
from the south-west, and passes through a valley that is cultivated 
fronj its source <lowu wards to Nelluru, which is four cosses from 

where we joined the river. From Nelluru to the bottom of the 
Ghats this valley is very narrow, and could scarcely admit of any 
cultivation. There are, however, some level spots that might be 
culti vated, and this would add greatly to the comfort of passengers. 

I am persuaded, that Palmira trees would thrive near the banks of 
the Palar the whole way ; and their protluce would find a ready 
sale. The channel of the Palar, so far as I have seen it to-day, has 
a very moderate declivity, and at present contains a good tleal of 
water; but in many places it is fordable. For several days toge- 
ther, after heavy rains, it- is frequently impassable, to the great 
distress of travellers. In the dry season there is no streani in its 
channel; but, by digging in the sand, good water may always be 
procured. The dry- weather, however, is here of uncommon short 
duration ; for the rains from the eastward commence as soon as 

those from the west have abated. I have now been out the whole 

of the rainy season above the Ghats, and to-day I met the violence 
of the monsoon coming from the eastern si<le of the peninsula. 

The road passes by the side of the Pai,dr, and frecjuently crosses Road down 
its channel. In the dry season, indeed, this is generally used by ***“ 
travellers. A good road, and one of easy declivity, might without 
much trouble be constructed. At present, nothing can be worse. 

The hills on both sides are steep, and covered with trees; but few of 
them are of a size fit fur timber. 





Oct. 10. 
Strata of the 

The strata of the Ghats run north and south, and are vertical. 
They are so much intersected by fissures, as to he of little use for 
building. In one place I found large concretions of lime-stone, 
resembling those found at Malistvara Betta^ which have the appear- 
ance of the petrified nests of white auts : but here the masses were 
infinitely too large to have derived their origin from such a source. 
The ore of iron, in form of black sand, is very plentiful ; but in this 
neighbourhood none is smelted. 




/^CTOBER 11th, ISOO. — Nidy Cavil, at which I have now arrived, CHAPTER 
is situated on the frontier between Karndta and Chira Dhams, 
two of the ancient divisions in Hindu geography. It was formerly Oct. ii. 
a small fort, and was occupied by a few Sepoys; but the fort is 
now in ruins, and the guard has been withdrawn. A commodious Accommoda- 
building lor the convenience of passengers had long ago been 
erected by Guttimodaly, a person who seems to have had great in- 
fluence in Chera. This has lately been repaired, and placed under 
the care of a Brahman, who receives from government four Rupees 
a month, and has seven cows allowed him to serve gratuitously all 
travellers with milk. This is perfectly according to Indian custom; 
but by no means answers the purpose of procuring milk for the 
passengers. The Brahman, having no object to attain by attention 
to the cattle, is contented with drawing from them as much as will 
serve himself; and of this he will spare a little to any rich traveller, 
from whom, of course, he expects a present of five times its value. 

A shopkeeper has also been established here, w'ith a monthly salary 
of two Rupees. He ought to keep a supply of provisions for all tra- 
vellers who choose to purchase them ; but he complains, that he 
has very few customers, every one bringing with him a supply of 

The Brdhman and shopkeeper say, that every day, on an average, Trwie. 
about twenty oxen loaded with goods pass this way. During the 
government of Hyder, ten times that number usually passed. A com- 
pany of the traders called Lumbadies, that employed l!2,000 cattle, 

VoL. II. B b 





Oct. 11. 

Honii down 
flic Ghats. 

of ilic COlHl- 


Poi'ijtira of 

obtained from the Sultan a monopoly in every article of commerce, 
except cloth, tobacco, jiml boiled butter, ■which continued open. 
These Z//wi3r/r//t’i‘ dealt chiefly in grain, large (juantitRs of which 
tliey brought from the low country for the supj)ly o\' Serin ^apalum. 

To-day I went three computed cosses to Chica Cavil, at the 
bottom of the Ghats. The road is by no means steep ; but the 
day’s journey was laborious, as tve were tibliged to cross the Pahir 
four times, and it was exceedingly swollen by the heavy ruins. The 
road, I believe, might readily be conducted, the whole way, on one 
side of the river j but, as the stream for a great part of the yi-ar is 
inconsiderable, travellers have been in the habit of crossing it on 
the slightest difficulty ; and thus the path has been formed in a 
manner very inconvenient for those who are compelled to pass it 
after heavy rain. 

The lulls on both sides of the river are steep, but afford abun- 
dance of pasture for cattle, and in a few places leave level spots, 
that might be made comfortable abodes for the managers of flocks, 
or for the cultivators oi Palmira trees. From the hills on cither 
side, several small clear streams run into the Pahii\ Chica Cavil, of 
the Small guard, is a house built for the accommodation of pas- 
sengers, on a rising ground above the Polar, where it enters the 
valley watered by the Cavery, as that river conies south from jllum- 
badif. From the rising ground, those who delight in rude scenes 
of nature may enjoy a most beautiful prospect. The valley watered 
by the Cavery is here very rough, and contains few people and 
little cultivation. 

'ihe inhabitants of this neighbourhood are a strange mixture of 
those who speak the languages of Karndta and of Tclingana. These 
last have j)robably been introduced by the Polygars of Aluvibady, 
named Aruluppa XdiJus, and who were of the Jiui cast, who among 
the Tetingas are the bearers of palanquins. 'J’hcy were troublesome 
ruffians, mIio possessed the rough country on both sides of the 
Cavery, as it descends the67n/ft; until the last of them siiRered 



himself to be deluded by the fair promises of Trimulaia, a Brahman, CHAPTl’Il 
who in the government of Hyder was Amildar of Kdveri-pura. The 
Br&hman, after several visitc, and many professions of friendship, 
at last induced the Polygar to make liim a visit with few armed 
attendants. Immediately on his having got the Polygar in his 
power, regardless of the ties of hospitality, the Amildar hanged the 
ruffian ; who met with a merited fate, had it been inflicted by ho- 
nourable means. Such policy, however, is not unusual among the 
natives of Asia. 

Tlie chief of a neighbouring village, who supplied me with pro- Querulous 
visioi’.s, was exceedingly disposctl to complain. He first told me, thc nutivcL” 
that, since the Comjiany had ac(juirc<l the government of the 
country, his nmt had been raised from 6’ to 1 1 Pagodas a year ; but, as 
I knew that the rent was fixed on the fields, 1 soon brought him to 
confess, that he now occu[)ied much more land than he did under 
7//>/wo's government. He then complained, that now he could not 
cheat the government: in former times, by means of a small bribe, 
lie could get excused from paying a large share of his rent. 

These rents are all paid in money, the whole cultivation in this Tenures sni 
valley being that of dry grains. They are fixed on each field by a 
valuation made in the reign of the Sultan, tvhich is very unequal ; 
but people have lately been employed to measure all the arable 
lands, with a view of making a more just assessment. The Gauda, 
or chief of the village, prefers paying his present rent to an equal 
division of the crop ; and says, that he would he contented to give 
government one third of the produce. Owing to the dilapidations 
to which such a mode of paying rent must be subject, it is evident, 
that the public, by what is called an equal division of the crops, 
would not in reality get one third of the produce: the present rent, 
therefore, is probably not excessive. 

Th^Gauda complains also, and I believe with reason,. of the great Poverty of 
jroverty to which the people are reduced by the plundering of the 
Lumbadics, who in the last war supplied tlie army with grain. He 





Oci. 11. 

Tacary^ or 
inoiu'y ad- 
vanc'd to as- 
hist pour cul- 


Strata of the 

acknowledges that the collector offered to advance money to 
enable the farmers to carry on cultivation, and that none was 

The reason he assigns for this is, that the money advanced, or 
Tacavy, M'as to have been repaid immediately after cutting down the 
crop: the farmers would therefore have been under the necessity 
of selling at once the whole of their grain; and thus, by glutting 
tlic market, they would have been great sufferers. A great many 
of them, who have now been forced to work as labourers, would 
have thankfully received Taeaxy, to be repaid, by instalments, in 
the course of two or three years. It must, how'cver, be evident, 
that such advances are extremely inconvenient to any government, 
and perhaps could not be made without doing injustice to those who 
paid the taxes necessary to raise the money a<lvanced. Nor are 
.such advances in general attcnde<l with any national advantage; 
they do not enable the people to cultivate one acre more, and arc 
an assistance only to some individuals, who, if they did not receive 
advances to enable them to cultivate their own fields, must hire 
themselves out to work on the fields of those who have stock. 
'I’hcy arc, however, a favourite maxim of Indian policy; partly as 
having a popular appearance of liberality, and partly as opening a 
great held for corrupt partialities. 

The hill producing .sandal-wood is three cosscs distant from 
Chica-i'axil. It is here called Pumshy conda^ w'hich is its proper 
name; that by which it is commonly called above the 6r7/«/.y is 
tlcrivcd from Mahd-dcvh“wara, a temple built on it. The Mussulman 
who is employed to cut the sandal is said by the querulous Gauda 
to use the neighbouring people very ill, and to give them no pay. 
It ajipears to me, however, that ihzGauda is not a man likely to 
suffer any injustice without complaining, and he does not say that 
he has ever in vain applied for redress. 

In the above this place the most common are gneiss, 
and a quartz strongly impregnated with iron. Jiothaie vertical. 



and run north and south. They are much intersected by veins and CHAPTEIl 
fissures ; so that no large blocks could be procured. The most re- 
markable mineral phenomenon here is the lime-stone, or Tufa cal- 
caria. In its nature it entirely resembles the Congcar of Hindustan 
proper. Some of it is whitish, and some of an earthy brown. It is 
found in very large masses, many feet in length, and often six or 
eight in thickness. It appears to me to have been once in a state 
of fluidity resembling thin mortar, and to have flowed irregularly 
over many large spaces of these Ghats ; after which it has hardened 
into its present form. Where it flowed through earthy or vegetable 
matters, it filled up the interstices between their parts ; and after- 
wards, having been freed from them by their gradual decay, and 
the action of the rains, masses of it are now exposed to the air per- 
forated in all directions, like that v'hich I found at Malaiswara 
Bctta. In other places, this liejuid has flowed among -the decaying 
masses of rock and gravel. It has filled up all the veins and rents 
of the former, and united them again into a solid mass. With the 
gravel, it has formed a substance entirely resembling the mortar 
made of quick-lime and that matter, but of a very great hardness. 

This rock is therefore evidently of a much later formation than the 
strata of the mountains; having been formed after tlicy began to 
decay, and even after the formation of mould and vegetables. 

12th October. — I went five computed Malabar hours’ journey, Oct. 12 . 
which, 1 suppose. Major Rcnncll would call five cosscs of the <'^f’thi-'coun- 
fiatic, and came to Kdccii-pura, The country in general is level, f}’* 
but very stony, and full of rocks even with the surface. About 
forty or fifty years ago it is said to have been wholly cultivated, 
so far as the rocks would permit; and the soil is a red clay and 
sand, very productive of dry grains. Ever since, from the unsettled 
state of the country, the cultivation has been gradually on the de- 
cline ; and now the country is entirely waste and uninhabited, 
except in the immediate neighbourhood of K&ceri-pura, where a- 
little wretched cultivation is visible. The fences here are commonly 



CHAPTER built of loose stones, in a manner similar to the sheep-dykes of Gal* 
loway, which keep out cattle remarkably well. Those near Kuveri- 

Oct. 12. jjj.g badly constructed, and, as usual with Hindu fences, are 

kept in had repair. 

6hat$, The mountains, viewed from the banks of the Cavery here, do not 

appear to be higher above the level of the country than they did 
from Satteagala above the Ghats. This is probably owing to their 
eastern ridges being lower than those to the westward, but yet suf- 
liciently high to conceal the others from the view. The Cavery 
here is at present a wide and strong, but smooth stream, which is 
no where fordable ; but in the dry season it has fords every where. 

Kdveri pura. The fort of Ktiven-pura is said to have been built by Gutiimodaly, 
who was Polygar of much of the neighbouring country ; and who 
also, in order to protect his territories from the Polygars of the 
hills, built Nidy-Cat'il, and Chka-CaviL The suburb is at some 
distance from the fort, and contains about a hundred liouscs, with 
the ruins of a much greater number. It is said, however, that the 
place Avas never larger, nor more populous, than at present ; and 
that the ruins are Houses, Avliieh were built by a Hussein Saheb, who 
wished to have enlarged the town, but never could induce inhabi- 
tants to occupy his buildings. The place did not suffer from the 
Lumbadies under Colonel Read, as he could spare a guard to repress 
thcjr barbarity ; but they are said to have plundered many villages 
on the opposite side of the river, Avhich then belonged to the Com- 
pany, and was under his government. The greater part of the popu- 
lace inhabiting Kdveri-pura speak the TamiU language. Most of the 
Brahmans speak the language of Karmila, or the Canarese as we call 
it. They seem to be still more brutally ignorant than the people 
of Mysore south from the Cavery ; and I soon found the only two 
officers of the place, the chief, and the accomptant, to be inveterate 

Iiiisation. The fort is separated from the suburb by a rivulet named Swayam* 
vard-palluntf which formerly filled a large tank, named SwayamcarA 


Eray, M’liicli is situated cosses, or about 5 miles, south-west from CHAPTEE 
K&veri-ptira. It supplied Avith Avater as much ground as sowed 

16.000 Seers of rice, or probably about 520 acres; but unfortu- 12 . 
nately it burst down more than fifty years ago, and has never since 

been repaired. The SuU/m ordered an estihiate to be made of the 
expense necessary for tlie purpose; but .finding it to amount to 

18.000 Pagodas, or about 6 OOO/., he desisted. 

This is a considerable thorough-fare between Dalaxcai petta, Co* Tradt. 
mara pallium, Pallaputti, Neriuja-petta, Ama-petta, Erodu, Tuduputti, 

Silodu, Aravacurcky, NangapulU, Womaluru, Salim, Rashepuram^ 

Namaculla, Sadamangalam, and Dindigul on tlie one hand ; and on 
the other Gutaiu, Naggara, Seringapatam, Gubi, Coliagala, Coud~ 
hully, and Band-hully. A custom-house has accordingly been 
erected; but as the duties are farmed, 1 could not expect the offi- 
cers to give me a fair account of the exports. In the course of the 
last two months, they say, there has passed nearly, 

Of cloth 

Loaded oxen. 


Of tobacco 


Of Ghee, or boiled butter, 


Of castor oil 


Of poppy seed 


Of Goni, or hemp 


Of Palmira Jagory 

- - 50 

Of potstone vessels 

- - 5 

495; or about 

eight loaded oxen daily. 1 have met between forty and fifty 
loaded cattle every day, since I left Coud-hully ; but such a great 
number may have been accidental. By the account of the people 
at Nidy-Cavil, about 20 cattle passed that place daily ; and one 
half of these being taken, as those going up, will agree tolerably 
well with the account which the officers of Kdveri-pura gave. The 


of the cuuii* 

CHAPTER trade ill Tippoo's reign was, it is said, much more coiisiilerahle; but 
then it consisted chiefly in grain, which the reduced population 
Oct. 13 . in Seringapatam renders no longer necessary. 

Houscsofthe 13 th October. — I went ten Malabar hours’ journey to Navaputty; 
natives. villages, having formerly been the principal of nine 

adjacent hamlets. It is a sorry place, containing about twenty 
houses. The huts of the country, called Chh'a, are like bee-hives; 
and consist of a circular mud wall about three feet high, which is 
covered with a long conical roof of thatch. Contrary to what 
might have been expected in a hot climate, but agreeable to the 
custom of almost all Hindus, one small door is the only out-let for 
smoke, and the only inlet for air and light. Each family has a hut 
for sleeping, another for cooking, and a third for a storehouse. 
Wealthy men add more huts to their premises, but seldom attempt 
at any innovation in the architecture of the country. 

Appearance To some distance from Kdveri-pura the plain continues, but it is 
rti^hecouii- gj-tremely rocky and poor. Afterwards there are many high moun- 
tains, reaching from iheOhats to the Cavery. These do not form 
a continueil ridge, but are separated' into detached hills by vallics, 
through which the traveller passes from Kaveri-pura to the level 
country that is Avatered by the Bhau'dni. These vallics are less 
rugged, and contain a better soil, than the country near Kdveri- 
pnra ; but in both, owing to a scarcity of cultivators, there is much 
arable land unoccupied. The people say, that the oppression of 
Tippoo, and of his olficers; drovB many of the cultivators to forsake 
their homes, and , retire to the country, under the just and humane 
government of Colonel Read. Last year a great number of their 
cattle perished, owing to the epidemic distemper, 
mgation by On the north side of the range of hills is'a fmc little river, named 
r«L*.**** the 'fumbula, or Cblatur, from its having passed through a large feser- 
'da. voir named Colntur Eray. BetAveen this, and Avhere the river joins 

the Cavery, had been formed four rescrvoiiis ; and nearer the source 
Vencata Raya had formed t fifth, called after his OAvn name. About 

Irrigation by 
means of the 
river Turn* 


50 years ago this gave way after a heavy rain, and the torrent broke CHAPTER 
down tlic mounds of all the reservoirs in the lower part of the rivu- 
let. They have never since been repaired, althougli the quantity 
of ground which they watered is said to have been very consider- 
able. A Brahman has tliis year made a small dam on the Tumbula, 
and the cultivation of rice has again commenced. 

Near this rivulet is a small town named Shamlif with a fort cn- Cvttimodaly, 
tirely in ruins. It was built by Gutthnodalj/, who lived at a place 
called JVomaluru, distant 16 Malabar hours’ journey toward the 
east, and which is probably the IVomhhitllorQ of Major Renncll. 

About a hundred years ago this prince’s territory was conquered 
by the Mysore family, after an obstinate resistance. Shamli fort 
nas at that time destroyed, and has never since been repaired. 

In this country the cultivation of Palmira gardens is pretty ex- palmirm 
tensive. This tree is the Borassus Jlaheliyormis of Linnaeus, the Tdl S^^dcr 
or Tar of Bengal, and the Parma Maram of the Tamuls. In many 
parts of India it grows almost spontaneously, but here it is reared 
w'ith some care. It thrives best in a strong black clay, next on the 
red soil commonly used for Bogy, and it will also grow on the poor 
sandy soil called here Manul\ but its produce is then very small. 

When a new plantation is to be made, the ground in Adi (13th July 
to 13th August) is ploughed twice. The fruit for seed is gathered 
in the beginning of this month, and kept in a heap until the end ; 
when the field is ploughed a third time, and the seeds, having been 
separated, are put into the ground at the mutual distance of three 
cubits. They are placed in the bottom of a furrow after the plough, 
and arc covered by the next. For 9 or 10 years the young palms 
are secured from cattle by a fence, and require no fartheu care. At 
this age they are about si.x feet high ; and, as cattle cannot then 
injure them, the fences arc removed, and the garden is used for pas- 
ture. W'hen the trees have been planted in a good soil, they begin 
in 30 years to produce Callu, or Palmira-wine ; but in a poor soil 
40 5 %ear 8 are required. When they have arrived at maturity, the 
VOL. II. C c 





Oct. 13 . 



ground between the trees is cultivated every year for grain ; but 
this, although it increases the quantity of Palmira-juice, yields not 
more than one half of wha the field would do, were it not planted. 
This palm is supposed to live a thousand years; that is, it lives 
longer than can be ascertained by tradition. No care is taken to 
plant young trees in place of the old ones that have been destroyed 
by accident, or by old age ; bubyoung ones spring up in the empty 
spaces from the fruit that drops from maturity. I observe, how- 
ever, that in most of the plantations the trees are at great distances; 
and it is said, that many of the young ones are cut down for their 
cabbage, or central young shoot; while the bears and wild hogs 
eat most of the fruit that falls. 

This palm produces juice five mouths in the year, from about the 
1 1th of January until the 11 th of June. The stem must be cleared 
from all the roots of the branches, which is attended with a good 
deal of trouble ; and the workman mounts by means of a strap 
passed round his back, and a rope round his two feet. An active 
man can manage forty trees, but an awkward fellow will only ma- 
nage fifteen. I'hey are all of the cast called Shanan, or in the plural 
Shanar. Before the bursting of the membrane which covers the 
flowering branch, and which botanists call the spatfia, the workman 
bruises it between two sticks for three successive mornings. On 
each of the four following mornings he cuts from its tip a thin 
slice. These operations prevent the spatha from bursting ; and on 
the 8th morning a clear sweet liquor begins to flow from the wound. 
A pot must then be suspended, so as to collect the liquor, as it 
drops from the spatha, A good tree will give daily about three ale 
quarts of juice, a bad one about a sixth of that quantity. If the 
juice is to be boiled into Jagorp, a little quick-lime must be put 
into the bottom of the pot in which it is collected ; in order, I sup- 
pose, to absorb any acidity, and thus to prevent fermentation. 
This is not done when the juice is intended for drinking, as then 
the stronger it ferments so much the better wine will be produced. 



111 order to make Jagory, the juice of the Palmira tree is boiled 
down on the same day that it is collected. Four pots being placed 
with a fire under their common center, about three quarts of the 
juice is put into eacli, although they could contain four times that 
(piantity ; for, in boiling, this liquor is apt to overflow. The vio- 
lence of ebullition is allayed by throwing in some bruised seed of 
the Rkinus, and by stirring about the juice with a branch of the 
Sunda, or Solanum pubescens Willd: When the juice has been boiled 
for two hours, a small quantity is taken out and tried. If it has 
been sullieiently boiled, it will form into a ball between the fingers ; 
but, if it will not cohere, the evaporation must be continued. When 
ready, it is formed into a mass, or ball, by pouring it into a hole in 
tlie ground, or in a piece of timber. Every three ([uarts of li([uor 
should give one Seer and a half, or a little less than one pound. 
This Jagory is used both for eating and distilling, and a great part 
of it is e.xported to tlie Mysore country. It sells at the rate of 32 
Tticushr 7 Rupees, or for about 5s. 3d. for the hundred-weight. 

The Shanar, or collectors of palm-wine, cultivate the ground 
among the trees, paying half rent for it; and every man takes as 
many trees as he can manage. For these he pays annually si.x Ru- 
pees ; but this not by an actual poll tax. In the accompts of the 
villages, a certain number of trees are supposed to be in each ; a 
certain number of is supposed to be able to manage these; 

and for this number the tax is pai<l. Although from nine to twelve 
men may be actually employed in a village which is rated as having 
three Slianars, tlie government receives only eighteen Rupees. It 
may in general, indeed, be observed respecting Hindu accompts, 
that, with a vast appearance of detail, tliey are extremely erroneous; 
for the minuteness is not intended to elucidate the state of reve- 
nue ; but to enable the inferior officers to confuse matters, and 
thus to peculate without detection. 

It is estimated, that a plantation of Palmira, including land rent 
and Shanar capitation, pays two and a half times as much, as the 



Oct. 13 . 

Palmira Ja^ 

Rent of palm 

Loss of rent 
in turming 
Palmira gar- 




Ocl. 13. 

Oct. 14. 

A [> pc a ranee 
ol ihe coun- 


CVt#ry river. 

.same ground cultivated for dry grains would do; but, in order to 
procure this, a total sacrilicc of between 30 and 40 years rent must 
be made Old gardens ouci t therefore to be most carefully sup- 
ported ; and the cultivators should be bound to plant young trees 
in tlie empty spaces; for a new garden can never be formed with 
advantage at such an c.vpensc, unless there be much more land in 
the country than the e.xisting stock can cultivate. This being the 
case at present, it is very judicious in Major Macleod to make plan- 
tations now, as the land that he employs would at any rate pay no 

14th October . — Having been deceived about the distance, con- 
cerning which it is very difficult to get accurate information, T 
went a very short way to Nerinja-petta, which was said to be live 
Malabar hours’ journey. I passed through a narrow plain, boundcil 
on my left liy the Cavery, and on my right by liigh hills. The soil 
of this plain, in some places, is covered with rock, and sand intcr- 
nii.xed with calcarious Tafa; but much of it is good, although, from 
a want of inhabitants, very little is cultivated. There is no rice 

Nerinja-petta is a poor open town, said to contain about two 
hundred families. The inhabitants of three hundred houses are said 
to have retired from it to the country under Colonel Read’s ma- 
nagement, in consequence of the contiibutions levied by Jemal 
Khan, to enable the Sultan to pay the sum which Avas c.xacted from 
him by Lord Cornwallis. Previous to that emigration, the place 
contained many traders and cotton weavers. These Avere of three 
kinds; Muca Chambadavar, Shaliar, and Coicular. The first have 
entirely deserted the place; and of the tAvo last only eight houses 
'■emain. The Shaliar are a tribe of Telinga origin, and are the same 
Avith who above the Ghats are called Padrna Shalay. 

The Cavery here begins to rise about the 26th of May. It is at 
the highest from the 13th. of July until the 13th of August, before 
the rainy season commences. As this advances, it decreases in size. 



but does not become fordable until after the 1 Itb of January. At CHAFFER 
Nerinja-petta a dam was built across the Carertf by Cudu Raya, one 
of the I'amily of Chica Diva Raja of Mysore. It formerly sent a 
canal to each side of the river; that on the left ran five Malabar 

hours’ journey ; that on the rij;;ht ran thi ee hours' journey, water- 
ing the fields all the way between it and the river; both have been 
entirely ruinous from tlie breaking down of the dam, which hap- 
pened at a period beyond the memory of the oldest inhabitant. 

On Valla hill, M'hich extends from Sbandi to Ncrhija-])el ta, are 
sixteen villages of Malaydla, or hill people, who on the summit of 
their mountain cultivate all the dry grains of Mysore, and have the 

Pooplf cnllrJ 


only Mango ( Mangif 'era ) and Jack ( ytrlocarpas intcgrlfoUa ) trees 
that are to be found in this neighbourhood. These villages are saitl 
each to contain from five to sixteen liouses ; but are .so difficult of 

access, that I could not visit them without a day’s halt. Several 
similar hills arc scattered through Major Macleod’s district on both 
sides of the Cavery. The inhabitants of the plains cannot live on 
these mountains; nor can the highlanders live on the plains, with- 
out the greatest danger to tlieir health. They are a distinct cast 
from the people of the plains; but quite different from the people 
of Maluydlam, or what we call the province of HJalabar, although 
both people are known hy the same name, from tlicir both inhabit- 
ing hilly countries. 

In the hills here are many black bears. These arc harmless ani- Bears. 

mals, living chiefly on white ants, wild fruit, and that of the Pal- 
mira tree. The only injury that they <lo is to tlie crops of Sholum 
(Holcus sorghum ). If a man disturb or surprise a bear, he is liable to 
be killed by the animal, but not to he eaten. It is unsafe, therefore. 

to approach these animals, especially advancing straight before them ; 
for, the bear’s eyes being turned backwards, he does not see the 
person advancing towards him until he is alarmed by the man’s near 
approach, and then attacks the sudden intruder. The bear is very 
strong, and is not afraid of the tiger. It lives in caves, and holes 





Oct. U. 



under lavi^c .stonc.s. Such is the account of the natives ; for in the 
south of India I have not seen the animal, although there can be 
no doubt that it is the Brad^pus urwms of naturalists, which is a 
real l)ear. 

The Cotu-cadu cultivation i? carried on by the ])Oor farmers of 
this neighbourhood, when they have not stock sufficient to enable 
them to plough the arable fields. Having assembled some of these, 
they told me, that the soil fit for their purpose is to be found both on 
the southern face of the great mountains, and on the smaller hills 
between these and the Cavery. It is known by its producing au 
abundance* of trees, and is in general extremely steep, being always 
situ.atcd on the declivities of the hills. It is not reckoned worse 
for containing many large stones, and projecting rocks ; as by these 
the soil is kept cool aiul moist. When a spot lit for the purpose 
has been determined, the trees are cut down in the first three 
months of the solar year, commencing on the 11th of April. To- 
ward the middle of July they arc burned ; and from about the £8th 
of that month the seed is sown, and then covered by digging the 
ground with a small hoc. The seeds are Collu (Dolichos bi/lonis), 
'lemy (Pautcum italicum), and Cambii (IIolcus spicatus). These are 
all sown separately; but with each of them is intermixed a small 
quantity of cotton seed. The season for sowing the Tcuay and 
Cambu continues until about the 13th of September; then com* 
mences the season for sowing the CoUu, or Horse-gram, anddt lasts 
for a month ; after twenty or twenty-five days the crops arc weeded. 
The and ripen in three months; but five arc required 

to bring the Horse-gram to maturity. Next year the cotton pro- 
duces, and the different grains are then sown, and hoed in between 
the cotton plants. In the third year a netv spot must be cleared ; and 
the former requires ten years for the trees to grow up again, the ashes 
cf these being a necessary manure. This ground, when it has been 
cleared, is measured, and the rent is one-fourth of what would be 
paid in the plains for a similar extent of dry-field. Major Alacleod 



discourages this kind of cultivation, as it takes away useful hands CIIAFrER 
from the plough. A man can cut down and burn the trees growing 
on one culy of land, or rather less than one acre. When he sov s, in Oct. u. 
order to do the whole (juickly, he hires as many labourers as he can; 
but he is again hired to sow the field of his neighbour. On this 
extent of land, besides one piiddy of cotton-seed, may be sown five 
puddles of Horse-gram^ and eight piiddks of Cavdni, or Temp. In the 
first year it will produce two hundred and forty puddles of llvrsc- 
gram, and two hundred and sixty of Cambu, or Tenay. The second 
year’s crop will be about one hundred and sixty puddles of Horse- 
gram, and one hundred and seventy-two of Cambu or Tenay, with 
four tiiciis of cotton-wool. One acre at this rate will in the first 
year produce about six bushels of Horse-gram, and six and a half 
of Cambu, or Tenay ; in the second year four bushels of Horse-gram, 
a little more than four of Cambu, or Tenay, and about thirty-two 
pounds of cotton-wool. 

October. — I went ten Malabar hours’ journey to 7i/,«u7bd- Oct. i.5. 
kudal, called in our maps Boriny Coral. The country on tlic right 
of the Cavery is free from hills, except one conical mountain, wliich ‘O’* 
rises from the bank of the river near Bhaxedm. The soil in general 
is stony, or sandy ; but in some places the stones arc ini.xcd with a 
strong red clay. At one reservoir, the people have recommenced 
the cultivation office, and have cleared about three acres for the 
purpose; all the other cultivation that I saw was tJiat of dry-field. 

A very small proportion of the country is, however, cultivated. 

Cambu (Holcus spicatus), \{\\\c.\\ is here the prevailing crop, 
looks much better than it did above the Ghats. At Ama-petta, a 
town containing about forty houses, and full of inhabitants, not a 
single spot of ground was cultivated ; the people being all mer- 
chants aud weavers. I crossed two rivulets, the Sltaru and Punachi. Irrigatioi.. 
The former supplied a large reservoir with water; Uut this was 
broken down by the flood that has destroyed so many others in the 
neighbourhood) and has never been repaired. The ground that it 



CHAPTER watered has been planted with Palmira trees, which arc a poor sub- 
stitute for rice. The Punachi tills a reservoir, from which some 
rice-grounds now receive a supply of water. 

The strata run north and south, and are much intermixed with 
calcarious matter, that has diflused itself among them while it was 
in a fluid state. It is chiefly found near rivulets and torrents. On 
the banks of the Sitaru I observed it under an extensive stratum of 
white quartz; but I do not think it can be from thence inferred, 
that the quartz is of so recent a formation as the calcarious tufa. 
It may have been undermined by the rivulet, and the calcarious 
matter afterwards deposited under it, so as to fill up the empty 

Lha \i(UU~ 

C utiimodaJjf 
Polifgar, and 
the lioja of 


Bliazi'dai-hidal is an old ruinous fort at the junction of the Bha- 
with the Cavery, It contains two very celebrated temples; 
the one dedicated to Vishnu, and the other to Siva ; and was built 
by a Pohjgar named Guttimodaly, who held all the neighbouring 
countries as a feudatory under the Rajas of Madura, whose domi- 
nions, including Salient, Tritchenopoly, and all the country south of 
Sholia, or Tavjore, >vcre called by the general title Angaraca, and 
comprehended the two countries called Chcra and Pdndava. At 
one of the temples there is an inscription on stone, giving an ac- 
couut of its foundation ; but as tlic hour, day, month, and year of 
the cycle are only mentioned, it is impossible to ascertain the date 
of its erection ; and on this subject the most learned Brahmans here 
profess ignorance; nor can they give any information concerning 
the time when the country became subject to Mysore, Their 
knowledge of the history of the country, tliey say, ceases with the 
overthrow oi' Roxana king of the Raeshasa, to whom it belonged, by 
Rama the king ofy^ywr/ya, M-hichhappenede.xactly 879»901 yearsago. 
The only information that they can give concerning Guttimodaly, 
except the miraculous actions performed in erecting the temple, is, 
that he was contemporary with Dalawai Rama Peya, prime minister 
to the Raja of Tritchenopoly, who was also a feudatory of the Raja 



of Madura. Both families hitermarried with the old Sliolia Rdias, CHaptkk 

or princes of Tanjore. It is probable, that all these families rose into 

great distinction after the overthrow of the kings of V'ljaya-uagara ; 

for the Brahmans here arc so little informed in history, as to think 

that the present JMarattah dynasty has been in possession of Tanjore 

for an Immense time. 

The suburb of Bluncdni-kudal is a very poor place; but, as it has TownofZ5//rt- 
become the head Cutchc.ry, or ofhee of all the district under the 
management of Major iMacleod, it will increase very rapidly; as 
the situation is very fine, and a plan for bjiilding it regularly and 
handsomely lias been laid down by that gentleman. Money has also 
been advanced to assist new settlers to build good hoy es, and it 
is to be repaid by moderate instalments. Many new houses arc 
Imilding, which promise to be better than any that I have yet 
seen in the course of my investigation. 

The slra/a at Blnacuni, although of the same nature uith those Strata. 
near the Ghats, run aI;out north-west and south-east, with a great 
dip towards the north. 

iGth and I7th Ocloher. — I remained at Bluncuni-hudal, taking an Inliospitable 
account of the state of the country, and endeavouring to repair mv 
tents, which, from having been long exposed to rain, had become 
very crazy; but I met with a severe loss in not linding Major Mac- 
leod at home.- My information was much less comj)letc than it 
would have been had I received his .assistance; and the poverty of 
the place, joined to the obstinate and inhospitable disposition of its 
inhabitants, prevented m\’ equipage from getting the repairs, and 
my servants and cattle from obtaining the refreshments, of u loch 
they were so much in need. Although veiy high prices were j)aid 
for every thing, no article could be procured, without long conti- 
nued threats of instantly forwarding, to the collector, a complaint 
of the neglect which the native otHcers showed in ol)cving the 
orders of the government of Madras. 1 purchased the very arti- 
cles sent from licncc to Seringaputam cheaper there, than wc were 
VoL, II. Dd 





Oci. Jt), 17. 

Feeble con 
stitution of 
the natives 

Tamul Ca- 

olvliged to pay for them on the spot where they grew. I mention 
these iliiriculties, M-hich are very frequently met with by travellers 
in all parts of India where Europeans have not resided long, to 
show the inhospitahle nature of its inhabitants. From the strict 
attention which I paid in redressing every injury clone by my fol- 
lowers to any person whatever, I am confident that no attempt was 
made to take any thing without full payment. 

The health of my people is jiow beginning to suffer from the 
constant change of air and water, which the natives of India do 
not support so well as Europeans. 

The Lokika, or vulgar men of the world, throughout the coun- 
tries in which the Tamul language is spoken, use a solar year called 
Surya-munain in the Sanskrit. The almanac here came from Tan- 
jore, the great seat of learning in the .snuthern part of India. The 
current year is as follows. It is reckoned the year 1722 of Sdlivd- 
hanam and the 4.901 of the Kali-yugam. This, it must he observed, 
dilfers one year in the former era, and seven in the latter, from the 
reckoning in Karndta. 

Tamul Months. 

European Months. 

Tamul Months. 

European Months. 

i'hkri 1722 - 



April 1800. 

Chitri 1722 - 



April 1800. 
















































Vjjashi • ^ - 











2 () 

















Tamtil Months. 

European Months. 

Tavtu! Months* 

European Months. 

Fyashi 1722 - 

1 1 

« 19 

May 1800. 

^ni 1722 - - 



July 1800. 

9 20 



10 21 









1 1 







Adi - - - - 



































































/1/ii - - - 



























































Avonjf - - - 
















































Oct, i6, ir. 


IX, Tamul Monthi. 

European Months. 

Tamul Months. 

European Months* 

Oct. 10, 17 . 





August 1800. 

Peratas/ii 1/22 



October 1800. 







A/pisIii - - - 






10 ' 




































1 1 






























Per at as hi - - 









































1 1 










Cartuay - - 


















i 5 









' 7 




1 8 






















; 9 








1 1 











Tamul Months* 

£urr.pcan Months. 

Tjvtul M'^nths. 

European Months* 

Carticay 1722 



"December 1800. 

Tcy 1722 - - 



January 1301. 







1 1 






























19 29 



20 30 

MaTQully - - 










































Mashi - - - 


















U)l 28 

















January 1801, 































































1 5 















Ocl. 10, 17 . 




i i 

' r< 2 mu/ Months. 

European Months. 

1 Tanul Months. 



European Months. 

Oci, 16 ‘, 17 . 


Mashi - 



March 1801. 

j Pan^uny 1 

March 1801. 




U» '.7 





17 ‘28 

Vanguivj - - 



18 29 



10 .‘30 




‘20 31 



21 1 





22 2 





23 3 



24 4 



2:> 5 



‘26 6* 



27 7 



28 8 



29 9 



30 1C 




Owing to a different manner of introducing the intercalary days, 
the beginning of the Sarya-nuinam year varies from tlic ninth tf» 
the eleventh of April. 

Weather. The following is the account given l)y the most intelligent per- 
sons of tile weather in the different seasons, or Ktfui'. 

I. Chitri and Vyashi form Vasanta Ritu, The winds are moderate, 
and from the southward, except about twice in the season; when, 
for from tcii to fifteen days, violent squalls come from the west- 
ward, accompanied with thunder and liglitning, witli pretty heavy 
showers, and sometimes with hail. Before the squalls the .sky is 
red ; at other times it is clear, with warm sunshine, and neither 
fogs nor dews. At this season the trees flower. 

II. Grixfma Ritu contains /Ini and Adi. Once in eight or ten 
days heavy showers come from the westward, accompanic<l by much 
wind and thunder, but no hail. There arc fogs on the hills, but 
not in the open country. In the intervals between the rains the 
heat is moderate, with cloudy weather, and strong westerly winds. 

III. Varshd Ritu contains Avony and Peratashi. At tliis season 



lioavy and incessant rains, for five or six days, conic from the west- CHAPTER 
ward, with similar intervals of fair weather, and are attended with 
li!>;tituing, hut no thunder, and very moderate winds. Oci. i6‘, 17. 

IV. Surat Jilt u contains /■llpislii and Carlicajj. In the former, 
heavy rains come, once in six or eight days, from the north-east. 

Kacli full in general continues a whole day. There is very little 
wind, and the heats are hy the natives reckoned moderate; that is, 
to an Knropean they are not ahsolutcly frying. \n Carticuy, there 
are usually only two or three days rain, wiiich also comes from the 
eastward. Tiie winds arc moderate, and easterly. The air is cool. 

Toward tile end of the month there are heavy dews. 

llcmanta Jiitu contains ami Tey, About the middle 

of JJar^iiliy there are sliowcrs for three or four hours in the day, 
with moderate winds from the .south, and some thunder. At other 
times there an; heavy dew.s, with a very cold air, and south-casterjy 
w inds of very moderate strength. The sky is sometimes clear, and 
at others cloudy. 

^T. Suyxiiii. Ritn contains and PrtWgMwy. Tow.ards the end 
oi' PaugHuy iherc are sometimes squalls from the westward, with 
thunder and rain ; hut the greater part of the se.ason is clear and 
Jiot, with light breezes from the south, and moderate dews. 

In the soutliern parts of tlie Coimbelore province, opposite to the 
iircach in the mountains at Ani-malaya, the winds in the beginning 
of the south-west monsoon are excessively violent. 

All the people here allege, that the rains are more regular and 
in greater quantity above theGhatSf than they are here. This how- 
ever appears to me doubtful : although here, as well as above the 
Ghats, the westerly winds bring the strongest rains; yet here they 
enjoy a considerable portion of the rain from the other monsoon, 
which must prevent the country Irom ever being burnt up by 
a long drought. 

Fevers and fluxes are epidemic from about the middle of October Diseases. 



CHAPTER until the tenth of January ; and generally at the same time the 
epidemic distemper prevails among the cattle. 

Oct. 16', 17- Since this part of the country has been under the management 
measurL!” Major Mf.cleod, that gentleman has endeavoured to introduce a 
regular standard of weights and measures, similar to those in the 
parts of his district that were formerly under Colonel Read. The 
shortness of the time has, however, hitlierto prevented this salutary 
measure from being completely cfl'ccted ; and the weights aiul mea- 
sures of almost every village differ from those of its neighbours. 

Land Measure according to Regulation. 

For rice-land. ST Adies, or feet square— 1 Culy square feet 576 
100 Culies - - - - =1 Chei - - .5 7,600 

The Chei is thcrefore=l V ,*rV acre nearlv. 

For dry-field, fi r feet - - - =1 Mar 

16 Mars - - - =1 Chingali 
4 Cliingalis s(|uare=l 7iw//rfzz=173,050square feet. 

The Bulla is, therefore, 3-jVo.V acres nearly. 

’YhcChingali, or chain, belonging to the collector's olficc, I found 
to be actually 102 feet 8 inches long, and very rudely formed, 
some of the Mars being live or six inches longer than others ; for 
in India such a piece of workmanshij) as a measuring chain is far 
beyond the skill of any native, who has not received long instruc- 
tion from an European. On measuring a Bulla of land, 1 found 
it tl-i-VoV acres. These differences are trifling, however, and of no 
consequence in such accounts of the country as can be procured 
by a traveller, who is constantly liable to errors of much greater 
magnitude. In this part of Major Maclcod's district,, the old com- 
putcil Clieis, and Bullas, are still continued in the acconqits of every 
village, ami every where vary from one another. 



Weights, according to the new Regulation. 

52 grains =1 Star-Pagoda. 

520 grains, or 10 Star~Pagodasz=.\ Polam. 

4160 grains, or S Polams - =1 CmcAa &cr=0.y^g~ lb. 

20800 grains, or 5 Cucha Seers =l Visay. 

166400 grains, or ^ Visays - =1 Munnagu:z=3,^,~ii^\\>. 

The Munnagu, by tlie English,' is usually called Maund. 

The old weiglits, however, are in general use, and are as follow ; 
177 grains =1 Dudu. 

1416 grains, or 8 =1 Polam. 

4248 grains, or 3 Polams:=i\ iSVer=::00,x*^Vo 

21240 grains, or 5 Seers =1 Visay. 

141600 grains, or 100 Polams=z\ 7b/a=20,-j-V^6'o h). 

By this arc sold Bctel-nut, black-pepper, Jagory, tamarinds, 
Siragum, or cuinmin-sccd, Mendium, or fenugreek, mustard, sugar, 
spices, cotton-thread, raw-silk, poppy-seed, garlic, ginger. Ghee, 
or boiled butter, and medicines. 

Cotton-wool is sold by the Tucu of 50 Pola7nsz=\0,~^^ lb. 



Oct. 16‘, 17. 

Dry Measures in use. 

56 Dudus weight of Horse-gram (seed of Cubical inches. 

the DoUchos biflorus) - - - 1 Paddy - = 

224 Dudus, or 4 Paddies - - - - =i Bulla = 181,-j^ 
8960 Dudus, or 40 Bullas ----- =:l Candaca—7a^,-J^ 
The Candaca, therefore, contains 3,fV^y bushels. 


Accompts are kept in SuUany Rupees, and fractions, J, iV, 
&c. as usual in India. The sixteenths here are called Vishuns. Tite 
variety of coins current is very great, and hardly any of them are 
aliquot parts of the Sultany Rupee; nor is there any regulated price 
Voii. II. E e 



CHAPTER for their value, the money-changers managing the affair as they 
please. The following is the market-price at present, in Sultany 
Oct. i6, 17* Rupees, and decimal parts. 

Gold Coins. 

Varahun SuUany, or Tippoo's Pagoda - Sy. Rs. 3,625 
V. Bahadury, or Hyder's ditto - - - 3,625 

Pm Varahun, or Star ditto - - - 3,25 

Feringy ditto, or Porto Novo rlitto - - 2,75 

Sultany Panam, or Fanam . - - 0,2335 

Vir'-Rdya ditto, or ditto ... 0,2222 

ditto, or ditto - - - 0,125 

•Silver Coins. 

Sultany Rupea • - - - ],0 

Pondicherry d\Xio - - - - 1,0 

Company ditto. Rupee coined at ^fadras - 0,9062 

Arcot ditto ----- 0,875 

Pmmmw, double of Madras - 0,1481 

Shina ditto, or single Fanarii of Madras - 0,0740 

Copper Coins. 

Ani Dudu, or elephant Duh of Madras English - 0,0146 
Ani Cashi, or ditto - Cash of ditto - - 0,0029 

The Sultany Rupea contains 16.5 grains of pure silver, and there 
fore would be worth, at the royal mint in the Tower, a little less 
than 2 j. But 3^ Rupees purchase one Star-Pagoda, containing 
41-^ grains of pure gold, which are worth at the same 88^</. 
nearly: besides, one Rupee exchanges for4-}-i4‘T oi' \ Sultany 
Fanams, which reduced to decimals is 4,2812, and these at the 
mint price are worth 32</. Silver therefore, both here and at 
Seringapatam, is of considerably more value in proportion to gold, 



than it is by the standard of British coin. In all calculations I shall 
vcducfi the money to the British standard hy the most common 
coins current in the province of Colmbi-torc ; and these arc the 
Siilttvni and Vir-Rdya lutnam.s : the former is worth at the British 
mint 7 toVo^^- the latter hut where t!;rcat precision 

is not wanted, the one may he tak(:.‘n at 7^r/. and the other at 6d, 
Eor clumping a Rupee into copper money, the dealers in coin take 
two Cash. If silver is wanted for gold, nothing is required; hut 
if gold is wanted for silver, nine Cask arc required for every Pa- 
goda. The shells called Couries are not current. 

Road ATcasurc. 

Distances are reckoned hy the time a man ought to take in 
walking them. The distance a man can w-alk in the ///’wt/w hour, 
or twenty-four European minutes, is called Urnallvully ; which 
must he w’hat Major llennell means hy a coss of the Carnatic, 
wlicreof o/ ygo to a degree. 7-f Urmdrcnllics are reckoned 1 Cadam, 
or day \s-journey with loaded cattle. 2y Urnalivuliies are ecjual t6 one 
Sultaini, oT Ilardary. Coa's, it must be observed, is a w'ord from 
the north of India. 

The principal native ofiicer here says, that people are now em- 
ployed in measuring the lands which belong to all the villages in 
this lately acquired division of Major IMacleod’s district. The 
measurement, however, w'ill he hy no means comjjlete ; as large 
hills and wastes are not included within the boundaries of any vil- 
lage, and will not be comprehended in the accompts. Even within 
the village boundaries it is only the lands that are considered arable, 
or as capable of being made so, that are actually measured ; steep 
and rocky places are taken by conjecture. The people employed 
to measure are called Peymashi (i. c. measurers) ; as while they mea- 
sure the land they put on it a fair valued rent, Vhich is to be that 
levied on the farmers, as soon as the valuation is complete. In the 
mean while the cultivators pay the tax to government by 'an old 



Oci. l6, 17. 

New mca- 
suremenl and 





Oct. 16, 17. 

Rent of Jry« 

Rent of wa- 
tered land. 

rental and measurement, which is extremely unequal and erro- 
neous. The fields have been found to contain from ^ more to 
double of what they o’ ^ht to do, and their rents have been found 
to be not at all in proportion to the quality of the soil. The sur- 
veyors are dependent on the collector alone ; and their reports are 
made up into proper form by fifteen clerks called Mutasiddies, who 
reside at the principal office. 

The old Bullas of dry-field let from eight to twenty-five Canter'- 
R&ya Fanams ; but it is impossible to say what this would amount 
to by the acre, owing to the inequality of their dimensions. 

Formerly the watered lands were let by a division of the crops, 
and in the country below the Ghats the government took two- 
thirds of the crop, leaving one-third to the cultivator. About 
thirty years ago this was altered by Hydcr, who introduced a fixed 
rent, the accompts being kept in Vir'-Rdya Fanams. On this many 
of the old farmers, who were mostly Rrdhmans, ran away, and the 
ground was forced upon those who remained, and the Sudras, who 
had formerly been chiefly employed in cultivating dry-field. The 
Sultdn raised the rents from Vir'-Rdya to Canter -Rdya Fanams ; on 
which all the old farmers disappeared, and the lands fell entirely 
into the hands of the Sudras, who were obliged to betake themselves 
to a better mode of cultivation, that they might be able to pay the 
high rent. The watered lands are let by what is computed to be a 
Candaca sowing. The actual rent for one of these is from eighty 
to two hundred Canter' -Rdya Fanams j but one hundred and twenty 
may be taken as the average, which is equal in value to twelve Can- 
dacas of rough rice. The whole additional rents imposed by the 
Sultdn have been removed ; and, owing to the poverty of the 
farmers, an abatement of ten per cent, has been made, from what 
was demanded by Hyder. My informant does not think that the 
land-tax under that judicious prince was by any means exorbitant- 
He says, that the farmers always prefer the division of the crop, to 
a fixed rent ; partly from their being able to defraud the government; 



and partly from those who are necessitous being obliged to sell off CHAPTER 
the whole of their grain imincd lately after harvest, in order to pay 
the rent. Such a large quantity brought into the market at once Oct. i 6 ', 17. 
unavoidably dcjrresses the price. The plan which Purnea has 
adopted in the vicinity of Scrhigapalmii seems an excellent one; he 
has there fixed the quantity of grain t(' be paid annually ; by ndiich 
means Iraud is avoided, and the farmer is not forced to sell his 
grain to a tlisadvantage. A farmer cannot be turned out of any 
field that lie has cultivated, so long as he pays the fixed rent, but 
he may give it up whenever he pleases. Advances of money, for 
one year without interest, have been made by the Company to such 
of the poor farnters as chose to accept of this assistance, in order to 
enable them to carry on cultivation. The government keeps up all 
reservoirs or canals for watering the land ; which is done by pay'ing 
money W’ages to day-labourers, under the inspection of the district 
native oHicers, or, if the work be great, under the inspection of an 
ofliccr ( Daroga, or MutashUlp ) appointed for the purpose. 

Every village had formerly an hereditary chief, or, as he is called Village offi- 
in the Tamid language, a Aliinigar ; and every large village, or *^*^‘'*‘ 
every two or three small ones, had an hereditary accomptant, called 
here Cmkapillay. An order was issuetl both by llydcr and Tippoo, 
that all offemlcrs and peculators should be dismissed from these 
offices, and new men appointed in their stead ; hut these orders 
were never enforced until it was done by Major Maclcod. Tlic 
new men are considered as put in possession of an hereditary office, 
and are liable to forfeiture on account of misdemeanour. 

On the fifteenth of November, and the forty-five following days. Manner of 
every farmer gives in to the Cmkapillay, or village accomptant, a 
list of the fields which he undertakes to cultivate for that year, CanUapillup. 
The accomptants then assemble, and deliver to the collector a list 
of all the lands that have been taken ; the rental of the lands so 
taken is then made out from the fixed valuation, and the whole 
fanners of each village are jointly bound for the payment of its 





Oct. i 6 , 17 . 
Miinigars, or 
cliiel's ol' fil- 

Inferior vil- 
lage officers. 

Pay of tlic 
village otli- 

I^ancls be- 
longing to the 
village gods. 

ble c.xuctions 

rent. This is the principal duty ot'the Catiia/pHlay, but lie is also 
bound to assist the Muuigat' in collecting the rent. 

The Miuugarsiixe not now permitted to rent'or farm their villages; 
as it was found that they spent the money, as it was raisetl from the 
cultivators, and were not able to fuKil their engagements. The 
rents arc now paid by eight nionthly instalments, which are re- 
ceived from the cultivators by the Jlfuiiigar, and immediately trans- 
mitted to thcehief officer of the district, called xi'l'almldar. M’heiievcr 
a fanner is deficient in the paynumt of an instalment, he is by tlui 
Munigar carried to the Tahsildar, who puts him in confinement 
until his eficcts are sold; and any delieieney that rliere may then 
he, is made up by a contribution from the other farmers. It be- 
comes thus impossible for any man to conceal his projicrty in order 
to defraud the government, as every neighbour is interested to 
Avatch over liis conduct. 

The only other village officer is the 7b//, n lio serves as a messen- 
ger and watchman. In villages where there is rice ground, there is 
also a Nu)(jy, or man to distribute the water, and watch over the 
reservoirs and canals. 

The whole of these arc pai<l by government, and the proper allow- 
Ance is for the Mumgar two per cent, on the rental ; for the Cani- 
capiUay two per cent. ; fur the Toti 1:^ per cent. ; and for the Nitujij 
1:^; in all, per cent.: but in small villages this allowaiiee is in- 
creased, and in large ones it is diminished, so as to make the whole 

In every village there are charity lands belonging to the Gra?na 
DSvatas ; that is to say, to their priests, who in this country are 
never Brahmans. These lands are cultivated by the priest, who pays 
a small rent, but one very inadequate to their value. The Sultan or- 
dered all these lands to be resumed; but he could not carry tlie 
order into execution, and Major Maeleod does not attempt to en- 
force a measure so odious. 

The officers of government, in travelling on public business, were 



formerly provided at the different villages with forage for their 
cattle, and with firewood, without payment ; but Major Macleod 
has entirely abolished this vile practice. 

This country, uiuler Major Maclcod’s management, is divided 
into Tallies, paying annually from 28,000 to 45,000 Star Pagodas, or 
from about 10,293/. to 16,545/., if the Pagoda be taken at its mint 
value. The establishment of olliccrs for a Taluc is one TahsUdar ; 
one Sherishtadar ; three Gomastas, Miitasiddks, clerks, or agents; 
one Saraf, or money-changer; one Gola, or treasurer; six Raiasa, 
or letter-writers ; and from thirty to forty’^ Attavanies, or messen- 
gers : besides a proportion of the five or six hundred Candashara, 
or armed men, that are kept in the whole country. All these receive 
monthly wages. 

The duty of the TahsUdar is to travel through their districts, in- 
specting the cotuluct of the village officers; so as to prevent them 
from oppressing the farmers, and from cultivating any ground, ex- 
cept that which pay’^s rent. He superintends the repairs of tanks and 
canals, receives tl>c rents from the village officers, and transmits 
them with care to the general treasury. He acts as civil magistrate, 
in the first instance deciding all causes, but in every case there is 
an appeal to the collector. As officer of police, he takes up all cri- 
minals ; and, having e.xamined witnesses, sends an account of the 
proceedings to the collector, who either orders punishment, or, if 
not satisfied, personally investigates the matter. He has no power, 
without orders from the collector, to inflict corporal punishment. 
There is no jurisdiction in the province of a civil nature, that pos- 
sesses the power of life and death; a want of which authority is 
much felt, as murders and robberies are very frequent. In order to 
punish the more daring attempts of this kind, recourse has neces- 
sarily been had to courts martial. Eight chiefs of villages went to 
the insurgent Dundia, and procured from him an order to plunder 
the country. Having returned with this'eommission, they collected 
about five hundred ruffians, and plundered Sati-mangala. Thirty of 



Oct. l6‘, 17. 

Division oi* 
tlic counli V 
into 7>/Vwc.v, 
or tlisliicTin 






Oct. 16, J 7 . 

and Muta* 

The Muni- 
L^ai'y or chief, 
IS alsi) lu'ie- 
tlitaiy village 

Religious es- 
tablish me nt. 

Size 01 farms, 
and .juantity 
of stock. 

these people, having been taken, were hanged about four months 
ago. Had not very vigorous measures been taken to repress their 
barbarity, every farmer in the district was ready to have joined 
them, in order to share in the plunder of the towns. It must indeed 
be observed, that throughout India the military portion of the 
Sudra cast, who are the common class of cultivators, are all by in- 
clination addicted to robbery. 

The Semhiadar and Mutasiddies are accomptants. The accompts 
were formerly kept in the Cananse, or language of Karmta ; l»ut, 
since the country came under the Company’s dominion, they have 
been changed into the Marattah. ' Both languages seem improper 
for the purpose. The accompts ought certainly to be kept in the 
language of the Tamuls, which is that of the country, and which 
would not require the revenue officers of Madras to become ac- 
quainted with an additional dialect. 

Having assembled the most intelligent farmers in the neighbour- 
hood, they told me, that, whatever government may choose to do 
with his power and emoluments, the real hereditary vdll 

always continue to enjoy his rank as chief ; for he is the only pei’- 
son who can perform the annual sacrifice to the goddess Bhadra 
K/di, to whom in every village there is a temple, as being the 
Grama Devatu, or villa<>e deitv. 

When Tippoo stopped the allowances that had formerly been 
granted to the temples of the great gods, the revenue olliecrs col- 
lected money from the people in order to celebrate the usual fes- 
tivals. For the two last years of the Sultan's reign the Mussulman 
ollicers pocketed one half of these collections, and gave the re- 
mainder to the Bndimans ; so that none of the festivals were cele- 
brated. The people seem much pleased witii the restoration of 
their ceremonies, for which an allowance is made by tiie collector. 

In government a rich farmer would have, in constant 

employ, thirty men servants, aiid fifteen women, lie would have 
also twelve ploughs, forty-eight oxen, one hundred and fifty cows, 



and two hundred Adu^ or sliccp :md stoats. Such a man would cul- CHAPTER 
tivute fifty Bullas of dry-field, or seventy-five Chda of ricc-Iand. 

Takinjy the average excess of the estimated contents of fields, Ocu 16, 17. 
above actual measurement, to he sixty per cent, this would make 
such a man's farm about three hundred and seventy acres of dry- 
field, or one hundred and fifty-eight acres of rice-ground. The 
number of servants seems by this account to be greatly exagge- 
rated, and also the quantity of land that was cultivated by one 
plough. A farmer is now reckoned rich who has four ploughs with 
two oxen to eacl). The generality have at present two ploughs, 
and cultivate about four Bullas of dry-field, or about twenty-five 
acres, following the same rate of size for the com])uted Bullas as 
before mentioned. Although these men complain thus of their 
want of sto(;k, they must not be implicitly credited ; for, when 
afterwanls questioned concerning the manner of ploughing, they 
say, that one man is kept for every plough ; that he goes out at 
sun-rise with two o.xen, and ploughs until near noon, when he i.s 
allowed an hour for breakfast, fic then ploughs, until sun-set, 
with another team ; so that for every plough four oxen must be 

The hinds, or servants hired for the year by the farmers, are here f'icc ofia- 
calle<l Puddial, and arc on the same footing with the Batigas of 
Karn&ta. They sometimes bind themselves for a number of years, 
in which case the master advances money for their marriage ex- 
penses, and deducts so much from their monthly pay, until he is 
repaid. Unless tied down by some stipulation of this nature, they 
may change their service whenever they please. A .servant gets 
from his master a house, and from fifteen to twenty Gopdlj/ Fanams, 
or from 5s. to 6s. 8d,, a year, with a monthly allowance of twenty 
BullaSy or 1 ,tV^ bushel of grain. Their wives, when they are able 
to work, have daily wages. Day-lahonrcrs at harvest time, whe- 
ther men or women, get daily one Bulla and a half (rather more 
than ^ bushel) of the grain called Cambu. At weeding the crops, rf 





Oct. i6, 17. 



jV'wff/V, or 



Punjn, or 

J I ole us spiea- 

Of the kind 
called Arsi 

the daily wages are one Bulla of Cambu, or about of a hushek 
A man working with a hatchet or pickax gets one Gopalt/ Fmi^m 
(about ‘id.) a day; carrying earth in baskets, or the like, he gets 
^ of a Gopuly Fanam, or 3</. ; and porters, for carrying a load eight 
Grnavullia, or Malabar hours’ journey, get two Gbpdltf Fanams, or 
nearly 8il 

The implements of liusbandry arc here more miserable, and fewer 
in number, than those used above the Ghats. The farmers of C'AtT« 
have no carts, no drill plough, no rake, nor hoe drawn by oxen, nor 
do they use even a bunch of thorns to supply the want of a harrow. 
Their plough is the same with that used in the vicinity oi' Serin ga- 
patam, and they have all the small iron instruments that are in use 
above the Ghats, except the I jari, or weeding- iron. To plough a 
Bulla of dry-licld once in one day, six ploughs are re(iuivcd. 

The (juantity of watered laml, or of Nunjy as it is here called, 
being very small, I shall defer taking any account of its cultivation 
till I go to a place where it is in greater plenty. A line canal is 
taken from the Bhaxrdm here, by means of a dam ; but the ground 
that it supplies nith water is chiefly in the neighbourhood of 

The principal cultivation here is that of dry-field, which in this 
country is called Funjp. 

Cambu, or JIolcus spicatus, is by far the greatest article of culture. 
It is of two kinds, Ar.n and Natu. 

'flic Jrsi Cambu is cultivated as follows. The field is manured 
with dung. From about the Ib'th of April to the 10th of June, it is 
ploughed four times, and after each ploughing the roots of grass and 
weeds are removed by the hand. The seed is then sown broad-cast, 
and covered by the plough. A month afterwards the field is ploughed 
again ; and fifteen days afterwards this is repeated in a cross direc- 
tion, the corn being then about six inches high. The intention of 
these two ploughings is to kill superfluous plants. Weeds, as they 
spring up, are removed by the hand. In three months and a half 


the Cambu ripens. The cars or spikes of grain are first cut oft’, and CHAPTER 
immediately trodden out by oxen, and the grain cleaned with a 
fan. If kept in bales, bound up with straw, the grain will preserve 
for ten years ; but that intended for present use is put into pits, 

Avhere it will not keep more than three months. The straw is after- 
wards cut down close to the ground, and is used both for thatch 
and as fodder, for which it is here preferred to the straw of rice; 
but I observe, tliat in every district the straw which is most com- 
mon is preferred for fodder ; merely from custom and prejudice, 
without any actual or rational experiment having been made to 
ascertain its comparative value. A Jiulla land rrapiires four liulUts 
of see<l; or an acre, 0,084ti6’ decimal parts of a bushel. In a good 
crop it should jnoduce seventy-two fold, or two hundred and 
eighty-eight Bullas, which is at the rate of (i,xysho bushels an acre. 

The Ctanlni thrives best on a liglit sandy soil, callc<l liere Pa~ 

(/(igii; next lu'st on S/iiti and Krmn soils, or red and black moulds; 
next best on Cuilan Ctimy, or soil containing rounded stones. For 
this object of culture, soil containing calcarious Tufa, or fixed rocks, 
is very bad. The farmers have no knowledge of the advantages to 
he derived from a change of crops. They know that some exhaust 
the ground more tlian others; but the remedy which they ajjply is 
giving a greater quantity of manure to the crop that follows one 
of an exhausting nature ; and they often continue for many years 
successively to cultivate the same field witli the same croj). They 
arc here sensible of the advantage of fallow; but very rich people 
only have recourse to what is considered as a very expensive mode 
of improvement ; as they must pay the rent for the field, whether 
they plough it or not. In general, it is thought that the difference 
in the crop after a fallow does Jiot make up for the loss of a year’s 
rent. Cambu is not considered to be an exhausting crop. 

The Cambu seed is ditt’erent from the Arsi, and is culti- r/wjiftiiofthc 
vated in a different manner. The field is manured and then 
ploughed once between the loth of April and the 10th of May. 





Oct. l6, 17. 

Grains sown 
alon^ with 
Cnmhu. Do 
Hvhog Cats- 




Dotkhos hi* 
/lontsy or 

Between the loth of June and lOtli of July it is ploughed a second 
time. It is sown with the commencement of the rainy season, 
which generally happens from tlic 10th of July to the 10th of Sep- 
tember, though sometimes the rains do not commence until between 
the 10th of September and lOlh of October; in which case, the 
sowing of the Cambu must be deferred until the rains begin. The 
sowing is preceded and followed by a ploughing ; after which the 
crop is managed exactly like the Arsi Cambu. It retpiires five 
months to ripen, and is equal in quality to the other kind ; but 
from the same quantity of seed, and extent of ground, yields only 
half of the produce. 

With both kinds of Cambu are sown two kinds of pulse. The 
. seed of Tata Pyru, or DoUchos Catsjaug, is mixed v-ith that of the 
Cambu, to the tpiantity of half a PuiUly to the Bulla land, and then 
sown with it. If the Cambu does not thrive well, this pulse pro- 
duces about twelve Bullas, or about x bushel on the acre. If the 
Cambu is a good crop, the quantity of pulse will be about one fourth 
part less. 

AJuchu Colay, or Dolkhos Lablab, is also sown wdth Cambu. On 
the day after solving the Cambu, furrows are drawn through the 
field, at the distance of six cubits, and about two Bullas of the 
Aluchu Colay seed is dropt into the furrows of one Bulla land. If 
the Cambu grows properly, this pulse will only produce about twelve 
Bullas; but, if the crop oi Cambu be bad, that of the pulse will 
amount to twenty Bullas, or to less than f bushel on the acre. 

Sesamtm is sometimes sown mixed with Cambu ; but in such small 
quantities, us not to be an object worth particular consideration. 

Next to Cambu and its concomitants, the most considerable crop 
here is Colu, Horse-gram, or Dolkhos biflorus. From about the 
middle of September to that of October, plough once, sow the seed 
broad-cast, and cover it with the plough. It requires no manure ; 
but, if some dung be given, the crop will be greatly improved. It 
ripens in five mouths; a Bulla land requires si.\ of seed, and 


22 1 

in a good crop produces ninety-six Bullas. The seed for an acre, 
according to this, will be -J- bushel, and the produce two bushels. 

The nexc most considerable crop is cotton. It is of two kinds, 
Upmn Pirati, and Nadum Pirati. 

The seed of the Nadum Pirati, to the quantity of six Bullas for the 
Bulla land, is mixed with the usual quantity of Cambu, Colu, or Sbolum, 
and sown broad-cast, without any farther preparation than would 
be necessary for the single crop. After the crop of grain has been 
cut down, the field is ploughed four times between the plants. The 
intervals between these ploughings are from ten days to a month, 
according as rain happens to come ; for each ploughing must be 
performed immediately after a copious rain. The cotton next year 
produces a small crop in the month which commences about the 
12th of July; and a larger crop in that which commences about 
the loth of January. On the third year the field is ploughed again 
in July, and gives tljen a small crop. It is ploughed again in the 
month commencing about the middle oi’ November, and gives a 
good crop in January. The field is then manured,, and cultivated 
for tw'o years with grain. With the third crop the cotton seed may 
be again sown. The crop of grain accompanying the cotton on the 
first year is as good as that sown by itself. Some poor people sow 
a crop of Cambu. among the growing cotton plants, in the second 
and third years; but it produces very little. The quality of the 
July and January crops of the same year is equal ; but the crops of 
the second year are superior, both in quantity and quality, to those 
of the third.. The cotton, as sold by the farmers, is mixed with the 
seed, and, accoiding. to the demand, varies from two to four Go- 
paly Fanams a 2 mcm, for that of the first two crops. The produce 
of the two crops of the third year sells for about 5: of a Fanapi 
lower tlian that of the second year. 


Oct. 16, 17. 
Colton, or 

Aa.ium i?l- 





Oct. 16 ', ir. 

Produce of a Bulla land. 

Cof&ly Fanami. 

1st year, 288 Bulks of Cambu, average value - - 57 t 

2d year, J uly crop seven Tucus of cotton, January crop 8 Tucus 45 
3d year, ditto - two ditto ----- ditto two ditto 12 

GopulyFanatns n4-f 

Cotton calk’d 
Upwn Pirati. 

This, divided by three for the years employed, would give only 
387 Gbpaltf Fanam for the yearly gross produce of a Bulla land of 
the worst quality, or 3s. Qjd. an acre. 

The Gpum cotton is raised on Erum bump, or black mould ; and 
in this kind of cultivation the following succession of crops is 
taken: first year cotton; second year cotton; third year Cambu 
( Holcns spicatus ) ; fourth year Sholum ( IIolcus sorghmn). The cot- 
ton ought to have dung, hut this is sometimes omitted. The ma- 
nure is first put on, and then the field is ploughed four times, from 
about tlie middle of August to that of October. Witli the first rain, 
in the following month, the cotton-seed is sowm broad-cast, and 
ploughed down. From the 1 2th of December to the 12th of Ja- 
nuary, the weeds are removed by a small hoe named Coin. The 
crop is collected from about the beginning of .\pril until the 10th 
of May. If there come rain afterwards, there is from the middle 
of July to that of August another small crop, and then the field is 
ploughed up again for the second year’s croj), which is managed 
e.\actly like the first. The two crops of cotton arc nearly equal in 
quantity and cjuality. The Upum cotton sells for nearly the same 
price as the Nadum, although the wool is not of so good a quality ; 
but then its seeds bear a smaller proportion to the wool, than those 
of the Nadum cotton do. A Bulla of land requires eight Bulks of 
seed, and in favourable seasons produces fifteen Tucus in April, and 
five Tucus in July. The merchants sell it, with the seed, to the 
women who spin. A w'oman takes two days to clean one Tucu of 
cotton, and to fit it for spinning. 



Near Bhaxvam-kudal these are bv far the most considerable crops. CHAPTER 
But sever?) other articles are cultivated. 

Shamay, ox Panicum milh/re K. M. is cultivated as follows. The 0< t iC, i". 
field is manured, and then ploughed from two to four titJies in the 
two months following the 12th of July. In the beginning of Sep- 
tember, sow broad-cast, and plough in the seed. The weeds must 
be removed with a small hoc in the end of October, and again 
about the end of November; and in five months the crop ripens. 

The proper soil fot this is a red mould called Shin vumy ; nor does 
it here thrive on the sandy soil that is generally used for it above 
the Ghats. It does not exhaust the ground, and its straw is reck- 
oned a better fodder than that of Camhu. A Bulla land rc<juires 
six Bullas of seed, and produces three Podis, or two hundred and 
eighty -eight ByZ/fw. The acre, therefore, requires 0.12729 bushel 
of seed, and produces fi-jV- bushels. 

Varagu, ox i\\e Paspalum J'rumeulaccum of Dr. Roxburgh’s MSS. Panpahm 
and probably the Paspalum kora of Willdenow, is cultivated as fol- 
lows. The field, having been previously manured, is ploughed twice 
or thrice, from the lOth of April to the 10th of June. The scetl is 
sown broad-cast about the last mentioned time, an<l then covered 
by a ploughing. Next day the Tovary seed (Cytisus Cajan) is 
drilled in furrows six cubits distant. A month afterwards the plants 
M'ill be a span high, and the superfluous ones must be destroyed by 
ploughing the field Fifteen days afterwards this must be ploughed 
again in a direction crossing the loriner at right angles The Va- 
ragu requires seven months to ripen, and the straw is bad fodder. 

A Bulla land requires for seed six Bullas of Varagu, and two of 
Tovary. In a good crop it produces one hundred and ninety two 
Bullas of the former, and fifty of the latter. An acre, therefore, 
requires for seed ^ bushel of Varagu, and bushel of Tovary, and 
produces 4yV bushels of the former, and of the latter. 

Pant Varagu, or the Paspalum pilosum of Dr. Roxburgh’s MSS. is Patpalum 
cultivated as follows. Having manured the field from about the 





Oct. 10', 17. 


Car’ Ellu. 

Cur’ Elh 

V allay Ella, 

IIolcus sorg^ 

middle of August to the middle of October, plough it immediately 
twice or thrice ; sow the seed broad-cast, and cover it with another 
ploughing. At the end of a month, weed with the small hoe called 
Co/M. It ripens in sixty days. The straw is very good for cattle. 
It is, however, sown in such small quantities, that no estimate cant 
be formed of the produce of a Bulla land. 

Here are three kinds of Ellu, or Sesamum, that are cultivated ; 
and the seeds are always kept separate, and cultivated at different 

The Car' Eliu has a black seed, and is sown with Cambu ( IIolcus 
spicatus ), as I have already mentioned. 

The Cur' Ellu has red seed. Between the 10th of April and 10th 
of May the ground is ploughed once, sown broad cast, and then 
ploughed again. At the end of a month the weeds are pulled up 
by the hand. In three months the seed is ripe. A Bulla land re- 
quires 1-J- Bulla of seed, and in a good crop produces ninety-six 
Bullas, or one Podi. An acre, therefore, requires ■— bushel of seed, 
and produces two bushels. 

The Vullay Ellu has white seed. The field for this must be ma- 
nured, and ploughed once or twice in August, or the beginning of 
September. About the middle of September the seed is sown, and 
covered by the plough. At the end of a month the weeds must be 
removed by the hand or hoe. The ciuantity sown on a Bulla is the 
same as of Car' Ellu. It ripens in four months, and a Bulla land in 
a good crop produces sixty-four ; or an acre one bushel and 
a half. The soil proper for Ellu is Shin Bumy, or red mould ; but a 
sandy soil also answers. This crop is reckoned very e.xhausting. 

Sholum, or Holcus sorghum, is cultivated as follows. Having ma- 
nured the field, it must be ploughed twice or thrice between the 
10th of April and 12th of May, and between that time and the 10th 
of June it is sown broad-cast, and ploughed again. Next day drills 
are made for Avaray (Dolkhos Lablab ) and Torcary (Cytisus Cajan ); 
and some seeds of a cucurbitaceous fruit, called Shucum Velari Cait 



are often intermixed. At the end of a month the field is ploughed, CHAPTER 
and the weeds removed by the hand. In six months it ripens. A 
Bulla land, for seed, requires four Bulks of Sholum, and, besides Oct. i6, 17. 
the pulse, produces in a good crop two Podis of Sholum, or one hun- 
dred and ninety-two Bullas, which is at the rate of 4-iV bushels on 
the acre. Emm and Shin butnies, or black and red moulds, are 
equally well fitted for this grain. The straw is reckoned better 
fodder than that of Combu. 

Tenaif, or Panicum italicum ; JEulindu, or Phaseolus minimoo Rox- Gwins cuiti- 
burgh’s INISS.; Pacha Pijrii, ox Phaseolus Muneo-, and Cot ay Mntu, **'"“*’ 

. . ^ ^ 1 quaiUities. 

or Aicinus Palma Chrisii, arc also cultivated here ; but in such very 
small quantities as to render them of no importance. 

1 suspect that the produce of these crops is under-rated by the 
persons who gave me this account. 

The irrincipal native ofliccr here says, that in Major Macleod's Forests and 
district there is no forest-renter ; an<l that any person who pleases 
may cut Bamboos, or forest trees. Nor is any rent exacted from 
those who feed cattle in waste lands, except where the pasture is 
very good ; and there, for an exclusive privilege of keeping their 
herds, some people pay a trifle. The honey is collected by the far- 
mers of each village, who keep the w ax for their trouble, and ought 
to give the honey to the government. That which is produced on 
the high hills is rented by the tribe called Soligas. In this district 
there is no Lac. 

. At Baraguru and Pumchi near Alumbadii, and in one place near Sandalwood. 
Gujul-hatty, sandal-wood is procured. People are hired by the 
collector to bring it here. It is cut, on the spot, into billets from 
one cubit to one and a half in length, and the white wood is imme- 
diately removed. The rough billets are then sent to Bhmcani-kudal, 
and have as yet been all kept there just as they were brought, with- 
out being sorted or polished It is reckoned inferior in ({uality to 
that which comes from the western part of the Mysore Rdj&'s domi- 
nions ; but none has as yet been sold. None of it is stolen, and 
Vo L. 11. G g 



CHAPTER care is taken to cut that only which is ripe ; so that there will be a 
certain quantity procured annually. My informant thinks that this 
Ocu 1$, ir. will amount to about fo*'' hundred loads, each weighing eight 
Mounds of forty Ssers of twenty-four Dudus; or in all about six 
hundred and ninety-three hundred weight. 

Oct. 18. October. — I went seven Indian hours’ journey along tlie 

oft^*couu- northern bank of the Bhawdnii to Apogodal. The country through 
‘fy* which I passed is level, and well peopled ; and the quantity of 

waste land is not considerable : it indeed seems too small to be able 
to afford pasture for the cattle. I saw eight or ten acres only of 
rice-ground, and one half of that was waste. The only fences were 
a few hedges made of dry bushes. The cultivation is extremely 
slovenly, more so even than in any place above the Ghats. It is said, 
that at any distance from the river one half of the fields is waste. 
Near the hills is Andeuru, the chief place of a large district com- 
prehending K&cerUpura and Bhawuni-kudal. In its vicinity are said 
to be seven reservoirs in repair, which supply with water a consi- 
derable quantity of rice-ground. 

Jpogodd. Apogodal contains a temple of I^'ara, and about one hundred 
houses, but has not a single shop. Bazars, or shops, indeed, seem 
to be uncommon in this country ; and the inhabitants supply them- 
selves with necessaries at fairs, called here Shanday, and which 
resemble the Hants and Ganges of Bengal. Apogodal was sold by 
Hyder to a banker named Valmun Doss, who gave sixty thousand 
Pagodas on condition of holding it as a Jaghire. It then contained 
between three and four hundred houses. The head man df the 
village says, that five years after this sale, and about thirty years 
ago, the Marattaks invaded the country, and laid every thing 
waste ; since which it has never recovered its former prosperity. 
He remembers no other invasion ; I therefore suspect that the 
Marattaks he speaks of was the army of General Meadows ; all 
matter of history being In a sad confusion in the mind of a Hindu, 
He says, that after the invasion a famine followed, which destroyed 



a great part of tlie inhabitants. The epidemic distemper prevailed 
among their cattle last year, and carried off about three-eighths of 
their stock; but they met not with the smallest disturbance from 
the war. 


Oct. 18. 

When IJifder sold this place to Vabmn Doss, a small land measure Rent. 

was introduced, and a Bulla land was called one and a quarter. 
Ttppoo afterwards seized on this man's property, which was then 

measured, and what his villainous officers called a Bulla is now 

found to contain twice that extent. I measured a Bulla here, and 

found it agreeable to the standard at Bhawant-kudal. It was of a 
very poor soil, fit for Cambu, and paid ten J'anams rent, or at the 
rate of 18| d. an acre. The best dry field here lets at thirty-five 
Canter'-rapa lutnams, and the worst at five, for the Bulla. The acre 

therefore lets at from lis 6d. to nearly 9-- 

Although the farmers of Bhaivdui-kudal omitted it in their ac- Crotolmia 
count of the produce of the country, I found that on the banks of 
the river a great ileal of Shanapu, or Crofolaviajuucea, is cultivated. 

It is here raised Iiy the fanners, and, when fit for being put into the 
water, is sold to the people called Telinga Cl/ilties, who make the 
hemp, and work it u|) into Goui, or sack-cloth. The field is dunged, 
and ploughed twice, between the twelfth of July and the same day 
of August. At any time in the course of the two following months, 
after a rain, the seed is sown broad-cast, and covered by the plough. 
At the same time any bushes that have not been ploughed down 
must be removed by the hand. In order to prevent the plant from 
putting out side branches, the seed is sown vc’-y thick ; ninety-six 
Bullas are therefore required for a Bulla land, or rather more than 
two bushels for an acre. It is sold by the thousand handfuls, or as 
much as a man can grasp between his finger and thumb. Tall plants 
sell at two Rupees for the thousand handfuls, short ones for one 
Rupee and an half. It thrives best on a poor sandy soil, but is also 
cultivated on black and red moulds. It is reckoned to improve the 
soil for every other kind of crop ; but it cannot be cultivated on 



CHAPTER the same ground for two successive years. Cattle will eat the seed ; 
but when given to cows with calf, it is said to produce abortion. 

Oct. 18 . Near Apogodal, Tenay, or the Panicum italicum, is raised in 
or greater quantities than at Banwdni-kudal. It is cultivated exactly 

Ttnay. jjj^g Cambu, and ripens in three months.* Its straw is worse 

fodder than that of Catnbu. A Bulla land requires eight Bullas of 
seed, and in a good crop produces three Podis, or two hundred and 
eighty-eight Bullas: an acre, therefore, requires gallon of 

seed, and produces 6, iVg- bushels. 

Produce of principal dry crops here are explained in the following 

the most table : 






Per Bvlla* 

Per Acre. 

Per Bulla, 

Per Acre. 


Gallons, dec. 


UusheU. dec. 

Cambu ------- 





Colu - -- -- -- - 





Sholum ------- 




Varagu ------ 





Sliamay ------ 





Oct. 19 . 

of the conn* 

19th October. — I went a very long stage, called nine hours journey, 
to Nala-r&yana~pallyam, a small village on the bank of the river, 
which at all seasons contains running water, and has here many 
pools, which are always deep, and harbour crocodiles. 

More than three-fourths of the country through which I travelled 
seemed to be waste. I passed a line reservoir full of water. In the 
ground which it irrigates, cultivation was just commencing ; for 
the whole had been wa.ste last year. Several clear streams run 
down from the hills to the Bhmani. The soil is sandy, and contains 
many loose stones and rocks ; but traces are to be seen of the 
whole having been formerly cultivated. 


There being much rice cultivated near this, I assembled the most CHAFER 
intelligent farmers, and took from them the following account of 
the cultivation of Nunjyy or watered land. No rice can be made in 
this country by the rain water alone ; the whole must be artifieially of watered 
supplied, either by canals or by reservoirs. A dam on the Bhoicdn'i, *■*'"** 
three Malabar hours’ journey below Sati-mangala, scuds oft’ a canal 
to each side of the river. Tliat which goes on the south side, and 
passes through the district called Gbpala Chilly Pallyam, waters a 
great extent of ground. This one, that comes on the north side 
through Sati-mangala, waters eleven hundred Candacas of rice-land, 
and one hundred and thirty-two Candacas of gardens. Two hundred 
of these Candacas are at present unoccupied ; and a moderate repair 
given to the Dam, would enable it to water in all thirteen hundred 
and fifty Candacas of rice-land. The Candaca here is said to be as 
much ground as used to be sown with eighty Seers of sprouted 
seed, and to extend from I J: to 1-J- of the newC7/cw. It ought, 
therefore, to be on an average 75,600 square feet. The land watered 
by canals gives only one crop in the year, but that never fails. A 
little land watered from reservoirs, when the season is favourable, 
gives annually two crops; but as the supply in the tank often fails, 
owing to a want of rain, the rent of the two kinds of ground is 
nearly the same. 

Thirty-years ago the dry-field was cultivated by one set of men. Rent. 
and the watered lands by another, who paid to government two- 
thirds of the produce. This was altered by Hyder, who introduced 
a fixed rent in money, even for watered laud. On this many of the 
old farmers gave up tlieir lands, which were forced on those who 
remained, and on those who formerly cultivated only dry grains. 

Jippoo raised the rents from Vir'-R&ya Fanams, in which the ac- 
compts had formerly been kept, to SuUany Fanams, of which one 
hundred are equal to about one hundred and twenty^five of the 
former. The whole of the old cultivators of the watered lands, 
who were mostly Brdhmans, now disappeared, and the land» were 



forced upon the cultivators of dry-field, who say that they have 
thereby been reduced to groat poverty. Having a high rent to 
Oct* ly* they luive been compelled to betake themselves to greater 

industry than formerly was practised, Tlicy have given up tl)e 
sprouted-seed cultivation, which required little trouble ; and, ex- 
cept on a small quantity of poor low-rcnt:ed land, have adopted the 
more laborious culture by transplantation, owing to which the pro- 
duce of the land has been almost doubled. Those farnjers who still 
cultivate nothing but dry-field allege that they are worse oft’ than 
those who have taken rice-grounds, as, owing to a regular supply 
of water from the river, the crop on these never fails. No one, 
however, could expect, that any of these poor people should confess 
that tlicy were satisfied with their lot. A sandy loam is here 
reckoned the most favourable for rice, and, according to its four 
qualities, lets for Q30, 200, 190, and 180 SuKany Fanaim a Candaca; 
or for 4/. 2.y. 8-^^/., 3/, 11.5. I W/. 'M. 8.5. Ad. and .‘3/. 4.5. ^id. an acre. 
Black and red clay lands let, according to their (juality, for 180, 
160, I.IO, and 110 Siilla/n/ Fanaim a Candaca; or 3/. 4j. %-^d. 
2/. 17.5. 2/. 13.V. 1I J</. ami 2/. 10.5. Ad. an acre. Stony land lets 

for 140, 130, 120, and 100 Sulldny Fanarnx a Candaca; or for 
2/. KK Ad. ^il. 6.5. 9</. 2<’. 3.5. and 1/. 15.5. I \ \d. an acre. A still 
inferior soil let.s for 100, 80, O'O, and .50 Snltany Fanams a Candaca; 
or 1/. 15.5. lia.^/. 1/. 8-5. ^d\. \l. 1.5. 7}d. ami l/'-v. 1 ll-d. an acre. These 
rents .seemed so high in proportion to the extent of ground, that at 
the time I suspectetl the farmers of alleging the dimensions of the 
Candaca to be smaller than tliey really arc; but I have now reason 
to think that the statements given here are not materially erro- 

Bad practi* In Tippoo's government tlie farmers were ordered to pay for the 

coiiecK.i in "hole lands, whether they were cultivated or not: but a small part 

'lippoo t only reached the treasury. In order to prevent the people from 

vcriiiiicnt. ^ ^ ^ ... 

coniplainini;, small balances were allowed to remain in their hands, 
while in the public accompts a very large proportion of the nominal 



revenue was stated to be outstancliir*’, owing to bad seasons, the CHAPTLR 

^ IX 

desolations of war, or other pretences ; and, whatever w'as not 

allowed to remain with the farmers was embezzled by the oflicers 

of government. These, however, did not enjoy in quiet their ill- 

gotten wealth. They were in constant terror; and, in order to 

prevent information, were obliged to give very high bribes to Jffeer 

Saduv, and to officers who were sent round to inspect the state of 

the country. The illicit gains of even this description of officers 

did not enrich them. They were ali Brahmans, and spent the whole 

of their money on dancing-girls, and in what they called charity, 

that is, money given to men reputed holy. At present, no money is 

asked for waste lands ; but the fiirnters must pay the full rent for 

what they cultivate, and all those of a village are bound for the 

rent of each individual. To this they seem to have no objection, 

and say, that they never scruple receiving any new cultivator on 

account of his poverty. 

The farmers are very anxious to be put on the old footing of Division of 
paying the two-thirds of the produce. In order to procure this 
indulgence, they say that they would undertake to cultivate every 
spot of ricc-land ; but confess that they Avould return to their old 
habits of indolence, and cultivate only the sprouted seed, by which 
not only the government would lose much, but the produce of the 
country would be diminished by at least one half. Trom the state- 
ment given by these men of the produce of their lands, it does not 
appear that at present they pay more than two-thirds of tlie pro- 
duce; their great object, therefore, in the wished-for change is, 
to have an opportunity of defrauding government in the division 
of the crops. 

Transplanted rice is here called Nadavu, and sprouted-seed is Cultivation 
called Cat Varupu. The kinds raised, with several particulars at- 
tending their cultivation, wdll be seen in the accompanying table. 

The produce stated in this is that of the best soih, except in the 
case of the kind called Caru^ which now is raised only on the very 



CHAPTER lowest rented fields. The first two kinds in the table are those by 
far most commonly cultivated ; the others, ripening in five mouths, 
Oct. ly. at’c sown chiefly on rich lands, that give an after-crop of ElUi 
(Semmum) or o( Shampu (Frotalaria jmcca), which compensates 
the deficiency of their produce. All the kinds keep equally well, 
and the rough rice will keep four years in store-houses. Previous 
to being put up in these, it must be carefully dried in the sun for 
three days ; and the floors, walls, and roof of the house ought to be 
well lined with straw. It ought not to be opened again until 
' Avanted for consumption. 

Table explaining the cultivation of Rice at Nala-rayana-pallyam, in the 

Coimbetorc Province. 



jCrop for which! -3 3 
each is fitted. | ^ o 


u- - 

® I' 




it « 

> 3 
tC o 

On a Candacd^knd, 

Quantity.] Value 

On an Acre. 

Quanrity. Value, 

Puhnnum - - - Transplanted 7, Coarse 

Jt'fla MulHgy - - ditto 6 ditto 

Dexa lii/ya tSujfibata ditto 5] Small 
Giindu Mvlligy - ditto .5 Round ^tsma 
Shitta Vo'^um - - ditto 5 Small 

Caru - . - - Sprouted seed' 3^ 




s.d,dec,\ Canddca. ’■RdyiFanA Bushels. I/. s,d 
1 .5,jt);()0 to 35j>80 to 440 |90‘ to 88, () I 7 t >6 

1 6,2 
I 6', 21 
1 6,24 
I 3,02 




60 to ,'551480 10 440 196 to 88’6 1 / t ;> 6 j 

■50 to 45 hw to 3S2i so to 17 tjo () a 

50to 45|t25'to 3»2{-80 lo72|(j 17 *5 9 3 

35 to 3(»j298 to 255 5() to 4814 5 I j 1 ) 3 12 11 ' 

jSO to 20,2 lO to 140 4S to 32{3 0 li t ) 2 0 0| 

traiwpiantd following is the manner of cultivating the Nadavu crop. In 

crop. the month following the 12th of July, the ground for raising the 
seedlings is inundated, and ploughed twice. The labourers then 
tread into the mud a quantity of the leaves of the following plants. 
Colinji, or Galena purpurea ; Catcotay, or Jatropha Curcas; and 
Eraa/ellay, or Asclepias pgantea. The seed, which is preserved in 
CHayi, or straw bags, is then put with its covering into water, 



where it soaks a whole night. Next day it is kept in the wet bag, CHAPTER 
and on the third day it is found ready for sowing, having pushed 
forth small sprouts. The field is sown on the third day after the 
leaves have been put in, being covered to the depth of one inch 
with water. The seed is sown broad-cast, and excessively thick, or 
at the rate of forty-eight Candacas of seed for one Candaca of land. 

This serves to transplant into thirty-two Candacas; so that one 
Candaca and a half of seed arc required for a Candaca of land, or 
2-i*o bushels for an acre. On the day after sowing the seed the field 
is drained. Every other day, for four times, it is covered in the 
morning with water, which is let off again at night; afterwards it is 
kept constantly inundated, deeper and deeper as the plants grow. 

The proper time for transplanting is between the thirtieth and 
fortieth days; but poor people arc often compelled, by want, to 
protract the operation until between the fortieth and fiftieth days, 
which injures their crops. In a few days after the seed is sown, the 
fields in which the seedlings are to ripen are inundated for three or 
four hours ; then ploughetl once ; then inundated for eight days ; 
then ploughed a second time, having been previously drained ; and 
at similar intervals they must get a third and fourth ploughing, 
with intervening inundations: so that the fourth ploughing must 
be on the twenty-fourth day. The field is then kept inundated 
until the rice is going to be transplanted ; and, superlluous water 
having been let off, the mud is then ploughed a fifth time, and 
smoothed with a plank (^Pariimhn') drawn by oxen. The seedlings 
are transplanted into it in the course of that and the follow ing day. 

The seedlings, after being plucked, may be preserved in water five 
days before they are planted. After liaving been transplanted, 
they are allowed water, for the first time, on the fifth day. This 
water is drained as soon as the field has been filled ; and for 
the next eight days it is allowed to run in at one side of the field, 
and out at another. The field is kept afterwards constantly inun- 
dated, except on the day when it is to be weeded, which is the 
VoL. ir. ' H h 





Second crop. 

t allul Car* 


fortictli after it lias been transplanted. JVlien the ears are full and 
from their weight begin to incline, the water is let olF in order to 
ripen the grain. The rice is cut down close by the gruuiid, arul im- 
mediately afterwards is put up into stacks, without having been 
hound in sheaves. Nc.\t day it is threshed by striking handfuls of 
it against the ground. The straw is then exposed to the sun for 
three days, and then trodden by oxen, in order to procure the re- 
maining grain. That intended for seed is exposed four or live 
days to the sun, and is then tied carefully up in bags of straw, 
A plough, with one man and four oxen, is said to be able to culti- 
vate only one Candaca of land ; and to the amount of live Candaais 
of rough rice is required for extra-labour at seed-time and harvest, 
and for other small charges. 

The Cai Farapu, or sprouted seed cultivation, is as follows. In 
the month after the 13th of July, the field is watered, and 
then ploughed. Afterwards it has three other ploughings in the 
course of twenty-four ilays, and in the intervals is inundated. It is 
then watered for four days, ploughed a fiftli time, and smoothed 
M ith the plank drawn by oxen. Tlie seed is prepared in the same 
manner as for the otlier mode of eultivation, and is sown broad-cast, 
at the rate of ont Candaca to one CandacaAviwd, or of bushel to 
an acre. For the first three days it has no water, after which once 
in three days, for four times, it is watered an hour. On the thirtieth 
and forty-fifth days the weeds arc removed, the field having at 
both times been drained. The crop is afterwards managed exactly 
as in the transplanted cultivation. It is allowed no manure. 

Upon some of the best land a crop of EUu, or Slianapu, may be 
taken in the same year with a crop of rice: the former is thought 
to exhaust the soil, the latter does no harm. 

For Car' Kllu the ground is ploughed betw^eenthe 10th of March 
and the 11th of April. It is then sown broad-cast, and the seeil is 
covered by a second ploughing. In three months it ripens without 
faithci trouble, and is followed by a crop of any kind of rice. On 



a Candaca-land are sown five Seers, or two Jiullas of seed, aiul the CHAPTER 
produce is four LUmdacas. An acre, therefore, sows of a 

gallon, and produces 1 bushels. This is of an inferior quality Oct. 1.9. 
to the Eltu, or Sesamum, is |)roduccd on dry-lield. 

'I'hc Sfianapu, or Crotolaria, is cultiv.atcd on fichls that have Cmiolarcn 
produced a crop of rice, hetween the 12th of January and the • 2th 
of Ecbruaiy. In the following month, water the field, sow the seed, 
and cover it with the plough. Once a month it requires to be 

watered, and it takes four months to ripen. Tltis is more valuable 
than the hemp cultivated on dry-field, and sells for »bout twenty 
I'ir'-Rnpa Famms for the thousand bundles. A Crwf/rtcrt-land re- 

quires three Candaccis seed, and produces four thousand bundles. 
An acre, therelure, recjulrc^ 4, --V bushels of seed, and its produce is 

worth about 1/. 2.v. K'id. 

20th October. — 1 went six J/u/u/i/O' Innirs’ journey to Juacodaverif, Oct. ?o. 
tlie place where the canals are. taken from the river Uhaxcdin to 
water the rice grounds wliieh I described yesterday. The dam by 
which tlie water is forced into these canals is said to have been 
built about one hundred and twenty years ago, by Nunjaij Rdjd, 

father of Ct/«/iT /idyrt Mysore. It is a good work; but in the 
reign of the Sultan it had been nearly '^choaked up, and very little 
of the rice ground was then cultivated. It has lately been cleared, 
and, as I yesterday stated, the greater part of the fields has been 
brought into cultivation. 


In the immediate neighbourhood oi' Codavery, most of the fields of tl.o 
are not watered land, aud not above a sixth part of them arc at ^^X't'iou of 
present occupied. The soil in some places is very good ; and the 
remains of many hedges, and traces of cultivation, show not only 
that the w'hole country has once been cultivated, but also that the 
mode of cultivation was superior to any now practiseck The devas- 
tation has been occasione<l by the invasion of General Meadows, 

There was then no want of rain ; but for t>vo years cultivation was 



Oct. ao. 





at a stop ; and whatever grain was in the country was equally swept 
away by the defending and invading armies. The inhabitants re- 
tired to the hills, to procure the small quantity of grain produced 
in places inaccessible to the military ; but there, partly from hun- 
ger, and partly from disease, great numbers of them died. On the 
face of the hills is much of the Cotu Cadu cultivation, which is 
carried on partly by poor people living on the low ground, and 
partly by the Soligam, who live on the mountains, and who have 
already been described. 

The tradition here is, that there were eight or ten Gatlimodalies, 
to whom in succession this country belonged. About two hundred 
years ago they were deprived of it by the Mysore family. Chica 
Deva Raya IVodear was the fifth in descent from the conqueror. 

The farmers here sa}', that they now pay the same rent that 
they did in Tippoo's time, which is a Sultany Fanam for every 
P'lF-Rdya Fanam that they paid to llyder. The revenue oflScers 
under the late government, although they in general left out- 
standing balances in the hands of the farmers, in order to pre- 
vent them from complaining, extorted every thing that they had 
from them, by demanding payment of their rents twice, or even 
oftener, in the year : the receipts granted for the former pay- 
ments were always discovered to be forgeries. The people sent to 
inspect the state of the province were instantly bribed. In car- 
rying on public works, it was the Sultan's orders, that every person 
should be fully paid for his labour. The wages were regularly 
charged by the superintendanis, who gave nothing to the labourers, 
,but just so much grain as would keep them in existence. Access 
to the Sultan was very seldom procurable by the people who suf- 
fered by such means ; but some few are said to have reached the 
presence, where they were kindly received, and sent to A/cer Sadtu: 
for redress. They were instantly shut up in some dungeon, while 
the minister reported to his master that the delinquent bad been 



punished ; as of course he was, hy being obliged to part with all CHAFrEft 
that he had procured by his embezzlements. No man had the 
courage to complain of A/eer Saduc. 

21st October. — -I went three Alalabar hours’ journey to Sati-man- Sati-man- 
galam, which in the Sanskrit language signifies truly good. The fort 
is large, and constructed of uncut stone, and has a garrison, but 
contains very few houses. It is said to have been built, about two 
hundred years ago, by Trimula Ndyaka, a relation of the Raja of 
Madura, who governed this part of the country for his kinsman. 

The merchants, who in general are the best-informed Hindus on 
historical subjects, say, that fifty years afterwards it became sub- 
ject to Canlirava Nursa Raja of Mysore. From this long dependence 
on princes of Karn&ta, the language of that country is now the 
most prevalent, although that of the Tamals is the original dialect 
of the place, which is a part of Chha Dham. It is said to have 
formerly depended on Pandia, which formed the continental pos- 
sessions of Rdvana king of Lanca, or Ceylon. 

The Petta, or towiioi' Sali’‘tnangalam, is scattered about’the plain Indecency of 
at some distance from the Ibrt, and in Hyder's reign contained seven won.Wp.*^* 
hundred and eighty-four houses. These are now reduced to five 
hundred and thirty-six. Here is a considerable temple dedicated 
to Vishnu. The Rath or chariot belonging to it is very large, and 
richly carved. The figures on it, representing the amours of that 
god in the form of Krishna, are the most indecent that I have ever 

The country is at present very unhealthy ; and ever since we Air. 
came through the KuverUpura pass, some of my people have been 
daily seized with fevers. The days are intensely hot, with occa- 
sionally very heavy rains. The nights are tolerably cool ; to the 
natives they appear cold. 

The country through which I passed to-day is much in the same Appearance 
state with that through which I came yesterday. Above Codavery ^‘**®*““* 
there are no canals ; but there are several reservoirs for watering 




Oct. 21. 

land, nnd 
doubts re- 
specting tlie 
statements at 


Itoo ore. 


tlic groun<l. At Sati-rnangalam there were four large ones, each of 
which watered one hundred and fifty Candaian of land, or upwards. 
One of these is half repaired, the others are totally ruinous. The 
Candaca here also contains eighty Seers, so that it ought to sow the 
same extent of land as at N ala-ray ana-pallyam ; but the officers 
here say, that the Candacas of land contain from two and a half to 
four Cheis, or at a medium three ami a quarter, which is at least 
double the size allowed to them by the fanners of that place. If 
any person be inclined to prefer the account of the officers, the 
quantity of seed, rent, and produce of an acre of the watered lands 
at Nala-ruy ana-pally am, as stated from the accounts given by the 
farmers there, would re(iuire to be reiluced at least one half. These 
officers of revenue say also, that the ffirmers at Anacodavtry, wiio 
stated that they now paid the s.ame rent wliich they did in the reign 
of Tippoo, are liars; and that, in fact, the rents are now lower 
than in Hyder's government, whose assessments were seldom, if 
ever, exorbitant. 

In all the rivulets of this part of the country, iron ore, in form of 
black sand, is common ; and at a place seven Malabar hours' jour- 
ney nortli-east from hence it is smelted. 

I remained at Saii-mangalam two days, with a view chiefly of 
procuring specimens of the timber trees that grow on the neigh- 
bouring Ghats. In this, however, I failed, through the obstinacy or 
stupidity of the Serisktadar. In the. forests of these Ghats arc said 
to be the following kinds of trees, that produce good timber : 



Calicotay Tayca. 

Cad* Jehay. 



Vaycali Andersonia altissima Roxb: MSS. 

The people here allege, that the rich merchants in this country 




never live in towns, hut stay in the villages, and collect goods CHAFFER 
Avliich they carry to Ser'wgcrpatam hy the Gujul-hutty pass, and go 
thiriifv either this way, or by the ihiri/gw/w custom-house, two Oct. ei. 
miles j'r.nn Dan" NtVjakam Cotoy. The goods that arc sent up arc 
all the kinds ol’ cotton cloths made in this neighbourhood, Scsoimm 
and castor oils, (ilur, or boiled butter, tobacco, sackcloth, or Goni, 
sheep, and goals : all tlic returns are in cash. 

The weavers in this district, including fifty Goni-makers, employ Manufac- 
cight hundred looms. 'I'lic cotton wool used by them is entirely 
the produce of the country ; all the silk used for borders is brought 
troni SaJicm. I'hc cloth is either used in the neighbourhood, or 
sent to Seriugapatam. About five months ago the Commercial Re- t’ompany's 
sidciit at Salim came round the villages in this vicinity, and from 
among the weavers in each appointed a head-man to make ad- 
vances to the others. He advances to each family so much money 
as it will undertake to work for in one month. He is answerable 
for balances, and on each piece gets a commission of one CanteC- 
Jidya Faiiam, or about 7|-d. The carriage is paid by the Commercial 
Resident, and he bleaches the cloth at Salim. The only cloth that 
lie advances tor, is a coarse stuff called Shalambru. It resembles 
the Ihftas of Bengal, ami is thirty-six cubits long, by two and a 
quarter broad. It is divided into three degrees of fineness ; the 
first contains nine Calls, and sells for four Rupees and a half, which 
are worth 9 l|d.; the second contains eight Calls, and sells for 
.four Rupees, or l^d.; and the third contains seven Calls, and sells 
for three Rupees and a half, or 7s. The Call contains 2 punjas, 
and the punja 62 threads. This cloth seems to me to be cheap, and 
had never been rn^de here until the commercial resident came. 

Native merchants frequently make advances for the cloth in- Native dear 
tended for country use. These persons endeavour to keep the 
weavers constantly in their debt; for, so long as that is the case, 
they can work for no other merchant, and must give their goods 





Oct. 21. 

kinds of 

Stamp duty. 

at a low rate. When a merchant wishes to engage a new weaver, 
he must advance the sum owing to the former employer. With this 
the weaver buys goods to fulfil his old contract ; but then he be- 
comes equally bound to the person who has advanced the money- 
A few weavers are rich enough to be able to make cloth on their 
own account, and of consequence sell it to the best advantage. The 
cloth for the use of the natives is always sold unbleached. 

The weavers in this district are of two kinds, Coicular, and Jadar; 
but both make the same kinds of cloth, which are as follow : 

Shillas, or thin white muslins, 22 cubits long, and 2| or 2-i bro.a(l. 
They are very coarse, and are sometimes striped, and then arc 
called Duputtas. They sell for from 7 to 20 Vir'-llaya Fanams, or 
from 3s. S^d. to Qs. lid. apiece. If commissioned, the pieces are 
sometimes made of double length. 

Shoman is the same kind of cloth with silk borders. The pieces 
are from 22 to 24 cubits long, from 2^ to 3 cubits broad, and sell 
for from 8 to 40 Vir'-Ii&ya Fanamsy or from 3 a-. Wid. to !<)•'■• 10' d. 

Shaylay is a thicker cotton cloth with red cotton borders. The 
pieces are 19 cubits long, from 2i- to 2-i- broad, and sell for from 6 
to 20 Vir'-Rdya Fanams, or from 2a-, 1 l^d. to 9s. 1 1 d. 

Romdla, or large handkerchiefs for tying round the head. They 
are of white cotton, measure from two to six cubits sipiare, and 
sell for from 1-J- to 10 ViF-Rdya Fanams each, or from S^d. to 
4,^. IHd. 

Parcala is a coarse plain cloth, from 20 to 22 cubits long, and 
2-J- broad, which sells for from 10 to 20 Fanams, or from 4a. ll jd. 
to 9^, 1 ^d. 

A new stamp duty, of T4”s- ^ Vir'-Rdya Fanam, or of about 

n I ■?. 

5-J-d., has been laid on every two pieces of fine cloth ; and of -~ 

of a Vir'-Rdya Fanam, or about on every two pieces of coarse 
cloth. The weavers in consequence have given up work, and gone 
in a body to the collector, to represent their case. The tax is laid 



on In place of a <luty, of four or five Fanams a year, that was for- 
merly levied on every loom : by the weavers it is considered as 


Oct. 21. 

The weavers called here Jadar are the same with those who in acast 
the country above the Ghat.'t are called Telinga Dh'angas, and inter- ° 

marry with those settled in Karn/ita. They still retain the Telingn 
language. The greater part of those here w'ear the Linga. Some 
of tlicm, how'ever, are followers of the Brahmans, and worship 
J'hhnu; but this diiferenee in religious opinion produces no sepa- 
ration of cast, anti the two parties can eat together and intermarry. 
Those who wear the Linga have a Guru, called Scranga D6varu, 
w))ose AJafam is at Cimhu Conu, in Tanjore. Once in four or five 
years this Gurn scuds his agents to receive a small contribution. 

When he conies in pei son, he bestows Upadha. Under the Guru 
are village Jang/ima.i, wlio are married men holding their office by 
hereditary right, and subsisting upon charity, which they receive 
at all feasts and ceremonies, 'i'hese Jangamas, and the Br/ihmanSf 
arc by the Jadar considered as being equally portions of Iswara. 
'fhe Panchanga, or village astrologer, reads at their mar- 

riages, births, and fasts in commemoration of their deceased pa- 
rents, both monthly and annual. The whole of the Jadar give 
JPn'nia to the Brahmans, who inform them that their sins are thereby 
expiated. The hereditary chiefs of the Jadar art called Shittigar ; 
these, with the assistance of a council, settle all disputes, and for- 
inerly used to levy weighty lines on all those who transgressed the 
rules of cast; but this authority has lately been curtailed. They 
still, however, continue to excommunicate transgressors. They are 
allowed to eat towls, mutton, and the like; but ought not to drink 
spirituous liquors. They bury the dead, and are allowed a plurality 
of wives. T he women continue to be marriageable after the age of 

puberty, and willows may rake a second husband without disgrace. 
When a man commits adultery with another person’s wife, And is 
discovered, he takes her to live with him as a kind of concubine,. 

VoL. II. 





Oct. 23, 

Stupidity of 

Vamra D(^ 
i an gas. 


called here Jatybidda; but their children are looked down upon, 
and form a kind of bastard, or Jatybidda race. A woman, who has 
connection with a person of any otlier tribe, is .severely flogged, 
and turned entirely out of the cast. 

23 d October. — I went seven Malabar hours’ journey to Moducun- 
Dery, or the ferry of Moducan. This village is on the south bank 
df the Bhaxcdni ; but the people of Sat i-matigalam were so stupid, or 
so malicious, as to inform us that it was on the north side ; and 
although M'e had five guides from the tents and bag- 

gage were separated. The people with the tents, having found out 
the true situation, went thither, while the persons conducting the 
baggage continued along the northern bank in search of the tents, 
till people were sent to recal them. Such accidents frequently 
occur ; anti the traveller, iu questioning the persons brought him 
as guides, ought to be very particular to know, whether or not they 
are acquainted with the road ; and he ought not only to promise 
them an adequate reward for their trouble, if they conduct liiiu 
properly ; but also to threaten them with a loss of pay% should they, 
either from ignorance or carelessness, mislead him. lly means of a 
small basket covered with leather, I crossed the river at a place 
called Dodara pallyam, which contains fif ty houses of weavers, who 
are all Canara Utreangaa. They are quite clamorous about the new 
stamp duty ; wdiich, they say, will for every loom cost them twenty 
Faiiam, in place of the five which they formerly paid. 

In the western parts of Major Maclcod’s district the Canara De- 
vangas are very numerous; but, ujilike the parent stock, they 
have given up the Linga, and are follow'ers of the Sri Vaishnaoatn 
Brahmans. Some in a .similar Avay of thinking are settled in Areolar, 
and Coleagala, places toward the .soutlicrn extremity of Karmila. Iu 
conse(juence of a famine, those now here migrated from Namaculla 
about seventy years ago. They do not intermarry with the Canara 
Devangas who wear the JJnga, nor with the Telinga Dh}angas who 
follow the Sri Vaishnavam Brahmans. They are all weavers, or cloth 



merchants, and never follow any other business. Their Guru's CHAPTER 
office is liereditary. In his visits, which are not more frequent than 
once in eight or ten years, he receives the voluntary contributions Oct. 23. 
of his followers, performs the ceremonies called ChakrantUum and 
IJpadesa, and distributes hoi}' water, and consecrated Tulsi (Ocy- 
inum). These people have an hereditary Purohita, or Vaulika Bnih-, 
mtn, who ought to take their D/ietna, and perform for them all other 
ceremonies, such as marriages 

Every Brahman is liere<litarily attached to some Purbhita\ but \n' PurohUa 
Karnata few of the Sudras arc considered as of sufficient conse- 
quence to be so far honoured, and the Panchdnga, or astrologer, of 
each village performs the ceremonies of religion for every person of 
pure descent who happens to live in it. In the country below the 
Ghats, the Sudras, being more wealthy, have acquired more atten- 
tion ; und many of them, like these weavers, are the hereditary 
property of particular Brahmans. The Purohita has considerable 
aiitliority over his dependents ; and, if they be rich, receives a 
large share of their profits. A man, who has ten or twelve families 
in good circumstances, can sell his office for five hundred Pagodas ; 
for this is an alienable property : the only restriction in the sale is, 
that the oflice must be soUl to a Paidika Brahman of the same sect. 

The office may even be mortgaged ; the person lending the money 
performing the ceremonies, and taking all the profits, until he has 
been repaid. 

The PurShita of the Devangas comes to marriages, and bestowa 
on the bridegrooms a thread like tlut of the Brdhmans, which they 
ever afterwards wear. He also takes their Dhdaa, and at funerals 
reads certain Mantrams. If these are duly performed, the soul of 
the deceased goes to heaven, whether he has been a good man or 
not ; and if the proper ceremonies have been omitted, he becomes 
a devil, whatever bis conduct in this world may have been. The 
profits for smaller ceremonies seldom induce the PitrdA/Va to at* 
tend ; and any Br&hman that chooses may perform them. These 



Quarry of 

CHAPTER DSvangas have here»Htary chiefs, who, with the assistance of a 
council, settle all disputes, and expel such as arc obstinate, or who 
Oct. 23. tran^igress the rules of cast. They burn the dead. Some of them 
eat animal food; hut none of them arc allowed to drink intoxi- 
cating liquors. They never offer sacrifices to the Salctis. They are 
allowed to take several wives. The women are marriageable after 
the age of puberty ; and widows may, without scandal, marry again. 
In this cast, no bastanl race is permitted ; and women who go 
astray, even with a Duvanga, are inevitably excommunicated. There 
is no punishment for the seducer. 

I went from Dodara-pallyam, and about a mile from the river saw 
a quarry of pot-stone. It is found in very large beds or masses 
among the usual vertical strala of the country, all of which near 
the lihuudm run east and west. The Balapum, or pot-stone, is of a 
better quality than that above the Ghats; and the vessels made of 
it are much used by the natives for cooking, as it resists the dre, 
and, although very soft, is by no means easily broken. Four men 
find a constant employment in making these vessels, which are sent 
as far as Scringapalam. They arc very clumsy, and not polished. 

The country through which 1 |)as.sed to-day is more rocky than 
that cast from Safi-vuaigalam, but is better peopled. About one half 
only is waste. The only cultivation is that of dry grains. The 
country would look pretty if it were better wooded ; but all the 
banks of the Jiluncdm are rather bare. The land here lets from live 
to forty Taiianis the estimated yfaZ/w. That which gives a high rent 
is iu very small (jiiantity, and the common rent is from ten to fif- 
teen Jdfiairts. Jly far the greater number of the people here are of 
Kurmla extraction. The sickness among my people continues to 

24th October. — I went five Malabar hours’ journey to Dan' Naya- 
kana Cotay, a fort situated on the north side of the Bhau'chii, a little 


above the junction of the Mdyar. It is said to contain only about 
fifty houses, but it is large. In the suburb there are said to be 

Face of the 

Oct. 24. 
Dan* Na a» 
Lana CWr.y. 



107 houses. Both statements seem to me to umler-rate the uonu- CHAPTER 
, . IX. 


The fort is said to liavc been built by Th'ma, a Noi/alca, or Polt/gar 
dependent on Madura. The name signifies the fortress of the Dan Saya- 
Nd^aka, or clficf. Ilis dcsccndents were deprived of it by Bnl' Raja, 
another dependent on the princes of Madura. Froin him, or at 
least from a descendant of the same name, it u'as taken by the Raja 
of Mysore; and, from its having been long dependent on that l‘a- 
mily, by far the greater part of its inhabitants speak the language 
of Karadta. 

About two months ago thirty or forty Nairs from JVynaad, or 
from Ndlala, as it is here eallcd, j)crsuade(l the chief of one of the, 
hill villages, subject to the Company, to join them with sixty or 
seventy men. This united force came down to the low country, 
and plundered three villages. A humired Caudashara, sujjported 
by a few Sepoys, were sent out; and after an engagement, in which 
nobody was killed, took the chief and seven men prisoners. Of 
these three were Nairs. About ten years ago these banditti made 
some disturbance among the hill villages, but never before ven- 
tured down into the low country. 

The country through which I passed is rather rough, but con- Face of iht 
tains much good land. It is almost entirely waste, which is attri- 
bated to the frecjueut marches made through it by Tippoo's trooj)S, 
on their way between Seringa pa I am and Coimbctorc. 'i'he only cul- 
tivation at present is that of <lry grains; but formerly, three Ma- 
labar hours’ journey above the fort, there was a dam \rhich by a 
canal on the north side of the river, sent off water sufficient to 
supply five hundred Catidaats of land, each containing one hundred 
Seers. This dam was built about a hundred years ago liy a person 
named Lingaia. In the following year it was swcjit away by a flood, 
and has ever since been neglected. Major Macleod was repairing 
it, when the rainy season commenced, and put a stop to the work. 





Oct. 21. 

Bud^garf a 
rude tribe. 

Tlic forests on the GAa/s here contain the following trees : 

Which are .small, hut very strong. 

Carachu. Hardwickia Roxh; MSS. 

Timber very hard, and black. 


This is called Sissu by the Mussulmans ; but is probably a different 
species of Dalbergia, or Pterocarpus, from the Sissu of Hindustan 

JVhouay. Pterocarpus Santalinus Willd; 

A valuable timber tree. 

Tayca, or leak 

The only kind here is said to be different from the common Teak, 
and is called Cotay, Calicotay,ox Cadicotay. The leaves and branches 
brought to me as belonging to it strongly resemble the Premna 
villosa Roxb: MSS.; but 1 suspect some mistake in this, and that the 
timber which was brought as a specimen was really that of the Tec- 
tona robusta. 

Vaynga. Pterocarpus bilobus Uerbarii Bunksiani. 

A good timber tree. 

Sujalu. Afimosa Tuggula Buch: MSS. 

Urugulu. Sweitenia Chlorarylon Roxb; 

Arutay. Myrobalanus Arula Buch: MSS. 

Nerulu. Myrtus Cumini. 

Bagy. Mimosa spediosa Jacquini. 

Wild Mango-tree, Mangijera. 

Wild Jack-tree, Artocarpus. 

Honey and wax are gathered by a cast called Budugar, who in- 
habit the hilly country between this and the province of Malabar, 
and which lies south from ^eUeala, or the Wynaad of Major Reu- 
nell. They live in small villages, and huts, like the Eriligaru; and 
not only use the Cotu-cadu cultivation already described, but have 


also ploiigos. The quantity of honey ami wax which they procure 
is considerable, and they pay nothing for it, there being no forest- 
renter in this district. 

!2Jth October. — I remaiiuxl at Dan' Nayakana Cotay, and took a 
very long and fatiguing walk to the top of the western hills, in 
order to sec a Cambay, or village inhabited by Erdigaru. The love 
of the marvclhms, so prevalent in India, has nude it commonly re- 
ported, that these poor people go absolutely naked, sleep under 
trees without any covering, and possess the power of charming 
tigers, so as to prevent ferocious animals from doing them 
any injury. My interpreter, although a very shrewd man, gravely 
related that the Erdigaru women, when they go into the woods to 
collect roots, entrust their children to the care of a tiger. 

On the hills the Erdigaru have .small villages. That which I 
visited contained seven or eight huts, with some pens for their 
goats ; the whole built round a square, in Avhich they burn a fire 
all night to keep away the tigers. The huts were very small, but 
tolerably neat, and constructed of Bamboos interwoven like basket- 
work, and plastered on the inside with clay. These people have 
abundance of poultry, a few goats, and in some villages a few cow.s, 
which are only used for giving milk, as the Erdigaru never use 
the plough. They possess the art of taking wild-fowl in nets, which 
adds to their stock of animal food ; ami sometimes they kill the 
tigers in spring traps, loaded with stones, and Sailed with a kid. 
Near their villages they have large gardens of plantain and lime 
trees, and they cultivate the neighbouring ground after the Co/u- 
cudu fashion, changing the fields every year. One of the articles 
raised by this means is a new species of Amaranthus, the seed of 
which tlicy grind to flour, and use as a farinaceous substance. I 
have sent it to Dr. Roxburgh, under the name of Amaranthus 
J'ariniferus. Besides cultivating their ganleus and fields, the Erili- 
garu gather wild Yam (Dioscarea), and cut timber dnd Bamboos 
for the people of the low country. Both men and women take an 




Oct. 25. 

and Malabar. 





Oct. 2^. 

Nol)!c pros- 

of the coiiii- 

<)f the coun- 

equal share of the labour in cultivating their fields. They have the 
advantage of a tolerably good soil, and a part of tno rainy mon- 
soons ; vet, although they have fixed abodes, and of course 
gardens, they are greatly inferior to the subjects of the Fomavg-gn, 
and other rude tribes, who iniiabit the hilly parts of Chillagong. 
Their huts are rnuch jioorer, and their persons are miserable, Both 
men and waiinen are clothed w'itli dirty cotton stuffs, but in much 
smaller pieces than those* used by the other inhabitants. They speak 
a bad or old ilialccl of the Karnula language, and must be there- 
fore of a different race from the Erilin'iiru that 1 saw at Rihna-nir 'i, 
wlio spoke a dialect of the Tamul, 

Although the atmosphere was rather hazy, 1 h'ld from the hills a 
noble view of the wlude course of the Blumoni, ami of the country 
called Clicra as far as Sti/ic/i-dtirga, and other remote hills. Near 
the village I was refreshed by the cool water of a fine perennial 
spring, which in India is a great rarity. 

2f)th Oc/u4e;’.— -I went seven and a half jl/r/////w hours’ journey 
to Sinaiiug//, on the cast. side of the Blitrtnvn, which is lierc a fine 
clear stream coming from the south. Cultivation occupies a very 
small proportion of what has formerly been ploughed, and is con- 
fined chielly to the banks of the river, where the soil is best. Tlic 
higher grounds consist of a poor soil full of stones; and many of 
the fields, to judge from the size of the trees that have sprung up 
in them, seem to have hceii long deserted, Sh’umngd is a poor 
village, with about twenty houses ; but has some shops, wliich arc 
not very common in this province. In the Suifan's reign it was the 
residence of an Amildar dependent on the Anoph of Coimhclore, and 
contains the rniiis of many huts. The people complain mucli of the 
scarcity of rain; and the dryness of the fields, and want of pasture, 
show their complaints to be well founded. Fifteen of my people are 
now ill with fevers. 

£27th October . — I went a long stage called seven and a half Mala- 
bar hours’ journey, and halted at Gulur, a village without a shop. 



By the way I passed Bcllady, a mud fort wiiicii has a suhurh at some CHAptj:h 

distance. Two small streams cross (lie road toward ilic east ; hut 

it is said, that liaving united they luni ion, ,!. ami at join 

the lihaxi'dm hy a cliannel, whicli I did not ohserve, .\ small tank 

has been lormcd near these streams, and receives a siipjtly of water 

from them, so as to enable the people to cultivate a liltji; rice. The 

soil of the country through which I passed to-day is very jioor, 

and there is scarcely any of it cultivated. 

'riicre has been rain twice only this season, ami none for the last fnognlar 
hftcen days, so that the country is (juite parched; and it is said, ‘^* *^**' 
that iiad there been more rain, the cultivation would have been 
more extensive. The rains seem here to be very partial. They have 
been ‘plentilul all the way up the except at Sirtimugd ; 

and at Ncllaluni, near its source, they are said to have been abun- 
dant. Most of tlie people here speak the language, a few use 

the TiJin^d, hut that of does not e.xtend so far from the 


October. — f went eight hours' journey to Colmbe.- 

tore. The countrv is much freer of rocks and stones than that 

« couiiliy, 

through which I have passed for some days, ami the soil is in 
geiierui good, 'fhe waste liclds do not ajjpear to amount to more 
than a half of all that is arable. There are few hedges, and the 
country is remarkably bare of trees. An avenue of a species of 
Ficus has been planted all the way from Dan Ndj/aL/na to Cohnbe- 
tore, hut it is not thriving ; and, except these trees, the country is 
as bare as that in the vicinity oi' l^eringapatam. 

The hereditary chief of Coimbetorc, as we call it, is of the Vaylalar „[• 

tril)e. Formerly his ancestors dwelt in a village at the foot of the CuiMbiioie. 
hills, the site of the town being then a forest, in which there were 
four or five huts of a rude tribe called Alaias/nr, and a temple of 
their goddess Comma, which still remains. The head man of tlicse 
people was called Cota, and the name of the village Coiuinpuddi. 

Vot. II. K k 



CHAPTER The ancestor of the present cliief, having obtained the consent of 
the Malashir, came to their village, and built a fort. Soon after all 
Oct. 28 . these people died, and their goddess appeared in a dream to the 
Vaylalar chief, and commanded him to enlarge her temple, and 
appoint a priest ( Pujari ), promising him a great iticrease of power, 
and desiring him to assume the name of Cofegaru Calippa, and to 
change that of the place to Coiamuiuru. The present chief, who 
gives me this information, says, that he is the twentieth in descent 
from the first founder of the town. The family originally paid 
tribute to the Rajas of Madura. The country was coinj acred by 
the Mysore family about one hun«lred and fifty years ago, and the 
fort was then enlarged. For some time before and after tlic acces- 
sion of Ilydcr, it was governed by a person nanual Madaua, who 
enjoyed liis office forty years, and was a Lingahunt (one who wears 
the Linga). He built a house here, which by the natives is called 
a palace, and is considered as an immense work. It certainly is 
abundantly large; but it is a clumsy, inconvenimt pile of mud; 
and at present serves as a barrack for the officer commanding a 
regiment of cavalry, who is very indifferently lodged. In the go- 
vernment of Madana the place was very flourishing. It suffered 
much by the subsequent wars ; and about eight years .ago the fort 
was destroyed by the late Sultan. Since it fell into the hands of the 
English, and especially since it became the qinartcrs of a regiment 
of cavalry, the town has recovered considerably ; and it now con- 
tains two thousand houses, Avhich is about \ of what it contained 
under Hyder's government. It has a tolerable inosijue, built by 
Tippoo, who sometimes resided in the palace ; but it has no large 
temple. Here I rvas most kindly received by the officers of the 
regiment, as indeed I was almost every where during my journey; 
for English hospitality is in no part of the world more eminently 
distinguished, than among the officers serving under the govern* 
ment of Madras. 



$9th and 30th October. — I remained at Coimbetore, taking an ac- 
count of the vicinity; and on the morning of the 30th I visited a 
celebrated temple at Peruru, which is two miles from Coimbetore. 
It is dedicated to Iswara^ and called Mail (high) Chitumbra, in 
order to distinguish it from another Chitumbra, that is near Po«- 
dichery. The idol is said to have placed itself here many ages ago ; 
but it is only three thousand years since the temple was erected 
over it by a ll&ja of Madura. It has four Raths, or chariots, and a 
very fine tank entirely lined with cut stone. The building is 
highly ornamented after tlie Hindu fashion; but the whole, as 
usual, is utterly destitute of elegance, and the figures are not only 
extremely rude, hut some of them are indecent. The stone of 
which it is built is very fine. Some of the pillars intended for it are 
lying near, and are said never to have been erected ; the work 
having been left incomplete, owing to the death of the R/ga by 
whom it was undertaken. The freshness of the stones by no means 
corresponds with the era given by the Brahmans for the work. The 
Brahmans in the time of Ili/der had very large endowments in 
lands ; but these were entirely reassumed by Tippoo, who also plun- 
dered the temple of its gold and jewels, lie was obliged, however, 
to respect it more tlian many others in his dominions ; as, when he 
issued a general order for the destruction of all idolatrous buildings, 
he excepted only this, and the temples of Scringapatam and Mail* 
cotay. This order was never enforced, and few of the temples were 
injured, except those which were demolished by the Sultan in 
person, who delighted in this work of zeal. This temple is in the 
district of Mr. Ilurdis, udio gives for its support an allowance suf- 
ficient for keeping up a decent worship, but very inadequate to 
quiet the clamours of the Brahmans. Even in the reign of the 
Sultan an allowance was clandestinely given ; so that the Puja, or 
worship, never was entirely stopped, as happened in many less cele- 
brated places. 



Oct. 29, 30. 
called Mail 

of the idola- 
ters by Tip* 




Oct. 29, 30. 
Saline eurtli. 

In the nciglibonrliooil of Pcrurii, both culinary salt and saltpetre 
arc procured by lixiviating tlie soil. 

At CohnhzLort the new weights and measures introduced by 
Major Macleod are connng fast into use ; but still the cultivators 
in general reckon every thing about their farms by the old stand- 
ards, which are as follow : 


'Vcishts. 177 grains =1 Dudu. 

grains, or 8 Dudusz=:\ Polam. 

14160 grains, or 10 Po{ams:=z\ .Veer=:2,-,?jVo I6s. 

40 Seers =1 Maund=A{)-^J^ lbs. 

Measure for Lujuids and Grain, 

Dryund 84 weight of grain make one Puddy^ which is therefore 

surest equal to the Sultany Seer. 

4 Paddies— i liulla. 

30 Builas =1 J/rt«=:I3ushcls 

The JlJlau of the Tattmls is called Satagd in the TcUnga language ; 
Camiaca in that of Karndta, and Candy by the Mussulmans. 

Land Measure J'or 'd^atered ground. 

Land mea- The pole is 24 feet in length. A square of 16 poles by 15 makes 
qu-ii'rUy^ a Mail, or Candaca-\-A\\\\, which reciuires 3 Mans of seed in the 
>f seed. transplanted cultivation, and sows two Mans of sprouted seed. It 
is nearly equal to J-jVsV acres. The farmers here therefore sow 
5 ,tVo hushels on the acre ; but at Nata Rayana Pallyam they sow 
only at the rate of 1,-jV of a bushel. Until I came here, I suspected 
that at the last mentioned place they had stated their Ctf;2dacn-land 
to be less extensive than it actually is; and I was confirmed in this 
opinion by what was said at Satimangalam ; but 1 am now inclined to 



believe in the accounts given me by the people of Nala R&yana CHAPTflt 
JPaliyam, and in the great fertility of their rice lands. 

Oct. 29. 30. 

Measure for high Lands. 

The Mar is a fathom made by passing the rope round the shoul- 
ders, and bringing the hands forward, and is equal to six feet nine 
inches. 64 Mars square is one Bulla, or Vullam, as it is pronounced 
here. This is therefore equal to acres. 

Once a month the Tahsildar assembles the money-changers, and M«»y. 
by their advice establishes a Niruc N&ma, or rate of exchange. In 
this, occasional alterations are made, if complaints arc preferred 
by these persons, of an increased or diminished demand for any 
particular coin. 

In tliis neighbourhood there is much rice ground watered by Watered- 
means of reservoirs, that arc filled by canals drawn from the Noyel 
river. They produce only one crop in the year, which begins to 
be cultivated from about the 10th of June to the 10th of August. 

The cultivation that has always been most prevalent, is by trans- 
planting, although it is reckoned by far the most troublesome. I 
have already stated the quantity ^f seed, which is at the rate of 
almost four bushels an acre. The produce of a 3/flM-land, of good 
soil, when there is plenty of watcr,'is thirty-five J/(cr?a, or Candacas'y 
and, when the water is scanty, twenty-five Candacas. The former 
is at the rate of forty-six bushels, and the latter at that of d£ 7 V 
bushels, an acre. One plough, wrought by a man and two oxen, 
ought to cultivate a Mau of rice land, or acres ; and addi- 

tional labourers must be hired at, planting and weeding seasons. At 
this place very little sugar-cane is raised. 

Near the town the principal artit^res cultivated in dry-field are 
Cambu, Shotum ( Hokid^katus et sorghum ), and cotton. On the black 
mould, the farmers sow alternately Upum cotton one year, and in 
the other any of the following grains ; namely, Shotum, Cambu, 

Temy (Fameum UaUeum), and Cadalay {Cker arUtinum), Two 




Oct. 29 , 30 . 

Produce of 
dry •field. 




Extent of a 


crops are never taken in tlie same year. The manner of cultivatioii 
is tlie same with that ut Bliaicum-kiidal. 

It must he ol)sc*rve(l, that in ail this part of the country the far- 
mers have no (lni\ghUls; they manure their rice-Iamls with leaves, 
anti their clry-lield by foliling' cattle on it, before the ploughing 
commences ; for this purpose sheep or goats are reckoned best, anti 
are kept by every fanner. 

The following' is the statement gir ea by tl.'C cultivators, as the 
produce of their fields in a good crop, from one Vullam : 

Upurn cotton 75 Cucha Maunds, or 425 lb. an acre. 
aiudum - 20 Mau, or - - - UH bushels an aerr* 

Ciimbu - 10 ditto - - - - 9} ditto. 

Ttmiy - 20 ditto - - - - ipr. ditto. 

Cadalap - 7 ditto - - - - ti-j’-j ditto. 

Nadum cotton is cultivated in one village oidy of the Combetorc 
district. It lasts three years in tlic ground; but is inferior iji qua- 
lity to the l^pum kind, and is in fact a wretched article. 

Near tlie hills of Combetore, Kccir, or Ragy, is sown on dry-field; 
but ill every other part of the province it is only cultivated in 
gardens. Cattle are folded on' the field, wliicli is afterwards 
ploughed four or five times between the 10th of April and the lOtli 
of June. After a good rain in any of the three following months, 
it is sown broad-cast and plouglied in. To destroy superfinous 
plants, at the end of a month furrows are drawn tluoughont the 
field, at the distance of six inches. Ten days afterwards the weeds 
must be removed with a hoc. It requires six months to ripen. The 
seed fora Fa/Zaw land is fifteen Vullams; the produce in a good 
crop is thirty Mau. At this rate, the acre sows 0,486 bushel, and 
produces 29^0 bushels. 

One plough, two oxen, and a man, in a proper season, can culti- 
vate 3 Fullam, or 121- acres, of dry-field. A farmer, with four 
ploughs, five men, eight common oxen, and a large one of two for 
the machine called Capily, manages eight Vullam, or acres, of 



dry-field, and one Vullam of garden, which is acres ; in all, CHAPTEa 
37i acres. 

A considerable quantity of the ground rated as dry-field is called Oct. 39,30. 
here Capilif Tola, or gardens watered by the Capily ; and also Ve- called Caj/Wy 
lami Tota, or cultivated gardens. Its rent is much higher than that 
of the other dry-field ; as it lets for from 30 to 200 Canter'~R&ya Rent. 
Fanams a Vullam, or for from 4-j. ^\(L to 1/. Qs. \\d. an acre; while 

common dry- field lets for from five to sixty Fanams a Vullum, or 
for from to 8^. an acre. All kinds of soil are cultivated 

for gardens, and the variety in this respect occasions some differ- 
ence in their value ; but the depth below the surface, at which the 
water stands in the wells, is the chief cause of the variation in rent. 

In some gardens the water is within eight cubits of the surface, in 
others at eighteen. Some wells also contain only saline water, and 
this diminishes greatly the value of the land which they irrigate. 
The best soil for this purpose is called Krishna bumi, and is a black 
mould, that readily ilissolvcs into mud when watered. The articles 
cultivated in these gardens are tobacco, Sholum, (IIolcus sorghum), 
Kanr ( Cynosurus corocanus ), Cambu ( Holcus spicatus ), wheat, cap- 
sicum, onions, and other kitchen stuffs. 

Tobacco preceded by Kevir, and followed by Sholum, is by far Routioo. 
the most important rotation. 

The Kevir raised in these gardens is the same with the Naf Rasy Cynonm 

” Corocanus 

of Mysore, Between the 11th of April and the 12th of May cattle 
are folded on the ground, which is then ploughed four times, 
sprinkled with ashes, divided into square plots for confining the 
water, and then sowed. The plots are smoothed with the hand, 
and immediately watered. On the third day, and on every fifth 
day afterwards, for a month, the watering is repeated ; and then 
the seedlings, which have been raised very thick, must be trans- 
planted. The ground for this purpose is prepared exactly like that 
for the seed, in the interval between the sowing of this, and the 
seedlings being fit for transplantation. By watering the soil is then 



CHAPTER converted into mud, and the young plants are set at properdi s- 
tances. On the third day they get water, whicli afterwards is given 

Oct. 29 , 30 . every sixtl) day. If the soil be good, no weeding is necessary; but 
in bad soils grass springs up, and, thirty days after the planting, 
must be removed by a small hoe. The Kerir, after being trans- 
planted, requires four months to ripen ; and a J wZ/ww-land, in a 
good crop, produces thirty Maus, which is at the rate of 29 -j^ 
bushels an acre. 

Tobacco. For raising the tobacco seedlings, a small plot of ground must be 
hoed between the 14th of August and the 14th of September, and 
formed into small squares for watering. The seed is sown, and 
covered with the hand. Tlie plot is then watered, and, to keep off 
the sun, is covered with bushes. For the first month it must be 
watered every other day. On the tenth and twentieth days sow 
some more seed on the same plot, by which means a succession of 
seedlings is procured. After the first month water is only given 
evwy fifth day. In the end of August and beginning of September 
the field into w'hich the seedlings are to be transplanted must be 
dunged, and then ploughed ; and, if the cultivator has cattle, he 
folds them on the ploughed ground. He then ploughs four or five 
times, and takes out all the weeds. From the middle of September 
to the middle of October the ground is divided into small squares ; 
the squares are watered, until the soil becomes mud ; and at three 
o’clock the plants of the first sowing are taken up, and transplanted 
immediately at a cubit’s distance. The whole seedlings of the first 
sowing must be removed in two or three days about the end of 
September. About ten days afterwards, transplant the seedlings of 
the second sowing, and ten days afterward those of the third. On 
the third day after transplanting, give them water, and repeat this 
every fifth or sixth day, until they are fit for cutting. At the end 
of a iponth the field must be hoed. A month afterwards the plants 
have grown high, and their tops must be pinched off, so as to leave 
only a cubit of each. Once a week, for three times, the young 



branches which shoot out must be pinched off. When four months CHAFIER 
old the tobacco is lit for cutting. In order to render the leavds 
sweet, the field must then be watered, and the plants are cut down Oct. 29, 30. 
close by the ground, and left on the field until next morning, when 
they are tied by the root-end to a rope, and hung up all round the 
hedges. If it be clear weather, the leaves dry in ten days ; but 
when the sun is obscured by clouds fifteen are required. When 
dry, the tobacco is placed in a heap under a roof, is covered with 
bushes, and pressed with stones for five days. The leaves are then 
removed from the stems, and tied up in bunches, which are again 
heaped up, and pressed for four days. After this they are made 
up into bundles, each containing some small and some large leaves; 
and, when fully cured, weighing about twelve Polams, or nearly 
S-tVoV Ihs. These are heaped up again, and pressed for twice five 
days, having at the end of the fifth day been opened out, and new 
heaped. The tobacco is then ready for sale. A good crop, from a 
VullamAznd, is one thousand bundles, or 566^ lbs. from an acre. 

During the busiest part of this cultivation, eight ojten and ten men 
are re<iuired daily for one Vullam-\&nd. 

Immediately after cutting the tobacco, in the month commencing Holau 
about the 10th of January, plough three times ; and, after sdme 
days rest, plough again. Sow the Sfioltirn seed broad-cast, and 
cover it by a fifth ploughing. With the hoe called Mamutty divide 
the field into squares for watering, each side being about four 
cubits. Fill the squares with water; repeat this on the fifth day, 
and ever afterwards every eighth day. At the end of a month hoc 
again with the Mamutty. In four months the Sholum ripens. A 
VullamAdiad recpiires eight Vullams seed, and in a good crop pro- 
duces thirty Mam: an acre, therefore, for seed requires 0,2551 
bushel, and produces 9!drio bushels. 

Part of the watered ground is cultivated for gardens, which are Gardens on 
either of or of palms. wate«dl«Ml. 

VoL. 11. LI 




Oct. 29, SO. 
Fiper Belli. 

The Betel-leaf gardens are cultivated by a particular class of men, 
CdWtd Codi-cal-carun ; Betel- trench-makers. For each plan- 

tation rtiese rent a Mau of land, and pay for it three hundred Fa- 
nams a year, which is at tne rate of 3/. 145. Syd. an acre. Thk must 
be of a very rich soil, either black, or black mixed with red. Anew 
garden is thus formed. From the 13th of July until the 13th of 
August trenches are dug with l\\c Mamuttif one cubit, wide, one 
cubit deep, and twenty-eight cubits long, at the distance of four 
cubits from each other. In the beds formed between these trenches 
are sown two rows of the seeds of the Agutty (Ascliynomone grandi- 
fiora\ and of the Guilandina Mor 'tnga. Every other day the trenches 
are filled with water, and froni these the beds arc sprinkled. This 
having been continued for four months, slips of the Betel-vine are 
planted in two rows. The slips are a cubit long, and one end of 
each is placed in a hole, distant one cubit from the others of the 
same row. At the first commencement of the garden it is sur- 
rounded by a hedge of Calli (^Euphorbiim Tirucalli). The channels, 
ever after planting the vines, must be kept constantly full of water, 
and in the dry season the beds must from thence be sprinkled once 
every other day. When the vines have been plante«l three months, 
they must be tied up to the trees, and the garden must be cleared 
of weeds with a knife: a little dung is theii given to each plant. 
From the liJth of March to the 10th of April, or three months after 
the first weeding, the weeds are again removed, and the plants are 
manured. At the same time the opposite trees, of the two rows in 
each bed, are tied together in the form of the cross of St. Andrew, 
and the vines are tied up afVesh. From January the llthto Fe- 
bruary the 9th of the second \ ear, the vines are untied ; two cubits 
next the root are buried in the earth, and then they are tied up 
again. Whenever weeds shoot up, they must be removed. In the 
month commencing with the 12th of May of the second year, the 
garden begins to produce leaves fit for use ; and continues to da 



so for one year and a half, when it is ploughed up for rice. A gar- CHAPTER 
den of one Man, ecpial to three acres and a half, retjuires the con- 
stant lahour of thirty-two men. 

The palm gardens contain the Betel and coco-nut palms, and the ivim^ai- 
plantain tree, and are cultivated by the riclier fanners, 'fhe most aiiKhn,VMio* 
favourable situation is near the side of a river, or torrent, where *“>'1 

the soil contains a good deal of sand, and where water may he found 
by d igging to the depth of two cubits. T.iinestone in the soil is not 
reckoned of any a«lvantage. A*new plantation is thus formed. In 
the first month of the year, commencing on the 11th of April, the 
ground is ploughed twice, and manured either with dung, or by 
folding cattle on it. In the next month plough again twice, and 
then inumire the field as before. Between the 14th of September 
and lire Mth of October ]jlough once, and at the «listance of four 
cubits from cacli other dig trenches, one cubit broad, and about 
six iuclies deep, crossing each other at right angles througli the 
whole extent of the g.irden. Near every channel, or trench, is set 
a row of the young sltoots of the plantain tree, at the distance of 
four cubits from each other. Parallel to everv fourth row of these, 

is formed a row of pits, distant from each other sixteen cubits, and 
a foot deep. In each of tiicsc is placed a coco-nut, with the eye 
up, and it is covered with four inches of fine mould. Once in six 
days the channels arc then filled with Avater. Between tlie 13th of 
December ami tlic 10th of January .small pits are made, at the dis- 
tance of one cubit, or of one cubit and a half from each other, and 

in rows on the opposite side of the channels from where the plan- 
tains were set. In each of those holes is placci* a Betd-mit. In the 
following month, the whole garden must be hoed, and the channels 
formed again. Once in ten or lifteeu days, when there is no rain, 
these must ever afterwards be filled with water. The garden must 
be hoed twice every year; once between the llth of January and 
the 10th of February, and again between the 1 2th of June and the 
ISthofJuly. It is surrounded by hedges containing limes, Jach 



CHAPTER (Artocarpus ), oranges, pomegranates, &c. secured by the Euphor- 
bium Ttrucalli. la eighteen months the plantains yield fruit, and 

Oct. 29,30. are never removed from the garden. The Arecas are thinned where 
they happen to grow too close ; the proper distance for each tree 
being three cubits square. In eight years they begin to bear ; but 
do not produce a full crop until they are twelve years old. In the 
twenty-second year new seed is put in, to supply the place of the 
trees that die. At twelve years of age the coco-nut palm begins to 
produce fruit ; and, when they are fifty years old, seed is put in to 
supply the loss of the old ones. They are all used in the country, 
and sold in the shell; for the people here prepare no Copra, or 
dried kernel. Tlie husks of the green nuts, that have been used for 
drinking, are thrown into water to soak. Once in five or six months 
tile people called Parriar come and prepare the Coir (from which 
ropes are made) from what has been sufficiently soaked, giving one 
half to the farmer, and keeping the other half for their trouble. 
The husks of nuts that are allowed to ripen the kernel are of no 
use. Some of the Areca palms produce between the 12th of May 
and the 1 1th of June; many more of them produce in the month 
following, and a few produce between the 14th of November and 
the 12th of December ; but no one tree produces two crops in the 
same year. The nuts, as they come from the tree, are sold hy the 
farmers to people wlio make a separate profession of boiling them. 
The rent of a Mau of garden cultivated with palnis varies from 
forty to two hundred and thirty Fanams, which amounts to from 
7s. lO^rf, to 2/. 5s. 2|;</. an acre. Until twelve years old it pays 
forty Fanams only, as a rent for the plantains. Two men take care 
of a garden of one Mau ; but at each hoeing thirty or forty la- 
bourers must be hired. The proprietor cannot or will not give me 
any estimate of the produce. The Betel-nut is reckoned inferior to 
that of Malabar. 

im. Iron is smehed from black sand at To^m Betta, about five miles 

noUh from Coimbetore; and at two places, at no great distance, in 


the district under Mr. Hurdis, This information I did not receive CHAPTF.R 
in time to be enabled to examine the process. 

The principal merchants at Coimbelore are Comattics, or Vaisyas. Ocj. 30. 
They say, that the chief trade is carried on with the province of 
Malabar. The places that trade with this are, Pali-gliat, Calicut, 

Cochi, IPamrcot, Tcllichcry, and Angada-puram. Tiic exports fiom 
hence arc tobacco; cotton wool, thread, and cloth; sugar, and 
Jagory ; capsicum, onions. Betel-leaf, and ./ira and Danya, two of 
the carminative seeds. The imports from Malabar are Betel-nut, 
black pepper, turmeric, Sunt, or dried ginger, nutmegs, mace, cloves, 
and other spices, saffron, camphor, benjamin, assafcctida, Munjeet- 
root, Cut, ox terra japonka, Biphul, or long pepper, raisins, dates; 

China sugar-candy, Bengal sugar, sulphur, red arsenic, Hurtal, or 
yellow orpiment, lead, copper, false gilded paper, paper, raw-silk, 
taffetas, silk cloths called Kingcobs, and Gulbudden, woollen cloths, 
cotton cloth* called ; Attains; Nankeens zsiCi chintzes; 

towels, and shawls, with many smaller articles. Combetore has no 
direct trade with Travancore, nor with Catangady, as the JVynaad is 
here called. From the country above the Ghats arc brought some 
Burraliunpour goods; and there arc sent up tobacco, Ghee, or boiled 
butter, and cotton cloths. From the places in the eastern country 
below iht Ghats, such as Saltern, Tanjore, and Negapatam, there come 
lilk, and cloths. The returns are made in the Betel-nut and pepper 
of Malabar. 

There are many weavers in the neighbourhood of Combetore; Manufac- 
those in the toM'n are Jadar, and Coicular; those in the villages are 
Bestas, Canara Dhatigas, and Parriar. In the whole district there 

are four hundred and fifty-nine looms. 

The Jadar make the finest cloths, 
ture, like those called book muslin, 
are wrought for common sale : 

They are of a very thin tex- Kinds and 
Of these the following kinds 

wroiioht near 

Oct. 30. 

Cloths of an tcxlnrr inuiic by the Judar, 

Shillus^ plain white riui>lin - - - - x. r 

Ditto 3() 

Ditto ‘24. 

Ditto Ci 

Ditto ^ . ‘20 

Shiraj/s, with coloured silk borders, j^old ends, and 
figures wrought in the loom with silk thread - ‘20 

Ditto without the gold or liguies - - - ‘20 

DotraSf being also white luualin with coloured silk 
b9rders - - - - - - -‘2t 

Dupafas. Plain wliite muslin worn round the shoul- 
ders like a shawl ----- 

Sada S/tal. Same cloth with gold and silk bonlors 
in sl^awl pul terns - - - - - 8 

Pagu^ or turbans, white witli gold ends - - 30 

Shirai/Sy dark blue with yellow or red silk borders 20 

CainhawuUt/ Shiraj/Sy or white muslin chectp.iered 
with coarser thread and red cotton borders - 20 

12 10 11.1 5 111 

18 15 lOi 8 nj 

13i 7 lU SI 
25 1 4 U){l2 5 

7 3 Hi 3 5i 

‘26 27 9\V2 11 

12 10 ll 5 Hi 

15 Ip 10^ 7 5! 

3 2 111 1 5| 

32 31 p 15 10^ 
1* 7 Hi I n-| 

16 Ip lUi 7 Hi 

20 15 lOi 9 H 

Cloths of a close texture. 

Paracaluy like the Humumi of Bengal 
DotraSy of the same fabric, with red cotton borders 
Shirai/s of various ini\e<l colours, daik and light 
blues, and rod, very coarse - - ^ - 

Ditto striped blue and white with red borders 
Ditto whiUMvith red and yellow borders 

10 H 11 

2 I 5| 0 111 
12 10 III 5 lli 

Cloths made by the Cokular and country weavers. 

Cadi. Plain cloth like Bengal 0o/?a5 

Ditto - 


Shlrai^s with red borders - - 

Ditto with blue ends - - , - - 

- - 5 5} 

- - 3 8i 

- - 2 3i 

- - 2 8 } 
. . 1 m 

Of the cloths made by the Jadar, the plain ones appear to my 
Bengal servants to be cheap, the figured ones are dear. The cloths 
made by the Coicular arc very coarse, and rather dear. 



The cotton growing in tlie country is not only suflicicnt for the 
consumption ot the place, but is also exported in great quantities, 
both raw and spun, to the province of A falubar. 'I'hc women of all 
the fanners and low casts are great spinners; but those of tlic Par- 
riar are reckoned to make the best thread. The women of the 
weavers are chiefly employed in warping the webs. All the silk 
and gold thread, with the best of the red cotton yarn, is imported 
ready prepared from Sulkm, Tanjore, Tranqutibai\ and other towns 
on the sea-coast. 

The weavers dye cotton thread red with the Mudilt, or Mor'mda ; 
but it is a perishable colour.. Those of this place are reckoned to 
excel in dying black, as they call it, but in fact a dark blue. They 
use indifferently the indigos, prepared from the Nil, or Lidignfera 
tinctona, and from the Pala, or Nerium tinctorium Roxh: MSS. This 
kind of indigo is called Palac ; and I was here told, that it was pre- 
pared at Palachy ; but on going to that place, I found that this in- 
formation was not true. Indeed, in that vicinity I did not see one 
of the trees. The colour given with both kinds of indigo is exactly 
the same, and in the same vat they are frcfjucntly intermixed. The 
account of the process given by the weavers is as follows. 

Take ten Polam (S-^oW^b.) of Palac, pound it small, and soak it 
three days in ^ Puddy of water (0,i243:> quart). Saline water is not 
preferred here, as is the case at Bangalore. After having been 
soaked, the Palac is rubbed in a mortar, until it is reduced to a 
mud. Then take one Paddy (0,2777 Winchester gallon) of the seed 
ofTagashay (Cassia Tora), and boil it in one and a half Paddy 
(ItoV 3-le quart) of water, until it be soft. Pour this decoction upon 
the Palac that has been ground to mud, and for three days cover 
the vessel with a pan, until the mixture becomes sour. Then, by 
filtering water through the ashes of the Euphorbhm Tirucalli ( Culli 
Chumbul), make a strong solution of the carbonate of potash. Of 
this every morning and evening add ^ Paddy (0,2433 quart) to the 
fermented vat, until the colour be dissolved, which will require 



Oil. cy, ao. 



Palac indigo 





Oct. 29, 30. 

•i' clothe. 


Duties on 

eight or ten days. Then having added some quick'^lime to the so- 
lution of potash, and having thus drawn from it the carbonic acid, 
take of the caustic Icy ^ Puddy, and morning and eveiTing for two 
or three days add this to the vat, which will then be fit for dyeing. 
The thread, as it comes from the spinners, is dipt into a solution of 
carbonate of potash, and having been wrung is dyed in the vat. 
After the colour has been extracted from this, it is filled up again 
with caustic ley, and next day again produces some colour. This 
is repeated seven or eight times, until the colouring particles are 
quite exhausted. Two dips in a fresh vat give a full colour ; but 
as the vat is exhausted, the number of immersions must be in- 

Of the cloth not consumed in the country about one half is sent 
to the province of Alalabar, and the remainder to Seringapatam. 
The commercial resident at Saliem twice made advances to the 
weavers of Coimbetore for the coarse cloth called Parncalas, on 
terms similar to those which I have already mentioned. 'J'hc weavers 
are very anxious to have a continuation of this employment. None 
of their cloth was rejected ; but some, that they had rated as of the 
first quality, the resident reduced to the second, and the weavers 
were contented to receive this price. 

Each of the different classes of weavers here forming, as it were, 
a kind of family, the richer assist the poor ; so that those who work 
for country use are cither able to make the cloth on their own ac- 
count, or at least ate not obliged to take advances from a native 
merchant for more than one piece at a time. Those who once get 
into the debt of a native merchant are ever afterwards little better 
than slaves, and must work for him at a very low rate. 

The weavers here formerly paid a certain duty on every loom ; 
which, in order to encourage large dealers, was lower on those who 
kept many looms, than on those who had few. E.ight Fananu 
(35. was paid annually for a single loom, and this revenue 

was collected by the Sunca, or custom-house. This duty has been 



taken off, together with all transit <luties on cloth; and in place of 
these, a stamp duty has been imposed. The weavers say, that this 
will be harder on them than the former duties were, and they have 
requested the collector to restore the former mode of assessment, 
hut without success. 

None of the weavers here cultivate the land. Some of them, it 
is true, rent lands ; but these are cultivated by servants of other 

The Natami Carun^ or hereditary chief, of the Coicular weavers 
here, informs me, that in this tribe there are the following divisions; 
namely, Siritali, Tataynatar, and Conga, to which last he belongs. 
In other districts other divisions arc known ; at Sati-mangalam, for 
instance, they are divided into Chola, Culcundo, illurdea, and Conga. 
There the hereditary chief is a Alurdta. Those divisions do not 
intermarry, but can eat in common. As the Coicular never marry 
persons of the same family in the male line with themselves, their 
marriages are confined to a few families, whose descents are known 
to each other. The men may marry several wives, and the women 
continue after the age of puberty to be marriageable. Except 
among the Siritali, a widow cannot marry again. They do not 
allow of that kind of inferior marriage, called Cutiga above the 
Ghats, and IVopati or Jaty-bidda in this country. A woman, who 
has any criminal conncccion with a strange man, is excommunicated; 
but when a married woman is seduced by a Coicular, both seducer 
and cuckold pay a fine of two Fanams, or almost a shilling, and the 
matter is settled in an amicable manner by the hereditary chief. 
The Coicular are allowed to eat animal food, and to drink intoxi- 
cating liquors. Many of them read legendary tales, and can keep 
accouipts. Some of them bury, and some of them burn the dead. 
On both occasions, proper Manirams nmst be read, by a Brahman ; 
otherwise the departed soul inevit.ibly becomes a Muni, or a low 
kind of devil ; as is also the case with the souls of all those who are 
Vox. II. Mm 



Oct. 29, 30. 

Customs of 
the Calculate 





Oct. ‘i9, 30, 

Cunchcnj/i or 
(lancing wo- 

killed by accident, whether they may have been good or bad. If 
the proper ceremonies have been performed, the souls of good men 
arc received into the heaven called Coilasa; those of bad men arc 
punished by being born again, eitlicr as men or animals. The Coi- 
cular are of H'vcds side, but consider Camachuma, or Parvati, as the 
proper deity of their cast. Some of the idols of this goddess are 
served by priests of the Coicular, others by Pundanon, and in some 
large temples hy Brahmans ; but tlicse never join in the bloody 
sacrilices that arc oll'cred by the low tribes to the idol, and retire 
whenever the animals are iroin" to he killed. The Coicular offer 
sacrifices also to the Safitis ami Munis. These last arc tlestructive 
spirits of the male sex, of Avhom the Av'orship is very common 
throughout the province of Cobnhclore. The Guru of the Coicular 
is a Smurtal Bruhnutn, ndiose office is hereditary. He gives them 
Upadesa, and consecrated food, water, and ashes, and receives their 
annual contributions. lie either comes round, or his disciples visit 
for him, once in the year. The Panchunga, or astrologer, acts for 
the Coicular as Puruhita, and reads Mantrams at the annual and 
monthly commemoration of their deceased parents, at the building 
of a new house, at marriages, ami iit funerals. The hereditary chief 
punishes transgressions against the rules of cast by fine and excom- 
munication. He is assisted by a council, and pretends also to have 
a jurlsrliction in disputes ; but in these an appeal is commonly made 
to the officers of government. The Coicular are weavers, writers, 
or accomptants, schoolmasters, and physicians; and all the dancing 
women, and musicians attached to them in this country, formerly 
belonged to this cast; but the decent part of the community have 
entirely given up all society with these abandoned characters. 

These dancing women, and their musicians, thus now form a se- 
parate kind of cast; and a certain number of them arc attached to 
every temple of any consequence. The allowances which the mu- 
sicians receive for their public duty is very small ; yet morning 


and evening they are bound to attend at the temple to perform CHAPTER 
before the image. They must also receive every person tr. welling 
on account of the government, meet him at some distance from the Oct.*:*), 30 . 
town, and conduct liim to his (juarters with music and (lancing. All 
the handsome girls are iustrncted to dance ami sing, and arc all 
prostitutes, at least to the Brahmans. In ordinfiry sets they arc 
quite common ; but, under the Company’.s government, those at- 
tached to temples of extraordinary sanctity are reserved entirely 
for the use of the native ollieers, wlio are all Brahmans, awA who 
would turn out from the set any girl that profaned lierself by com- 
munication with persons of low cast, or of no cast at all, such as 
Christians or Mussulmans. Indeed, almost every one of these girls 
that is toloralily sighlly is taken by some oHicer of revenue for his 
own special use, and i.s seldom |)ermittcd to go to tlie temple, ex- 
cept in liis presence. Most of these ofllcers have more than one 
wife, and the women of the Brahmans arc very beautiful; but tlic 
insipidity of their conduct, from a total want of education or ac- 
complishment, makes the dancing M’onien be sought after by all 
natives with great avidity. The [Mussulman olHcers in particular 
Avcrc exceedingly attached to this kind of company, and lavi.shed 
away on those women a great part of their incomes. The women 
very mucli regret their los.s, as ilie Mussulmans paid liberally, and 
the Brahnnns durst not presume to hinder any girl, who cliose, 
from amusing an Asoph, or any of his friends. The Brahmans are 
not near so lavish of their money, especially where it is secured by 
the Company’s government; but trust to their authority tor obtain- 
ing the favours of the dancers. When a Miissulman called for a set, 
it procured from twenty to two Iwindrcd Fanams (from 12.v. Gd. to 
61. 4iS. according to the number and liberality of his triends 
who were present; for in this country it is customary for every 
spectator to give something. They arc now seldom called upon to 
perform in private, except at marriages, where a set docs not get 


CHAPTER more than ten Fanams, or about 6s. 3d. The girls belonging to this 
cast, who are ugly, or who cannot learn to sing, are married by the 
Oct. 29, 30 . musicians. The Nutua, or person who performs on two small cym- 
bals, is the chief of the set, and not only brings up the boys to be 
musicians, and instructs all the good-looking girls, born in the set, 
to sing and dance, but will purchase handsome girls of any cast 
whatever that he cau procure. When a dancing girl becomes old, 
she is turned out from the temple without any provision, and is very 
destitute, unless she has a handsome daughter to succeed her ; but 
if she has, the daughters are in general extremely attentive and 
kind to their aged parents. To my taste, nothing can be more 
silly and unanimated than the dancing of the women, nor more 
harsh and barbarous than their music. Some Europeans however, 
from long habit, I suppose, have taken a liking to it, and have even 
been captivated by the women. Most of them that I have had an 
opportunity of seeing have been very ordinary in their looks, very 
inelegant in their dress, and very dirty in their persons ; a large 
proportion of them have the itch, and a still larger proportion are 
more severely diseased. 

Customs of The Panchalar are a set of artists, who (as their name imports) 
the Pmcha- diflerent trades ; goldsmiths, blacksmiths, coppersmiths, 

carpenters, and masons. By the Brahmatis they are reckoned a low 
kind of S&dras; but this they do not readily acknowledge to be 
true, and say, that they are of the Viskwa Karma cast, being de- 
scended from the five sons of that person, who lives in heaven, and 
is the chief artist among the Brahma Lbka^ or angels. All the Pan- 
chalar in southern India wear a thread like the Brahmans. In the 
dispute about precedency, their hereditary chiefs lead the right 
hand side. On this account Coimbetore has been long divided into 
separate quarters. In its own quarter, each party may perform its 
ceremonies in Avhatever manner it pleases ; but it is not allowed to 
. go into the adversary’s quarters with any procession, ^ This keeps 


the peace ; and, although the killing of a jackass is known by vc- CHAPTER 
port to the natives in this part of the country, it never has been 
practised. A Panchala may follow any of the live arts that he 
pleases ; hut there are many divisions among them, that prevent 
intermarriage. No man can marry a woman of a different nation ; 
a Telinga Panchala, for instance, could not marry a woman of this 
country. Again, a man cannot marry any woman of the same family 
with himself; and, in order to prevent mistakes, marriages are 
always made with families who are well known to each other. The 
men arc allowed a plurality of wives, and the women continue to be 
marriageable after the age of puberty. Widows are not allowed to 
marry again ; nor are they permitted to live with another man in 
the kind of concubinage called Jaty~bidda, of whom none belong to 
this tribe. Widows, indeed, ought to burn themselves with the dead 
bodies of their husbands ; but, for at least a century, the practice 
has gone into disuse. When two persons of the cast commit adul- 
tery, they are carried before the Guru. The man is lined, and the 
woman is flogged ; but, after she has been purified by some conse- 
crated food, and water, her husband receives her back again. If a 
Avoman has criminal connection with a man of any other cast, she is 
excommunicated. Some of these people eat animal food, others do 
not. They are allowed to drink intoxicating liquors. They never 
offer sacrifices to any of the destructive spirits, either male or fe- 
male. The deity peculiar to the cast is Camachuma, or Kalima, who 
is, they say, the same with Parvati, the wife of Siva. The priests in 
her temples are all Brihmam; but in the southern parts of India 
no sacrifices are offered to this idol, as is done in Bengal. The 
images of this goddess in the two countries are very differently 
shaped. The Pamhalas arc frequently instructed to read and write, 
and there is a book called Vishwa Puranam, which any of them may 
read. It is written in the vulgar languages. The Gurus of the 
Panchaks are not Brdhmans, but persons of the cast. They have 



CJIAPTER four Ala ta7ns, the authority of all which is equal. One Afatam, si- 
tuatecl beyoiul the Tiiuga-bhadt'a river, is under the government of 

Oct.2j>,30. ^Sanni/dsi, who appoints his successor from among his relations iu 
the male line. The persons of this family who arc not called upon 
to fill this sacred office work at the anvil as usual, and are not too 
proud to intermarry with ordinary families. The heads ofHlie other 
three families marry, and their office is hereditary in the male line; 
one of them, named Panamium, lives at Tinevcl/ij ; another, named 
Vepuru Vencata Achdrya, lives at Andeuru; the name ol’ the third, 
and his place of residence, arc unknown to the people o^ Cohnbdorc. 
To their followers these Gurus read Almtlrams and Cbari/ra, or 
prayers and legends, in the Telhiga language. They also bestow 
Upadesa, and receive the gifts called Ddna ami DIunma ; for whicli 
purpose they once a year travel round, and receive from each per- 
son a Fauam at least. 

The Paiickdnga of the village acts as Purohila for the Paudialar, 
and reads to them Alauttwns, in an unknown language, at marriages, 
births, the building of a new house, and at the monthly and annual 
celebrations of the ceremonies for their deceased parents. He also 
receives the charity called Ddna. 

I'orearih The I'oreas, or Torearu, are a tribe of Karndta, although many of 
them have been long settled in this country. 'I’hcy are rather a 
low cast, and their proper duty is the cultivation of the Betcl-kaf. 
Many of them formerly were armed messengers, employed to col- 
lect the revenue ; but, having been deprived iu a great measure of 
this resource by the reduction made in that body of troops, or 
rather rabble, they have become small dealers in grain, -and cutlers 
of firewood ; both of Avhich are considered as low employments. 
They have hereditary chiefs called Gotugaras, or fjyamdnas, who 
with the advice of a council reprimand all troublesome persons, 
and inflict slight punishments on those who transgress the rules of 
cast. The Toreas may eat animal food, but are not permitted to 


tlriuk intoxicating liquors. They are not allowed to marry a second 
Avife, without obtaining the consent of the first; and this is never 
asked for, if she has any children. The girls continue to be mar- 
riageable after the age of puberty, and widows may marry again 
M'ithout disgrace. The bridegroom generally gives his father-in- 
law forty Fatuvm (1/. i.v.); but this is only to assist in defraying 
the expense of the ceremony, which is performed at the father's 
liouse, and which costs more money. In cases of adultery, the bus- 
band docs not always turn his wife away, but contents bimsclf with 
flogging her. A woman loses cast if she cohabits with a strange 
man. This cast has two deities peculiar to itself; the one a male, the 
other a feiiialc. The male is called Sidday Dev/trn, and is usually repre- 
sented by a stone placed in the Bctcl~leaf -garden. Tbc eblcst man of 
every house acts as priest for his own family, and offers up bloody 
sacrifices to this stone, in order to appease the wrath of the god 
which it represents. Once in three or four years a feast is cele- 
brated in honour oi' Sidday Devaru, in order to induce him to bestow 
prosperity on the cast. This is done by a contribution, and costs 
fifteen Pagodas (4/. Id.). On this occasion Devaru is 

represented by a pot, which is placed in a house, and has worship 
(Puja) performed in its honour; that is to say, flowers, and water 
dyed yellow with turmeric, are ])oured over it, and incense is 
burned before its throne. The female deity is named Urucatc, and 
is represented by a stone placed in a wood. To this sacrifices and 
Puja arc offered eight days after the great feast of Sidday Dharu, 
and the goddess is solicited to bestow prosperity on her votaries. 
Although these are the peculiar deities of the Toreas, these poor 
people pray to any image that comes in their way, and use the 
mark of Siva. They have no Guru. The Pauchdnga acts as Ptiro- 
hita, and reads Alantrams marriages, and when they build a new 
house. Ilis fee is a Fanam and a half (ll^r/.). In cases of sickness, 
the Toreas frequently vow DhSri one day in the week ; that is to 
say, to live upon what they can procure by begging. 




Oct. 2.9, 30. 



CHAPTER The Pain are a very numerous cast in all the countries where the 
Tatiul language, their native tongue, is prevalent. They pretend 
Oct. 29, 30. to be SMras, but are looked upon as rather a low tribe. They have 
Hiany subdivisions, none of which intermarry with each other; but 
all can eat in common. Those from whom I have my information 
are called Arisha Palli, and act as cultivators of fields, and of 
gardens watered by machinery, both as farmers and servants, a^d 
also as porters. They have hereditary chiefs, called here Ijyamuna. 
On all public ceremonies these receive first; and, with the 
assistance of an assembly of the people, settle disputes, wlien the 
members of their tribes arc willing to refer the matter to their de- 
cision^ but a reference to the oflicers of government is in general 
preferred. Some of this tribe arc able to read and write accompts. 
They can lawfully eat animal food, and drink spirituous liquors. 
They are permitted to marry several women, and pay to the father of 
each from nine to eleven Pagodas. The father pays one third of the 
marriage expenses, and the bridegroom the remainder. Girls con- 
tinue to be marriageable after the age of puberty ; but after that 
period sell lower than while children. A widow may marry again 
without disgrace. In cases of adultery within the cast, the husband 
in general flogs the woman, and takes her back, giving a small fine 
to his relations ; but sometimes he turns her away ; in which case 
the man who seduced her keeps the woman as his wife, Jind pacifies 
his relations by a small fine. All this produces no disgrace, either 
to the woman or to her children. A woman loses cast by criminal 
communication with any man, except a Palli; a man may without 
disgrace indulge himself with any woman, except those belonging 
to the Panchama, or impure casts. 

The gods peculiar to the Pallis are a male named Manor Swdmip 
and Pachumma his mother. In the temples of these deities the 
priests arc Pallis. They are represented by stone images, and, as 
usual in the province of Combetore, have placed in the yard belong- 
ing to their temple a great many figures in potter’s work, which 


represent horses', elephants, and Munis, or devils, who are supposed CHa^eic 
to he the attendants of these gods. When a person is sick, he frc- 
<jucntly vows to place sonic of these images of potter’s work at thfe 
temple of the spirit who is supposed to be the cause of his disbilsc. 

None of these are ever presented to the great gods of the BHihmans, 
but only to the deities peculiar to the casts of the lowet. tribes. No 
sacrifices are offered to Mannar, or Pachmnma; but they, arc fre- 
quently presented to the attendant Munis, of whom a great many 
have appropriate names and characters ; such as Val, Shem, Car^ 

Vayda, Mutlu, &c. They are all males. The PaWw frequently offer 
sacrifices to Marima, Putalima, and the other Saktis, aud pray to 
Siva, I 'ishnu, or any thing which they meet, that is called a god. 

The Panch&nga, or astrologer of the village, acts as PurSluta for 
the Pallts, and reads Mantrams at their births and marriages, at 
the annual commemorations of their deceased parents, and at the 
building of a new house. 

Some of the Pallis are of Siva's side, and others of Vishnu's. The 
former have a Guru peculiar to themselves, who is called Palli Swdmi, 
and lives at Andeuru. His office is hereditary, and he wears the 
Unga. He receives the charity of his followers, and gives them 
consecrated food, and holy water. On such as choose to wear the 
Linga, he bestows an Upadesa; but very few apply for this, as 
ever afterwards they must abstain from animal food. The Pallis 
who wear the mark of Vishnu have for Gurus the Si'i Vaishnavam 

The hills west from Coimbetorr.*dxt inhabited by Malasir, Mudu- Mwntainon* 
gar, Eriligaru, and Todear. These last cultivate with the plough, 
and pay rent for their fields. The others cultivate after the Cotu~ 
cadu fashion, and live like those whom I saw on the lulls near iJen 
Ndyakana Cotay, Besides plantains, they have for sale honey, and 
wild ginger, which is the same species with that cultivated. They 
pay no rent immediately to the government ; but arc compelled to 
sell their commodities to a man, who pays an annual duty for this 
VoL. II. Nn 



CHAPTER exclusive trade. He may give what price he pleases for their com- 
moditics. Those who want timber, or Bamboos, hire the hill people 
Oct. 31. , to cut»*them. 

Sickness. 3 1st October, — ^The sickness among my people had now increased 

so much, that the greater part of them could not proceed farther; 
and I was forced to employ this day in providing a fresh set of 





the \>it of N^ovember I went ten Malabar hours’ journey to CflAPTER. 

Katii/a-uru, which is a small village without any shops, and is 
situated at some distance north from the Noyel river. The country Nov. i. 
near Coimbetore is fully cultivated, but very bare of trees. A few oilhetoun- 
very fine hedges show how well they would thrive, if all the fields 
were inclosed. Towards Kanya-uru large proportions of the fields 
arc unoccupied, but the country is better wooded. Much of the 
soil is poor, and all at any distance from thoNoyd is dry-field. 

2d November. — I went ten Malabar hours’ journey to dvanasi, Nov. e. 
the residence of a TahsUdar. The country looks well ; about one 
half of the arable lands being under cultivation, and many of the 
fields being surrounded by good hedges, especially those of the Hcdgcsofthe 
Elanda Moula^ or Euphorbhm antiquorum. This kind of hedge 
reijuircs to be annually repaired, by inserting cuttings in the places 
where old plants have decayed ; but large cuttings being taken, 
and supported by Bamboos and thorns, they become immediately a 
fence sufficient against cattle. 

The principal cultivation here is IIorse‘gram (Dolichos biflorus), Rudeculti* 
with which very little trouble is taken. The ploughing is so rude, 
that hardly any of the bushes are overturned ; and the field at A. 
little distance appears as if it were waste. Many bushes resist even 
the repeated ploughings given to the fields of Cambu, but they are 
soon overtopped by this vigorous plant. 

In the vicinity of Avanasi are many Palmira groves, which in a Face of the 
country so naked give it a good appearance. Here there are two 




Nuv. 2. 


Sheep and 

reservoirs for watering rice-ground. The one receives all its sup- 
ply of water Iroin the rain which it collects. The ground irrigated 
by this tank amounted to eleven Candacas, equal to twenty-two 
Cheis, or twenty-nine acres ; but, owing to its being out of repair, it 
now supplies only ten Cfieis, The other reservoir receives a supply 
of water from a rivulet called the Semudir, which, after giving a 
supply to another largo reservoir, falls into the Noycl at Tripura. 
The dam turning the water from the Semudir into the reservoir at 
A'caiiasiy is in such bad repair, that the supply is deficient, and 
thirty-two Chei$ only, are at present cultivated, of the eighty which 
formerly were irrigated; 

Before the iuvasipn of General Meadows, Avanasi contained two 
Immlred houses, which arc now reduced to ahput fifty, that ar.c 
ehielly inhabited by the Bruhmam, musicians, aud dancers belong- 
ing to a temple oi^va- These people preteml, that their temple is 
equal in sanctity tp the celebrated'amsi at Kuni.; but this pre- 
tension is laughed at hy their neighbours. In this district there 
are many weavers, Coicular, Jadar, aud Farriar. 

]\Iany sheep are bred throughout Coimhetore, aud especially in 
this district. Under the term Bacri, the Mussulmans here include 
botli the long-legged goat and theshcep. The former, in the native 
language of this, country, is called Veladu ; of the sheep there arc 
ill this place two kinds, the one called Curumltar, and the otlier 
Slwymbliar. The goats here are greatly inferior to those above the 
Ghatu ; hut tlic sheep, though small, are of a good quality, fatten- 
ing readily, and making most delicious meat. Even. grass-mutton 
may he had here tolerably fat ; for the pasture, although it looks 
very bare, seems to be more nutritious than that on the banks of 
the Ganges, where no tolerable mutton can be reared without the 
assistance of grain. Even the Mussulman officers never thought of 
fattening their sheep with grain, and indeed made very little 
difierence between fat and lean mutton. A good female goat 
(Veladu), or a sheep of either kind, costs from 4 to 3 Fanams, or 



from li'. \\\d. to l.y. 5^^. A good wcllicr costs from C to oTanmns, fHAiTiiu 
or from 25. W^^d. to 2.v. (ul. 

The C’jfrMwiar (Plate XVII, Fig. 42, 43.) is a short bodied sliecp „ 

with a short small tail, like that of a hare, or goat : the rams have 
short horns turned back, and their ears are very short and pendu- 
lous. The ewes seldom liavc horns. The wool is thick and curly, 
and has little or no hair intermixed with it. Here they are in ge- 
neral white, with black heads ; but above the Ghats they are fre- 
quently altogether black. It is of the wool of this kind only that 
blankets arc made. They arc shorn twice a year. 

The Shaymbliar (Plate XVIII, Fig. 4-4, 4-5.) is of a thinner make SAni/mlUar 
than the Curiim/utr. Their horns and tails arc similar; but tlieir **'*'*^’^' 
ears are longer, and their m'ooI is very scanty, their principal co- 
vering being hair. In this country they are generally of a redish 
brown colour; but in they also are most connnonly black. 

Both kinds lamb once a year from the 1.5th October to the 15th l'ta«a"emcnt 
of November. Twice a day, during the two following months, 
about ^ of a Seer, or about seventeen cubical inches of milk, arc 
taken from each. The long legged goat gives double that quan- 
tity for three months after each kid, and breeds twice a year. 

The milk of all the three, together with that of cows and buffaloes, 
is mixed for making butter. My Bengal servants acknowledge,, 
that both the Ohcc (boiled butter) and curdled milk of this country- 
are superior to those of their own, where a preference is given to 
unmixed cow’s milk. Wethers of all the three kinds arc made by 
bruising the testicles of the animals when they are two years old, 
and never w'hile they are young : the natives prefer the meat of 
the goat to that of the sheep, and the meat of the Shaymbliar to 
that of the Curumbar ; Avhich is directly in opposition to the taste 
of most Europeans. Owing to this, however, the cultivators in 
general keep only the goats and Shaymbliars / while the Curubas, 
or weavers of blankets, keep the Curumbars, as these only can 
supply them with wool. 




Xov. 2. 

CumbaSj or 

Nov. 3, 
Face of the 

Tripura^ or 
Polar iIIj- 

In Coimbetore no kind of cattle arc housed at any season. Pre- 
vious to the ploughing season, they are always folded on the lands 
that are to be cultivated. Iii order to increase the (juantity of ma- 
nure, the farmers every where keep slieep and goats ; but it is 
chiefly in this neighbourhood, that the Curuhas pasture their flocks 
of Curumbars. The Curubas, who by the Mussulmans are called 
Donigars, are all of Karnata extraction, and in Coimbetore never 
cultivate the ground. Their sole occupation is feeding their flocks, 
and weaving their wool into coarse blankets ; none of which made 
here, exceed in value four Vir'-RAya Fmuims, or l.v. Each 

man possesses from fifty to one hundred sheep, which he pastures 
on the fields all day without paying any rent; and at night he 
folds them on the arable lands of the cultivators, who might each 
frivcuBulla of grain to the proprietor of one hundred sheep for 
the manure. Every family of the Curuhas pays a poll-tax, and 
there is a duty on their blankets, 

.3d November. — I went five Malabar hours’ journey to Tripura, 
fording the Noyel at that town. The country is not so well occu- 
pied as that through which I came yesterday ; and in every village 
there are many ruinous houses. The soil is rather poor, but the 
fields are well fenced. The Noyel is a river very inferior to the 
Bhamini, and was easily fordable, although much swollen by a very 
heavy rain that lasted all night. On crossing this river, I entered 
the district under Mr. Ilurdis. Tripura is an open town, containing 
three hundred houses, with a large weekly market or fair. I ob- 
served, that the women here did not conceal themselves when their 
curiosity prompted them to view me as a stranger. This, is also 
the case in ajl the country above the Ghats; but in the part of 
Coimbetore north from the Noyel river, the women in general ran 
out of my way, and satisfied their curiosity by peeping from behind 
walls and hedges, as is usual in the country of Bengal. 

The Tahsildar of this district resides at a place called Paler, 
where there is a fort, but only thirty houses, of which fifteen are 



inhabited by Brahmans. The district is fifteen Malabar hours’ CHAPTER 
journey from north to south, and twelve from east to west. The 
Tahsildar met me with great readiness, to give me an account of 
his district, fie says, that none of it is absolutely waste ; as the 
fields that are not cultivated pay a trifle as a rent for grass. The 
country suffered little during the invasion of General Meadows, as 
it lay at some distance from the routes of the contending armies. 

Last year many of their cattle died of the epidemic distemper. 

The land-measure differs every where in the province under Mr. Land-mca- 
Hurdis ; and all the revenue accompts are kept according to an old ^'*'^*’* 
measurement made by Chica Deva Raya. In this district no less 
than three different land-measures prevail. 1st, at Palar, thirty- 
two Vaums or fathoms make one Rimy, Caur, or chain ; which is, 
therefore, two hundred and sixteen feet. Three chains by two make 
a Bulla-sowing, which is 6-^^^ acres. 2dly, at Madupura hohly, the 
Bulla is a scpiare of sixty-four Vaums each side, or contains 4,284 
acres. 3dly, at Tripura, forty-eight Vaums square make a Bulla- 
land, equal to 2,41 acres. 

The Mau, or Candaca of watered land, is equal to two Chets of the 
new measurement, or contains 2,6'44 acres. 

The measures of grain also vary extremely. The Paddy varies Dry-mca* 
from 64 to 72 Rupees weight of grain, or from to 63-iVo cu- 

bical inches: four Paddies make one Bulla, sixteen Bullas make one 
Morau, si-x Moraus make one Podi, which therefore varies from 
about 10-jVo-to 1 bushels. 

The weights near this are every where the same. 8 Rupees— S. ^Veigh(s. 
Pull, 3P«//4==1 Acer =0,6067 lb.; also 33^ Seers, or 100 Pulls, are 
=1 7h/aw{=20|- lb. 

Here is established a Niruc, or regulation, by which all coins Money 
have a certain value affixed to them ; and at this rate they are re- 
ceived in the payment of the revenue ; but in dealings between 
private persons attention is not paid to this rule. Accompts are 
commonly kept in Chucris, or CanteV-JUya Pagodas, and Fanams ; 


CHAPTER but the coins commonly current arc Pondichery and Sidtany Rupees, 
Vir'-RAya Famms. 

Wee rice land in this neighbourhood there is only one crop, 

which is sown after the sprouted manner, from between the 12th of 
July and the 18th of August. The land is watered partly from re- 
servoirs, and partly from canals, which are brought from the Noyel 
by dams. It lets for from 9 Chucris to 45 - for the Candaca, or for 
from 1/, Is, 3rf. to 10.?. T^d, an acre. The dams on the Noyel are 
said to be 32 in number. Of these four Mere in this district; but 
two of them have been so long ruinou.s, that no accounts remain of 
the quantity of land to which they gave water. Owing to the want 
of repairs, rather more than a third of tlie land formerly watered 
by the two remaining dams, is now uncultivated. The water from 
some of the dams on the Noyel is applied directly to the liclds from 
the canals ; in others, it is previously collected in reservoirs, in 
order that no more ground may be cultivated than the supply of 
water is adequate to, irrigate. 

Dry.field. For six years past there has been a great scarcity of rain, which 
has injured considerably the cultivation of the dry-field. About -f 
of what was formerly cultivated is now neglected ; and for pasture 
it has always been customary to leave some of the fields fallow. 
The whole, however, are now let ; but the rent given for those 
which are in grass is very trifling. The greatest article of cultiva- 
tion here is Colu, or the Dolichos bijlorus, called Horse-gram by the 
English of Madras ; next to that, about equal quantities of Cambtt 
(Ilolcus spicatus), mixed with Bullar (Dolichos Lablab), and of 
Sholum (Holcus sorghum); next to those, Upum cotton. The other 
articles cultivated on dry-field are inconsiderable. 

The produce of a Bulla land, Palar measurement, is stated to 
be 200 Tolas of cotton, with the seed, or about 629 pounds an 

Cambu seed per Bulla, 52 Bulks produce 20 Podr 
Bullar - -- - 16 - 2 | 



Catnbti seed per acre, 0,-jVrfe bushel, produce 35, ^Vo hubhcls, 
Bullai' , . - - 4,rV^r 

Seed 1 ,yVo bushel. Pro<luce 40, 

Sholum seed per Bulla, 56 Bu/las; produce 28 Podia. 

Ditto per acre, - - bushel ; ditto 49,^0^ bushels. 

Colu seed per Bulla, 64 Bullas; produce 10 Podia. 

Ditto per acre, - - bushel; ditto 17,77 bushels. 

This is the produce of a good soil, as stated by the Tahsildar , 
but it .seems to be over-rated. 

A farmer who has four ploughs, wrought by four men and eight 
oxen, and who occasionally hires women labourers, can cultivate 
with dry grains four Bulla-i, Palar measurement. Tliis is at the 
rate of ratlicr less than six and a half acres for a plough. 

The ((uantity of ground cultivated as garden, and watered by 
the Capilj/, is in this district very considerable. 

In Palar and Chinghery subdivisions 180 Bullas, or 1156 acres. 

In Madupuru ------- ih 7 ditto, or 801 ditto. 

In Tripura - -- -- -- - 159 ditto, or 383 ditto. 

2340 acres. 

It produces (Holcus sorghum), Cambu (llolcus spicatus), 

Kevir (Cynosurus corocanus), Meti, or fenugreek (Trigonella Jienum 
grcccum), wheat of the Hotay kind (Triticum spelta), Jiray and 
Danya, two of the carminative seeds, tobacco, garlic, onions, Tcnay 
(Panicum italkum), Banguns (Solanum melongena), and capsicum. 
Almost every farmer cultivates some of this ground. 

The whole land in this district is said to be arable ; but certain 
of the poorest fields are set aside for pasture, and pay a small rent. 
S(^e of them continue always in grass ; others are alternately cul- 
tivated for Horst-gram ( Dolichos biflorus ), and produce grass. Four 
Bullas of Palar measurement (25i acres) are reckoned sufficient 
pasture for 30 oxen. In the dry season, they must be either sent 
VoL. II. O o 




KxUnt of a 

Crardens wa- 
.oretl by ihe 





Xov. 3. 

Want of cu- 
riosity ill the 

Nov. 4. 
Face of the 


to tlic liilly country, nr fctl with the straw ot’ Sholum, or Cambu, 
the two species of llolcnx cultivated in tliis country. 

A man who lias four ploughs, four or five servants, with occa- 
sional labourers, and sixteen oxen, is said to cultivate -J +t 
(4T''tnrV acres) of garden, and Sv Uuflas (-4,-'7r acres) of dry-field, 
and has 1^ Jiulla (9, tW acres) of pasture: in all, 37,9 acres : 
this he pays vyiQ Suita uy Fanams a year, Avhich would he at the rate 
of 1/. an acre for the average rent of the whole district. Another 
mail is said to have { Bulla {4.-,-Vo acres) of garden, 1 Bulla (6‘,-j^^/o- 
acres) of dry-field, and Bulla (4,vWo acres) of pasture; for 

■which he pays 830 Fatiams a year, which is at the rate of 1/. 14.v. .5</. 
an acre. Roth these statements were given me by the TahsUdar, 
Avith much seeming accuracy, from the public accompts; but they 
appear to me perfectly absurd. He was a man of paper, 
and came preparctl to show long statistical accompts, on which, it 
seemed to me, no reliance could be placed. 

I did not wonder at the Tatmldar being ignorant of the neigh- 
bouring country, as he was not a native of the place; but in the 
whole town he could not find a person that could inform me of the 
place where the iron sold in their weekly markets was made : all 
agreed, that it came from the neighbouring district, called China 
Mali; but every one diflered concerning the village. 

4th November. — I went ten Malabar hours’ journey to Tallaxcai 
Patlyam, as being the most likely place to find the iron forges; but 
in this I was disappointetl, no iron having been ever made there. 
Some parts of the country through which I passed were well cul- 
tivated, w'hile others were <juite waste. Although the soil is in ge- 
neral poor; yet traces remain to show that the whole has once been 
cultivatcil ; and there are many excellent fences even in places 
where the fields arc ivaste. The (juantity of rice ground is very 
small, and I saw none of it cultivated, although I passed under thf 
bank of a large reservoir, containing niucli water. I passed ano- 
ther large reservoir, witli a stream of water running through it; 


but its bank was broken. The eanals from the Koi/d and its 
branches are very small, and would be employed to most advantage 
in filling reservoirs. As I approached TalUrwai Pallyam, I saw some 
small conical hills scattered through the country, which derives its 
name from that circumstance, China Mali signifving little hills. 
Tallaxcai PaUyam is a poor village without a shop, and contains only 
twenty houses. The cultivators say, that for five years past there 
has not once been enough of rain to fdl their tank, and this has 
been the case w'itli a great part of the province. The produce of 
dry grains during the same space of time has not been more than 
one half of the usual quantity. 

The names of plants in (.'oiifiheto7'c are quite different from those 
given to tiie same at Tritehcnopolij, although in both countries the 
language of the 'J'a?rinh‘ is spoken. The Tumid of Coimbetat'c is per- 
fectly intelligible to iny Madras servants, although natives of a 
dill'crent Desa, Among the Mussulmans it is called the /Irabi lan- 
guage, and their owm northern dialect is here called the Asmani. 

5th Novendtcr , — [ went a short stage to China Mali, and by the 
way examined a forge for smelting iron, at a village named Cot- 
tumbally. It is wrought bj'^ the low people called Siclars ; and the 
plan is nearly the same with that of the forges above the Ghats; 
hut it is in every respect more miserable. The furnaces arc built 
in the open air; so tliat in the rainy season they cannot be used; 
and the bellows, being made of a goat’s skin, give very little wind. 
The man w'ho works it sits on a stone, and, holding tlie bag be- 
tween his legs, presses down the end wdth his right arm, and raises 
it with the same. The bag at each time is not half emptied, and 
in fact a pair of common kitchen bellow's would give as much 
wind. The furnace lias a lateral slit, close to the ground, for let- 
ting out the vitrified matter. The iron is taken out in front. The 
furnace is first filled with charcoal, then a small cupful of black 
sand is put on the top. As it burns down a scoopful of charcoal 
and another cupful of sand are added ; and this is continued from 




Nov. i. 

o o 

Nov. i). 
Iroi^ tbi gcs* 



Strata near 
ilitt Xovclar. 


early in tlie morning until three or four in the afternoon, when a 
mass of iron is formed and removed ; and this is the Avhole day’s 
work. The cup contains about half a pint, anti the scoop about 
three quarts ; so that the expenditure of fewel is immense. The 
mass of iron is very imperfectly fused. The sand is found in the 
channels of little torrents, which wash it down from the hills in 
the rainy season. Much of it, I am told, comes from a village called 
Vir' S/iolavarum, in Canghium district, which is on the south side of 
the Noyel. 

Some people of the Shanar tribe, who make iron near China Mali, 
tell me, that when they take the mass of iron from the furnace, they 
immediately cut it in two with a strong Kudali, or hatchet. In this 
state it is sold to the blacksmiths, who by repeated heatings and 
beatings reduce each portion to a small bar. Four Hhanar work at 
each furnace, every one performing a part at each stage of the 
business. In the rainy season they collect the sand. Tlien they 
make the charcoal; and linally, in an interval of about three months 
between the crop seasons of the Palmira and coco-nut palms ( Bo’ 
rasms JiabeUlfhrmis and Cocos nucij'cra), they smelt the iron. They 
pay a thirtieth part of the iron smelted to the government, besides 
a duty for permission to cut timber for fewel. 

At almost every village in the Perinduru district, iron is also 
smelted from black sand. 

Throjighout the country watered by the Noyelar, the strata are 
vertical, and composed in general of aggregate stones in a slaty 
form. The strata ran nearly east and west; and in many places, 
especially near rivers or torrents, have been over-flowed by the 
TiiJ'a calcaria, already frequently mentioned. The s])oradic concre- 
tions usually found above the Ghats, and the great diffused masses 
fouml in Coimbetore, seem to consist e.xactly of the same materials. 
The whole calcarious matter, however, in Coimbetore is by no 
means in large beds; many sporadic concretions are every where 
to be found. 



The country throuj 3 ;h which I passed to-day, except where occu- CHAPTER* 
pied by the small conical hills, is nearly in the same state with that 
described yesterday. Although the people complain of a want of 
rain, I passed a large reservoir full of water, which is not applied to country, 
irrigate the fields. 

Many of the hedges here, and in other parts of Coimbelore, are Hedges of 
made of a thorn called Mulu-kilitai/. It seems, from its habit, to be 
a It/nis ; but, not baving found the fructification, I am very uncer- 
tain concerning its place in the botanical system. It makes a very 
g-ood fence: cuttings, three or four cubits long, are put in the 
g round between the 1 2th of March and the 10th of April. The ends 
arc buried in the earth about a span, and very soon shoot out root^ 

I’rom the moment it is planted, it forms a fence against cattle ; but 
seems to require a better soil than cither the Euphorbium Tirucalli, 
or the Euphorbium antiquorum, which are tlie most common hedges 
licrc, and will grow any where. 

The people of China Mali are either unwilling to give me any I.ow state of 
information, or arc in a beastly state of ignorance. In tlie whole 
towii 1 could not procure means to weigli a piece of iron half the 
produce of one smelting. The inhabitants of this province, indeed, 
appear to be as far behind those of Mysore, in intelligence, and in 
most of the arts, as these again are behind the natives of Calcutta 
or Madras. As is the case in every part of Bengal where arts have 
not .been introduced by foreigners, the only one that has been car- 
ried to tolerable perfection is that, of weaving. 

In the reign of Hyder, China Mali contained above 200 houses. Population. 
These are now reduced to 125, of which 17 belong to Brahmans, 

Avlio keep 18 houses of dancing -girls and ihusicians, leaving 90 
houses for those who are supported by honest industry. Of these, 

41 are inhabited by weavers, 5 by shop-keepers, and 7 by culti- 

The small-pox has been lately raging in the town, and is said to Small-po.\. 
have proved fatal to 100 persons ; a very terHble mortality in so 




Nov. 5. 

Nov. 6. 
Face of the 

small a place ! Inoculation is unknown to the natives ; and the 
mention of it excites their astonishment and abhorrence. They 
trust for cure to the application of tlie leaves of the Mclia Azadi- 
rkhta, a tree that is sacred to the goddess Marimu, who inllicts this 
dreadful distemper. The priest (Pujdri) at her temple is a Huiidi/, 
a person of very low cast ; yet in these times of allliction he gets 
presents even from the lirdhmans. The disease having now stopped, 
a grand sacrifice is to be performed at night, in order to tliank tiic 
angry deity for having restrained her wrath. In this, however, the 
.Rrd/iwflHS do not join. The number of singers, drums, horns, and 
other powerful sources of noisy discord, which have been assembled 
for the occasion, leave me no room to hope for slecj). 

6th November. — I went five Malabar hours’ journey to Perimluru, 
The soil of the country through which I passed is in general jioor, 
and not much of it cultivated. There are f(;w fences, Imt a good 
many gardens of the Palmira tree, or Ihrasms. Tiic J'alisildar says, 
that the whole rice-ground in the district is of very little extent. 
Two canals from the Noyel come through it. The one fills a reser- 
voir, the water from the other is applied directly to the fields ; 
but the extent watered by both means is inconsiderable. In the dis- 
trict of CAi/w A/rt/i there is no rice-ground. In this district there 
is also much land watered by the Capily, and cultivated for what is 
called here Tarkdri. The rent of such laud is higher than that of 
dry-field. The Tahsildar says, that three quarters of the district are 
now waste, owing to a want of people. To me it appears, tliat he 
over-rates the population greatly ; but he says, that many of tiic 
waste fields are of a very poor soil ; and, although they have been 
once or twice cultivated, they were found not to repay the l.iiunir 
bestowed on them, and have ever since been neglected. 1 doubt 
much the accuracy of this statement; for I see fields now culti- 
vated, that are apparently of as bad a sojl as those which arc waste. 
By the way, I passed one village totally in ruins. The people say, 
that since the death of Hydtr they have not had one year with a 


proper fall of rain. This year there has been abundance, but it CllAFrER 
came too late by two months. 

In this district there about 800 looms. Perinduru, the chief town, Nov 6. 
contains at present 118 houses, of which 2 1 are inhabited by Brah- ^ 

?nans, most of whom are attached to a temple. It has a mud fort, 
which is not inhabited ; and there arc msiny ruins in the town. The 
temple had formerly lands producing 10,000 Goputy Fanams (139^- grant- 
IJ-f. 3rf.) a year. It is now allowed 1018/JM/jees (103/. !«. 4^^.) a supi>ortof 
year to support its establishment. The village gods have small 
Fnams, or lands for which they pay half-rent. There are besides 
lands, belonging both to Mussulmans and Br&hinans, dedicated to 
the service of God ; and these lands are either free, or pay a very 
trifling rent. The Mussulmans, on account of their lands, are 
bound to perform certain ceremonies ; but the Brahmans may do 
as they please. These free lands ( Enams ) may be mortgaged by 
what is Bh6gyam: the money is advanced for a certain term 
of years, the lender taking the produce of the land for interest ; 
and the property is entirely forfeited, if at the stipulated time the 
money be not repaid. By this means, as is usual all over India, the 
lauds originally intended for the support of religion are now per- 

verted to quite difierent purposes. 

7th November. — I went eight Malabar hours’ journey to Erodu, Nov. 7 . 
or, as it is called in our maps, Eroad. The country through which 
I passed is in a state similar to that between China Mali and Pe- 
rinduru, and contains no rice lands. 

Eroda has a large mud fort, occupied by a battalion of Sepoys, Erodu. 
which, in this part of the country, now procures a ready supply of 
recruits. Tippoo's soldiers now begin to enter readily into the Com- 
pany’s service, the late augmentation of the Sepoys' allowances 
having had a most excellent elFect. In the government of Hyder 
the suburb contained about 3000 houses. 7'ippoo’j government had 
reduced them one third part, and the whole was entirely destroyed 
during the invasion of General Meadows. It is now rising up again, 



CHAPTER and contains about 400 houses. The situation is line, and healthy; 

‘ind the place will probably soon attain its Ibriuer importance, its 

Nor. 7 . centrical position rendering it very fit for a military station. The 
weavers in this district amount to 20.50 persons, Coicular, Jadai\ 
and Farruir. Tliese last are sai»l to make the best cloth ; but the 
whole is very coarse. 

Irrigation by The canal, coming by Erodit from the Bhazmm, is an excellent 
■ ■ work, and waters a narrow space of ground fil’tecn Malabar liours’ 
journey long, and of various breadths. At this place the canal is 
carried over a .small rivulet by means of an aqueduct. It is said 
that formerly it extended all the way to Canine, and was carried over 
the Noyel river by means of an atjueduct, that must have been a 
great work. The whole is said to have been made by a Vaylalar 
farmer, named Caling lluya, who being a rich man, and of great 
influence, raised from among the people of his cast a sum sulTicient 
for the purpose. Tliis was more than 400 years ago. His family is 
extinct, and never seems to have received any reward in lands on 
account of the grand work that he completed. The lands watered 
by it at present amount to 1045 Matt, or Candacas, which have been 
found to measure from 2 to 3 Cheis each; and, taking the medium, 
the whole will be 345y acres, of which about $3 only are waste. In 
this district the waste dry-field amounts to 400 Balias, or about 
1713 acres. 

Nov. 8. November. — I remained at Erodn, and procured the following 

statements from the 'Jafisildar, a very intelligent Brahman. 

A Mail or Candaca of watered land is here so much as will sqw 
100 Heers of rice in the sprouted-seed cultivation. The Seer is 
equal to 80 Rupees weight, and therefore the quantity of seed for 
an acre will be very little less than one busliel. The best land lets 
at 2.50 Sultany Fanam.t, and the worst at 60 for the Mau ; which is 
at the rate of from 2/. 7s> \\d, to 11^. 4d. an acre. Both sprouted 
seed and transplanted cultivations are in use, and the fonner is 
most prevalent. One kind of rice called Mulaghi requires eight 


months to ripen, and is sown between the 13th of July and the 
li)th of August. No other crop can Ibllow it in the same year. lu 
a good ero]> it produces 30 Man from a Candaca land, or about 30 
bushels an acre. 

The other kinds admit of two crops in the year; producing in 
both, wluMi the\’ are good, from 4.5 to 49 bushels an acre. The lirst 
crop is of a kind of nee called Anadanum, which is sown between 
the I2th of May and the l2thof July, and ripens in five months. 
It produces about 2.5 bushels an acre. Three kinds of rice, Sarnbau, 
IX'va Rdtja Sdmhan, and Shindalay, are sown as a second crop, be- 
tween the 14th of November and the 10th of January, and ripen 
in six months. The first in a good crop produces 24 bushels, the 
two latter about 20 luishels, an acre. 

Although the supply of water here is equally good and regular 
with tliat at Nala Ruyana Pallyam, and the produce here is very 
much less than at that place, yet we need not thence concl Ale that 
the statements given at the two places are erroneous; for the 
greater fertility of the rice ground at Nala Rdyana Pallyam may 
arise from the transplanted cultivation having been there adopted ; 
while here tlie sprouted-seed is still retained, the inhabitants not 
having been forced by a high rent to exert themselves. 

The dry-field here lets for from 40 to 10 Sultany Panams the Vul- 
lam, which is of the same extent as that of Coimbetore. The rent 
for the acre is therefore from 5s. \0d. to 1#. 54 (/. In the following 
Table n il! be seen an estimate of the seed and produce of one Vul- 
lam, and one acre, cultivated with the different articles raised on 
this kind of ground. 




Nov. 8. 

DIlTorenre in 
I he produce 
©I sown and 


VoL. II 





Nov. 8, 

CopUy gar- 

Table explaining U. j cultivation of dry-field at Erodu. 

Of one VuUam. 

Of Acre* 





Camhuy or Holcus spicatns - 

6 Vullams 

2 Podis - 


Bushels 0,1852 


Bushels 5,926 

Muchu-cotay^ or Holichos 
Lablab - - . - - 

1 ditto - 

2 Moraus 

- - 0,0308 

- - 0,247 

Total - - 

- - 


- - 0,216‘ 

- - 6,173 

Sholum t or Holcus sorghum 

S Vullams 

8 Moraus 

- - 0,1852 

- - 0,988 

Tat* Elluy or Scsamum - - 

J Vullam 

6* Vullams 

- - 0,0077 

- - 0,185 

Total • - 

- - - 

. . - 

- - 0,1929 

- - :,i73 

Shamay y or Panicum miliare 
Wulinduy or Phaseolus mU 
nimoo' ------ 

6 Valiants 

8 Moraus 

- - 0,1852 

- - 0,988 

6 ditto - 

5 ditto - 

- - 0,1852 

- - 0,37 

Pacha Pyru, or Phaseolus * 
Mungo ----- j 

6 ditto - 

3 ditto - 

- - 0,1852 

- • 0,37 

Tovarayy or Cytisus Cajan 

3 Paddies 

1 ditto - 

- - 0,0023 J 

- - 0,123 

Nadum cotton - - - - 

1 Tolam - 

5 Tolams 

- lb. 4,7619 

lb. 23,8095 

No Upum cotton is raised here. The produce of the Sholum, 
Shamay, &c. seems to be greatly under-rated. 

The garden ground watered by the Cajrily lets for from 260 to 30 
Sultany Fanams a Vutlam, or from '57s. 10-yt/. to 4«. 4^d. an acre. 
The chief articles of produce in them are as follow : 

Sholum, or Holcus sorghum. 

Seed per VuUam 6 Fullams. Produce in good ground 4 Podis. 
Ditto per acre bushels. Ditto ditto - 1 

Kevir, or Cynosurus corocanus. 

Seed per Vullam 6 Vullams. Produce in good ground 4 Podis, 

Ditto per acre bushels. Ditto ditto - 11, bushels. 



Produce per Tullum, in good ground - - 7 Tolams. 

Ditto per acre - - . _ _ 491 ib. 

The produce of this kind of ground seems also to be greatly 
under-rated by the Tahsildar. 

In the beginning of Tippuo's reign there were here a few planta- 
tions of coco and Betel j)alms ; but they liave since been ruined. 
Orders have now been given to plant 20,000 of these palms, and 
100,000 Pabtiiras (Boram). In a country so bare of trees, this last 
is very useful for building. In a goo<l soil it grows up in thirty 
years, in a bad one it recpiires lifty. 

yth Nox'emher , — I went a very long stage, called ten Malabar 
hours’ journey, to Bashar. The canal from the Bluraumi continued 
near my route on the left, and goes on three Malabar hours’ jour- 
ney farther, to a place called (Jolanelly. Tlie high ground on my 
right was in general very poor. Of Avhat is tolerably good a large 
proportion is cultivated. Bashar i.san open village, containing ISt) 
ho\iscs, of Avhich 40 arc inhabited by Brahmans. There is, however, 
only one small temple that has a Brahman Bujari, or priest. The 
others have betaken themselves to honest industry, and rent the 
lands which they formerly held in I'.nam; that is to say, almost the 
whole ricc-grotind belonging to the place. They arc said actually 
to have put their hands to the plough. Great complaints are made 
lierc, *of a want of rain. 

I observed near Bashar very large rocks of white quartz, in 
which it is evidently disposed in plates, like sehistus, from one 
quarter of an inch to one inch in thickness, standing vertically, and 
running east and west in the direction of the common strata of the 

10th November . — I went eight Malabar hours’ journey to Codo- 
mudi, a town on the bank of the Cavery. The road is interrupted 
by several torrents, swelled much by the heavy rains. A great part 




Nov. 8. 

Palm gar- 

Nov, 9 . 
Irrigation by 



Rocks of 

Nov. 10. 
Fact* of the 



CHAtTER' of the route led me through a country fully cultivate<l and inclosed ; 

and, although not so well wooded as England, yet I think, on the 
\ov. 10. whole, the most beautiful tb '.t I have seen in India. The Cavery, 
AV'hich at present is a noble river, and many hills scattered through 
the country, add much to the beauty of the scenery. The soil is 
however in general poor, and near Codo-mudi many of the tields are 
Avaste. Codo-mudi has a temple, said as usual to be of great anti- 
quity, and provided Avith an establishment of 11 Brahmans, and 21 
musicians and dancing-AVomen. It is a poor building; but, this 
being a holiday, it AV'as crowded Avith multitudes of all ages and 
both sexes, many of Avhom Avere prostrated before the images. The 
liouses in CW/o-wiMdi are 118, of Avhich 28 are occupied by Brahmans. 
It is a new town, and money has been advanced to assist the people 
to build houses. Colanclly, Avhich we passed on the Avay, has been 
deserted. At this place a canal is taken olffrom the Cavery, Avith- 
out the assistance of a dam. A canal of this kind is called a Corum. 
In the dry season this is carried across the channel of the Noyel, 
and Avaters the fields near Pogolur. 

Enamdars,ot Thc Brdhmam, Avho nOAv live here, Avere formerly all Vaidikas, or 
ingTeclands. dedicated to religious meditation; and in government 

lived on thc opposite bank of thc Cavery, Avherc they had Enams, 
or free lands. Having lost this property, they have been obliged to 
rent some lands, Avhich they cultivate by means of their servants. 

1 1th November, — I Avent seven and a half hours’ journey 

to Pogolur, in the district under the management of Mr. llurdis. 
By the Avay, I visited the place Avhere the Corum, or canal taken 
from the Cavery at Codo-inudi, is conducted over the river Noyel. 
In the rainy season, thc Avafer taken from the Cavery at A, in the 
annexed plan, is allowed to fall again into’that river by the passage B; 
for the quantity of water in the Noyelar is then sufficient to supply 
the canal 1)E. But in the dry season, Avhen i\\t Noyel absorbed 
by the sands of its extensive channel, the water of the Cavery is 
conducted to D by the canal A.C.D, and is conveyed across the 

Nov* 1 1 . 

1 rrigation. 


channel of t\\Q Noycl l)y a temporary dam of earth (D), erected CII' Pt EH 
immediately below the course of the canal. 

IvVPogolur village, this canal supplied with water £00 Camys, or Appearancv'! 
2t)5 acres of rice-land, besides much in some other places. The 
wl)olc of the rice-lauds are cultivated ; and, according to the vil- 

lage accompts, three-fifths of the dry-field in Pogo/nr are also culti- 
vated. Pogolur is a small village M’ithout shops, and contains only 
about one half of the houses that it tlid in IlydePs government. 

Few of the fences near it are good ,* but there is much good soil, 
especially near the Noydar. 

The wliole of the rice-lands are occupied by the Brahmans, to F.namdarn. 
whom they formerly belonged in Enam, or free gift. Tippoo made 
them pay a moderate rent of four-tenths of the produce. Last year 
this was converted to money, at the rate of 22 Rupees for the ten 
Canays, which is about 3 j. 5^d. an acre. Their Enams may there* 
fore be considered as still valuable property. The rent for this 
year has not yet been fixed. One half of these lands produce an- 
nually tw'o crops of rice.. Four Brahmans hold the whole, and are 
called Potails. These let them out to other Brahmans, who culti- 

vate them by means of servants. 

12th November . — I went to visit Major Macleod, the collector Nov. ii;. 
of the northern division of the Coimbetore province ; and having procured 
passed the day with him at Pramati, on the east side of the Cavery, 


29 ^ 



Nov. 12. 

lliidu casti. 

Right and loft 
hand sides. 


I returned at night to Pogclur. The river here is about six or 
eight hundred yards wide, with a strong hut smootli current. It 
is shallow ; and, even at this season, not above forty yards of it 
exceed the depth in which a man could walk. 

Major Macleod is a gentleman extremely belovctl by the natives 
under his authority, and very conversant in the manners of the 
Hindus, to whose prejudices he shows every reasonable attention. 
He thinks, however, that Europeans in general give too much cre- 
dit to the assertions of the natives concerning the rules of their 
cast; which are commonly alleged as an excuse for declining any 
duty that is disagreeable. He does not permit tlie hereditary chiefs 
of casts to settle the disputes of their followers by line or excom- 
munication; and has had no dilhculty in making persons be again 
received into society, who had been made outca.sts owing to the 
pique or caprice of leading men. In cases of complaint against any 
one for his having infringed the rules of cast, he orders an assem- 
bly of the most respectable people of the tribe to meet in the pub- 
lic oHicc before the Tahsildar, who inquires into the business; and, 
after having consulted the assembly concerning their real customs, 
decides on the nature of the guilt, and its appropriate punishment. 
Any person who is troublesome, and refuses to submit to the deci- 
sion of the Tahsildar and assembly, is immediately banished from 
the district. He has ha.l no great dilhculty in allaying the disputes 
between the right and left hand sides. He has caused arbitrators 
from both sides, men of prudence and temper, to meet in the ])ublic 
office, and there to come to an agreement concerning what the 
custom should be. A copy of this agreement is given to each of 
the parties, and another to the Tahsildar^ who is ordered to enforce 
it both by fine and corporal punishment. When it has been neces- 
sary to divide any town into separate quarters for the two sides, 
the party insisting on any adversary’s removing to his own quarter 
must build for him a new house. An^ man may retire from his 
adversary’s quarter, whenever he pleases. 


Major Macleod says, that the custom of the country has always CHAPTER 
been understood to be, that no tenant could be turned out of liis , ^ 
possession so long as he paid his rent. Under the former govern- N‘" i*. 
ment, however, the officers of revenue removed the tenants as they 
, pleased, and gave the best land to their favourites. This will always 
be the case, wherever the principal officer of a province is not very 
alert in redressing injustice, and very accessible to the lower classes 
of inhabitants ; which is rarely the case among the natives of rank. 

Every village had a register, containing a valuation of its arable 
•lands, which is always said to have been made by some prince, or 
governor, and called by his name ; there having, however, been no 
other copy tlian that in the possession of the village accomptant, 
there was no check upon him and the head-man. These officers 
therefore were constantly varying, for corrupt purposes, the rates 
of the different fields ; and, if they took care to keep the total 
amount the same, they might make the assessment on the fields 
held by themselves and friends quite light, and lay what they ought 
to pay on their neighbours, or on lands that were not occupied. 

Major Macleod thinks, therefore, that injustice no attention ought 
to be paid to these valuations; and accordingly, in the part 

of his district, has made a new valuation of the whole. He is also 
of opinion, that this valuation should only be continued for a 
specific number of years; at the end of which the government 
may have an option of increasing the rent, in proportion to the 
improvement of the country, and to the progressive diminution of 
the value of the precious metals. This he would do by laying a 
per-centage upon the whole, which seems to me liable to many ob- 
jections. He admits, that in the course of a few years the present 
valuation must become an unequal tax; but he thinks that a new 
valuation at the end of every lease would be attendetl with great dif- 
ficulty, and open a door for numerous abuses. Under the adminis- 
tration of a weak or corrupt collector, it no doubt would do so ; 




Nov. I'J. 

Diviiion ol‘ 
Cl Oj;S. 

and reiilors 
of districts. 

but with such men as the collectors brought up under Colonel Read, 

1 have no doubt ot* its being attended with the greatest benelit, 
both to the government and to the tenant. 

Major Macleod thinks it impracticable tor the government to 
avoiil the most excessive embezzlement, in receiving rent by a di- 
vision of the crops. It might be done by a petty Po/i/gar, but, not 
in any large government. When the Company obtained possession 
of the Salkm country, the rice grounds that arc weltered by the line 
canals from the Careri/ were rented by a division of the crops. At 
that time a great part of these grounds was waste, and the rc»\ts 
M'ere low, and collected with difficulty. The changing them into 
a lixed revenue, to be paid in money, occasioned murmurs at first ; 
but the whole lamls are now cultivated; tenants arc eager to pro- 
cure them, and the revenue is greatly increased. In fact, the sti- 
mulus of rent raised with moderation, according to circumstances, 
is the best source of industry in every country, and hence contri- 
butes equally to improve the revenue and the condition of the 


At present, the whole public lands are held immediately of the 
government, and none are farmed out to collectors, or hereditary 
Ztmimlars. The former are always oppressors; and, although the 
latter give a security and case in collecting the revenue, there can 
be little doubt, that hereditary proprietors of large landed estates 
are a political evil in a country governed by foreigners. The regu- 
lations introduced by Colonel Read for collecting the revenue, 
seem to me sullicient to secure the regular payment of more than 
can ever be procured from Zemindars ; and I am persuaded, that 
any deficiencies must arise either from a neglect of duty, or from 
dishonesty in ,the collectors. I here allude to hereditary Zemindars, 
merely as affecting the revenue, and political state of the country : 
they must be considered as useful toward the improvement of 



There arc some small Enams, or private properties in land, but CHAPTER 
none of great extent. Major Maclcod proposes, that the lands 
formerly belonging to the Brahmans should be restored to them, at Nov. r,*. 
a rent somewhat lower than could be procured by letting them to f;indr'reilt 
the best bidder; but their extent, and the rent to be paid for them, 
should be defined in the usual manner. The Bnams, as well as the 
pensions granted by Ilyder and Tippoo to Mussulman establishments, 

have*been continued. The Knams belonging to the Grama Devatas, 

or village gods, have been all measured, and valued on actual in- 
spection by Major Maclcod, who has reduced their size where they 
seemed more extensive than was necessary to support the expense 
of the usual ceremonies. The lands belonging to the temples of the 
great g<)<ls have been entirely reassumed ; and in their stead 
monthly pay is given to the necessary attendants. On the whole, 
the (juantity of Enam, or land not belonging to the public, is very 
small; but it is looked upon by Major Macle'od as highly injurious, 
lie allows, that it is better cultivated than the land belonging to 
the public ; but this arises from the Enamdars letting the whole of 
their lands at a very low rent, and thus seducing away the tenants 
of the government. In the present .state of the country, the Enam- 
tlars are content to get any .rent, rather than allow their lands to be 
waste ; and when the population recovers, they will raise their lands 
as high as the government does. 

Major Maclcod alleges, that the chiefs and accomptants of vil- viil.ige 
lages have no just right to the hereditary possession of their offices ; 
and says, that it was always by means of bribery and corruption, 
that the son of a person who had been turned out for mismanage- 
ment, \vas permitted to enjoy his fathers office. I admit the utility 
of Major Maclcod’s system ; but am persuaded, that it is contrary 
to the customary law of, the natives. 

The cultivators and peasantry continue exactly in the same dress. Condition of 
and same houses, that they used in Tippoo's government, and have a people, 
prejudice against changes. Major Macleod thinks, that their women 

Vot. IL I Q q 





Nov. V2. 

Ktanip duty 
on cloths. 

tion of civil 


are beginning to wear more gold and silver in their ornaments than 
they formerly did. The merchants and manufacturers are evidently 
improving in their manner of living, are forsaking their pyrami- 
dical or conical huts, and are erecting tiled houses. To enable them 
to do this, government, without charging interest, advances money, 
Avhich is repaid by instalments. 

The manufacturers are now satisfied, that the stamp-tax will be 
on the whole easier to them, than the dift’erent duties on looms, 
houses, and transit, which it supplants ; and, from the ease of col- 
lection, it will be more productive to government. The custom- 
houses which are at present farmed, do not in Major Macleod’s 
opinion impede trade, and the revenue which they produce is con- 
siderable. Fixed rates are pasted up at every custom-house ; and 
a copy is given to the Tahsildar, who is bound to protect every 
trader from delay or imposition on the part of the farmer. 

All disputes are settled in open court, by arbitrators mutually 
chosen ; and these arc not permitted to retire until they decide the 
cause, in order to leave ho room for corruption and inttigue ; 
against which, among the natives, it is necessary to guard with the 
utmost vigilance. This seems an admirable plan, and much superior 
to the commissioners in Bengal. In fact, the Tahsildar, with this 
assistance, seems fully adeijuate to •riianage the collection of the 
revenue, the police, and the judiciai*department ; but without the 
active inspection of an intelligent superior, there is great room for 

The present state of the coin is a serious grievance, and bears 
heavy on the poor. Major Macleod thinks, that a uniform coinage, 
with pieces forming aliquot parts of each other, would be so wil- 
lingly received by the inhabitants, that, without a murmur, they 
would, for new money, pay into the collector’s treasury all their old 
coin, at such a discount as would defray the expcnce of the mint* 
The only ditficulty in the whole measure would be, to procure ft 
sullicient quantity of new coin. 


The Bagait, or gardens watered by the machines called Capily and 
Yatam, are of great importance. This manner of cultivation enables 
a small extent of ground to support many people, and to pay a high 
rent ; and it is less liable to fail, from a u'ant of rain, than the com- 
mon cultivation of ,the dry-tields. Major Maclcod therefore ad- 
vances money to every farmer who engages to dig a well. This 
advance is repaid in between eighteen muntlis and two years. For 
the first year a garden pays only the rent which it did while culti- 
vated as dry-field ; in the second year, one half of the additional 
rent is laid on ; and in the third year it pays the lull rent. 

Where the water is near the surface, Major Macleod prefers the 
Yatam, as the cheapest manner of irrigating a garden ; but where 
the water is far from the surface, he prefers the Capily. He has not 
however ascertained, by actual experiment, the relative advantages 
of these two machines. 

13th November. — I went ten Malabar hours’ journey to Caruru, or 
Caroor. A considerable proportion of the country is not cultiN^ated, 
and tliere are very few fences. The soil is in general poor, with 
many projecting rocks, especially of pure white quartz, among 
which arc found irregular masses perfectly pellucid. There is a 
quarry near Caroor, of a stone called Carum-gull, or the black 
stone. It differs from the hornblende of Mysore, being mixed with 
felspar j but is used for the same purposes, and is called by the 
same name. 

Caruru is a considerable town, situated on tlie northern bank Crf 
the Amara-xcati river, and having at a little distance from it a neat 
fort, containing a large temple, and a garrison of Sepoys. The town 
contains 1000 houses. Its merchants seem, however, to be chiefly 
petty dealers, nor are the weavers in the place numerous. 

Lands now waste, but formerly cultivated, in this part of the 
country, arc in the language of the lamuls called Tirsi ; by the 
Mussulmans they are called Banjur. Tlic lands in cultivation are 
called SagwuUi. Lands not watered arc called Kiel; and those which 




Nuv. 12. 

CapUy p;ar- 
clcns, or 

for irrigation. 

Nov. 13. 
of the coun- 
try, and 

Caraory or 

Different dc- 
of land. 



Not. 13. 





are watered are called Danwutli In this district almost the whole 
of the latter are cultivated, and belong entirely to the Brahmans. 
Last year one half of the dry-field was waste; the quantity that 
will be occupied this year is not yet ascertained. The proportion 
occupied by rivers, roads, rocks, woods, &c. in the opinion of th6 
Tahsildar, does not exceed one tenth part of the whole. 

In this district there are below Pogolur two canals (Corums) from 
the Catery, that water much rice-land, and arc full throughout the 
year. Several canals for Avatering the ground are also brought 
from the Amara-xvati, both by means of dams (Anacuts), and by 
simple canals, or Corums. The supply of Avater in this river does 
not always last the whole year; so that, in some seasons, there is 
only one crop of rice. 

In this district a great deal of sugar-cane is raised. It is culti- 
vated nearly in the same manner as at Bala-pura, and ripens in ten 
months. A crop of Ratoons is sometimes taken, but it is very poor. 
BetAveen every two crops of sugar-cane it is customary to take tAVO 
or three crops of rice. Two thousand holes are formed in every 
Canay of ground, Avhich is equal to 100 Culies of 32 Adies square. 
Three cuttings are put in each hole. In a good crop, a Canay of 
land produces of Jagory 120 Tolanis of 27 t of 28 Rupees. This 
is at the rate of only 81 CAvt. from an acre. When cheap, the 
Jagory sells at half a Rupee a Tolam, or Qs, 4|</. a hundred-Aveight. 
The Avhole value of the produce of an acre, at this rate, is 2/. 16 j. ; 
but the Jagory often sells at double the price here stated. A 
Mr. Campbell has lately undertaken to make tlic Jagory into sugar, 
and has received from the Company considerable encouragement. 
He advances ^0 Rupees for every Canay of land Avhich the farmers 
plant, and is to receive one half of the Jagory. Out of this half 
he is to pay the rent to the government. The twenty Rupees are to 
be repaid him out of the farmer’s half. The farmer’s share is 
therefore one half of the produce, and he receives money in advance 
to enable him to cultivate the land. 


14th November. — I went seven and a \\o\i Mahbar hour^’ journey CMAfTER 
to Cutamboor, a small village without a shop. The river Amara-wati 
is at least 400 yards wide j but its stream is very gentle, and almost Nov. i 4 . 
always fordable. To-day it was about two feet deep. The channel 
is entirely of sand, and the banks are very low; so that, for watering 
the rice-grounds, canals (Corums) are easily taken fiom it. 

Near the river the rice-grounds arc extensive, and fully cultivated. Face of the 
Farther on, the soil becomes poor, and has many large projecting 
rocks ; but they do not rise high above the surface. There are few 
iiiclosures, and much of the dry-field is waste. The country south 
from the river Noycl is remarkably bare of trees. 

15th November. — I went seven and a half Malabar hours’ journey Nov. 15 . 
to Arava-courchy. The road passes through a pretty Country'; but 
the soil is poor, and there are very few inclosures. I saw very little 
cultivation ; but tlie Tahsildar insists that two-thirds of the. whole 
of his district are cultivated, and the remainder pays a small rent 
for grass. To judge from what I have seen of the country, I should 
conclude that not more than a quarter of the dry-field is culti- 

The articles of any importance that are cultivated here on this Dry-fieM. 
kind of ground are about equal quantities of Sholutn ( Holcus sor- 
ghum), and Cambii (Holcus spicatus), with some accompanying 
legumes; a smaller quantity of Coin, or Horse-gram (Dolichos 
hifiorus), and a small quantity of Shamay ( Panicum miliare E. M . ), 
and nearly the snme of cotton called Nadum. 

The best dry-field lets here at 40 Sultany Tamms for the Vullam Rent, 
of 64 square ; the second at 30; the third at 30; and the 

murth at 10. The best grass land at 6 Tamms, the worst at 3. 

These, reduced to English money and measure, are as follow : 

t. d. 

One acre of arable land of the 1st quality lets for 5 10 

3d ditto - - - 4 4|^ 

Sd ditto - - - 3 1 1 

4th ditto - - - 1 5|- 




X, One acre of the best pasture land lets for - - 0 lO-- 

ditto of the worst ditto 0 5.1 






The produce of the best land is as follows : 

Of Sholum, or Camhu, per Vullam 4 Moraus per acre, bushels 5,63 

rMuchu Cotay. 0 10 Vullams - - - - - - 0,44 


iMutu Cotay, 0 10 0,44 

5 14 Rushcls 6,95 

Coin, or Horse- gram, 3 -- ------3,51 

Shamay ^ 

Cotton ------ 9 Tolams ------ lb. 421- 

Tn this district there are four dams ( Anacuts) on the Amara- rvati ; 
and these water the rice grounds of four villages, which are rented 
entirely by Brdhmans. Between Cutamboor ami Arava-courc/iy -di'd 
two torrents, that in the dry season contain no water. The most 
considerable, named Coduganar, is not applied, in this district at 
least, to the purposes of agriculture. The other, named Nunganji, 
supplies two villages with water: one by the intervention of a re- 
servoir, and another by means of a canal. Tlie Polails, or renters of 
these villages, are Sudras. None of the rice-ground in this district 
produces annually two crops. 

In every village of this district the measures differ; tvliich seems 
to have been contrived purposely to enable the farmers, and lower 
oflicers of revenue, to confuse the acconipts, and thus to defraud 
the government. 

Arava-courchy signifies the scat of Arava, a'person.of the Baydar 
cast, who was the only inhabitant of the place, when .a Polygar 
came from the north and built a town. This afterwards became 
subject to Madura, and then to Mysore ; tii'- Ciirtur or sovereign 
of which built near the town a neat, am! gave it the name of 
Vijaya-iMngalam, which by Mussulmans is called Bijamangk. About 



the end of Hydcr's government, an English army, under the com- CHAPTER 
mand of Colonel Laing, took the fort. His batteries were erected 
in the town, which was destroyed during the siege, and continued Nov, 15. 
uninhabited until Mr, Hurdis took possession of the district. It 
now contains about 550 families, and a new market (Bazar) of 
well-built houses is risi’v*- up; but the people arc very poor. The 
family of the /Wj/i..' ibunded it has been long extinct. The 

tradition among the oldest Brahmans here does not reach back to 
the time when this country was subject to the kings of V'yaya- 
tiagara; l)ut they have all heard of these princes. The inhabitants Diaieco. 
of Ai'ava-courchy mostly speak the Tuinul language ; but there arc 
among them some probably introduced by the Poly gar ; 

for the Vccrpachry Raja and all the neighbouring Polygara are of 
Telinga extraction, and all originally came from the north. Tamul, 
it must he observed, is the proper national appellation of the Sudras 
of all the eastern side of the south end of the peninsula ; and the 
Prakrit, Bhdsham, or vulgar dialect of the country, is therefore 
called the language of the Tamuls. Both language and people are, 
by those of Karndta, called Arabi and Tigular. The Brahmans of 
the Tamuls are called Dravida; and the dialect spoken by their 
families, although considered as a vulgar tongue, has a much greater 
resemblance to the Sanskrit, than the common Tamul ; from whence 
it may be reasonably concluded, that these Brdhmansh;i\e originally 
come from a country where the Sanskrit was more prevalent ; and, 
in faet, they are said to have had their origin at Kalpi, a town of 
Hindustan proper, near the river Jumna. 

In this part of the country, as well as above the Ghats, no Brdli- Pandanga 
man, except the Panchanga, or village astrologer, will condescend 
to act as Purbhita for the low casts. If the Panchanga s son can 

read, he always succeeds to the office of his father. 

The Vaidika Brahmans now act as renters for the lands which they 
formerly possessed in Enam. Even according to their account, they 
pay a lower rent than the Sudras do. 




Nov. 15. 
khandd, and 
its divisiou 
into 56 


I found some of them possessed of a considerable portion of 
learning. These gave me a list of the fifty-six Desas, or counties 
of Bharata-khanda,z.\v\ an explanation of what was meant by such of 
the Desas as they knew, I here give a copy of it, and annex another 
list given me by a learned Brahmin from Sri Rangam, the celebrated 
temple near Tritchenopoiy. This man, having been a great traveller, 
is much better acquainted, than the other* with the local situation 
of the Dims. 

List given by the Brahmans of Arava-courchy. 

1 Anga. 

2 Vanga. 

3 Kalinga. 

4 Kdmboja. 

5 Kdmarupa, ( Assam.) 

6 Sauv'ira. 

7 Sauvardslitra. 

8 Maharashtra, (Marattahs.) 

9 Magadha. 

10 Mdlava. 

11 Nipdlti. 

12 Kiraln, (Malabar.) 

13 Chira, (Salkm and Combe- 


14 Chdla, (Tanjore.) 

15 Pdndava,( Madura and Tine- 


16 Panch&la, (Punjab?) 

17 Bangdla (Bengal.) 

18 Gauda, or Gaura. 

19 Malayala, probably it ought 

to be read Malayachala.) 
SO Singhala. 

SI Dravida, or Dravira, (A root, 

22 Karnuta. ( Mysore, Sir a, Color. ) 

23 Lula. 

24 Marata, (This probably ought 

to have been MarahaUi.) 

25 ^hita. 

26 Pulinda, 

27 Andhray, ( Nellore, and the 

country north from Madras.) 

28 liana, Europe, (Huns?) 

29 Dasdrnada. 

30 Bo jay, (Fijaya nagara.) 

81 Kuru, (Delhi.) 

32 Gandhdra, 

3.3 Vidarbha, 

34 Videha. 

35 Banleka. 

36 Barbara 

37 Kikaya. 

38 Kbsala, (Oude.) 

39 Kanta. 

40 Kirdta, 



41 Gurjara, (Guzerat.) 

42 Hindu. 

43 Tknkana. 

44 Katikana. 

45 Fankana. 

46 Matsya. 

47 Mathura. 

4S Sdlwa. 

4<) CMdi. CHAPTER 

50 Sindhu, ('//v/w or Persia.) 

51 ylvanii, (Banares, or Kdsi.J Nov. is, 

52 Mudday. 

5‘i Yavamt, (Mecca). 

54 China, (China.) 

55 Karushay. 

56 Trikdrta, (a part of Arabia.) 

List of tlic 56 Dhas, acconlinj; to Ndruyana Shastri of 

Sri Ran gam. 

1 yinga. 

2 Vangn (country east from th( 

Brahma- pu fra ri ve r, ) 

3 Kalinda, (Vijaya-nagara.) 

4 Kalinga, ( Muttura Bindcr- 


5 Kamhoja, (Thibet or Bootan.) 

6 Kdxmira. 

7 Sura, (Surat.) 

8 Guijara, (Guzerat.) 

9 Barbara. 

10 Murada. 

1 1 Gandhdra. 

12 Sauvira. 

13 Sauvard.shtra. 

14 Mahardshtra, (Marattahs.) 

15 Mathura, (a place north froi 


16 Magadha, (Gy a, Patna, 8gc. 

17 Andhra (Telingdna.) 

18 Nishdda. 

Id Sindhu, 

Vot. ir. 

20 Haadrnada. 

21 Mdlava, (capital Barodra.) 

22 Nt'pdUi. 

23 Pcnchdla, Delhi, (^Panjdb.) 

24 Bangdla, (from Boidinat to the 


25 Malaydchala, (a hilly country 

producing sandal.) 

26 Chola, (Tanjore.) 

27 Kerala, (Malabar.) 

28 Singdrd, (perhaps Singhala.) 

29 Gauda, (Lakshmanapurani,J\ul- 

go Lucknow.) 

30 Goidki. 

31 Karnataka, (Mysore, S^c.) 

32 Karahdtaka, 

33 Marahataka. 

34 Pandta. 

35 Pandava. 

36 Pulinda. 

37 Kanta. 

38 Trika, (perhaps Trikarta f. } 

R r 



Nov. 15. 

or Ganges* 


3.9 lYilavanti. 

40 Avanti, [Ujina, or Otigein ) 

41 VhU'ha, { Jnmicapuravi, vulgo 

Janitcpottr, north from Ren- 

gal. ) 

42 ridarbfui, (Dimgepore, Rung- 


43 Keknya. 

44 Kosala, (Oiuk). 

43 Kankana. 

4 (^ Tlvnknna, (Coorg.) 

47 llurnay. 

48 MatsyUt (Bend res.) 

49 Bdchya. 

30 Makala. 

31 Paha. 

32 Vahlikd, (VahU-honda^puram, oi 

Kishkindii, south from Ar- 

53 Yavana, Mussulmans. 

54 Lamkya, (Ihcdrakii). 

55 Drk'cda, {Rameswara.) 

56 Dravidd, (Arcot.) 

These lists, as usual w ith all information received from Br&hnians, 
tliffer most essentially. It is clear, however, that Bharata-hhanda 
contains all the habitable world, as far as was known to the authors 
of the books esteemed sacred among the Hindus, and is by no 
means applied to signify the country which we call Hindustan, 
Indeed, I have never been able to discover any name that the 
Brahmans have for the country over which their doctrine has cx- 
tended. They always describe it by a circumlocution, and say all 
the country between Uimavat-giri and Ramcsxcara. The Brahmans 
speak of nine Khandas in this Jamhu ]>u'ipa, or M orld inhabited by 
men ; but all that is said concerning them, Bharata-khanda ex- 
cepted, seems to be the silly extravagance of a disordered imagi- 

Bharata-khanda is surrounded by a sea of salt water, and its most 
celebrated river is the Bhdg'irathi, called by way of einineuce the 
Gangd, or river. It is only that part of the river which lies in a line 
from Gangottara to Sdgara that is holy ; and that is named the 
Gangd, or Bhdgirathi. The lloogley river of European geographers, 
therefore, is considered as the true Ganges; and the great branch 
that runs east to join the M&gna, or Brdhma-putra, is by the Hindus 



called Padnia (vulgo Pada) or Padnuncaii, and is not by them 
esteemed eciually sacred. Althou^li the water of the whole river 
from Gangoltara to Sdgara is holy, yet there are five Tirihaxi or 
places more eminently sacred than the rest ; ami to these, of course, 
all pilgrims from a distance resort to perform their ablutions, and 
to take up the water that is used in their ceremonies. These 
Tirthas arc, Gangottara; IJaridn-dra, or Maya; Praydga (called by 
the Mussulmans Ehthabad), Uttara Janagiri, a little below 
and Sagar, at the moutli of what wc call the Hoogley river. Ndrd- 
yana Shastn, who has been at all these places, says, that at Gdngottara 
three small streams fall doAvn from impassable snowy precipices, and 
unite into a small bason below, which is considered by the Hindus 
as the source of the Gauges, over which at that place a man can 
step. It is situated about twenty days journey north and west from 
Haridwdra ( Hurdwar) ; and the Brahman's road lay on the west side 
of the river, until he came near Gaugotiara. He observed no con- 
siderable stream joining the Bhdgirathi from the east, until he came 
to the AUkanatidra. Praydga, however, is the most celebrated Tirtha, 
or holy place by water; as Kasi is the most sacred KshitrOf or place 
of worship by land. 

In the district of Arava-courchy are some families of Mussulman 
farmers. They were formerly Candashara, or persons holding lands 
free of rent on condition of serving as private soldiers. After the 
invasion by Colonel Laing, Tippoo abolished this kind of militia ; 
and the persons who composed it continue to occupy the lands, but 
pay rent like other farmers. 

l6th November. — I went ten Malabar hours’ journey to Mulinuru. 
The country is better enclosed, and less rocky, than that through 
which I came yesterday ; but it is equally uncultivated. By the 
way I passed an iron forge, of the same structure with that seen in 
Major Macleod’s district, and, like it, calculated to smelt black 
sand. At Aram-courchy I had been informed, that at Mulinuru I 
should find a market ; but on coming up I found, that the whole 



Nov, 15. 



Nov. 1(). 
Tact*. ol the 



Nov. 16, 


Nov. 17. 
Faca of the 



place had b^n destroyed by an invading army, probably that under 
Colonel FuUarton, and that it h?' never since been rebuilt. All 
that remains is a small temple, which has got an establishment of 
Br&hmam, dancing women, and musicians. The neighbouring 
country is adorned with many plantations of the lioraxsus. The 
calcareous Tiifa abounds at least as much on the south side of the 
Noyd as it docs totvard the north, and in some places covers the 
whole surface of the ground in continued masses. West from 
Afulinuru is a field of this kind, where the calcareous masses assume 
a botryoidal form. 

For some days the weather has become comparatively pleasant. 
It is very clear, and, although hot in the day and evening, is then 
by no means oppressive; while the mornings are delightful. 

17th November. — I went a long stage to Daraporum. Near this are 
two fine canals, that water much rice-land in a gootl state of cul- 
tivation. The soil of the dry-field is poor, and but little of it is 

At Daraporam, or more properly Dliarina-puram, is a large mud 
fort, the commandant of which, according to the report of the na- 
tives, agreed to surrender the place to Colonel FuUarton. As he 
wished, however, to make an aj)pcarance of resistance, some pio- 
neers were sent into the ditch to underniine the wall ; which they 
did very coolly, while over their heads the garrison kept up a tre- 
mendous fire. When the passage was open, the firing ceased, and 
our troops walked in quietly, without any injury having been done 
on cither side. Previous to this the town was very large ; but it is 
now only beginning to recover from a state of ruin. Mr. llurdis 
having nriade it the head office (Cutchery) of his district, it will soon 
increase. He has laid out the plan of a new' town, in which all the 
streets will be straight and wide ; and in this a good many new 
houses have been built. The inland situation of the place is, how- 
ever, a great disadvantage ; and in favourable seasons the cultiva- 
tors cannot find a market for their grain. 


18th to the 20th November , — I remained with Mr. llurdis, a most cn.M’TEIl 
intelligent and active young gentleman, lie nmnages the disputes 
about cast, and tliose arising between the right and left hand sides, eo. 

’ ^ ^ AJanai^omiMt 

in the same manner as is done by Major Maclcod. The nature, of Mr. iiur- 
indeed, of the whole management of both their districts is nearly 
the same; and in place of a jealousy between them, as belonging 
to two dih'erent services, they live in the greatest cordiality, and 
the only struggle Iretwcen them is an honourabie emulation in the 
performance ol their duty. 

Jloth gentlemen make it a rule, that their Cm/ah.i, or native ofli- Spoedy jus- 
cers, should not leave the court, until every cause that comes 
before it is decided. 

Mr. Ifurdis thinks that the present rents are greatly too high; lUtiis. 
and, no doid)t, the |jeasaiitry here, a.s well a.s in almost every part 
of India, are miseral)ly poor. 1 am inclined to tliink, however, 
that other causes contribute more to this than the of the 
rents. Mr. llurdis says, that all the land which is not cultivated is 
by no means uulet (Tirsi); but owing to the want of rain, and of 
stock, the farmers arc not able to cultivate the whole of what the\ 
rent. This, in my opinion, shows, that the fields arc by no ineams 
over-assessed ; and that the farmcr.s, if they woidd not grasp at 
more than they have stock to manage, might be in a much more 
comfortable situation. One great cause indeed of the poverty of 
the fanners, and consequent poverty of crops, in many jjarts of 
India, is the custom of forcing laud upon people who liave no 
means of cultivating it. Thus all the lands are apparently occu- 
pied ; but it is in a manner that is worse than if one half of them 
were entirely waste. I believe every intelligent farmer in England 
will say, that one acre fully improved will give more profit than two 
that are half cultivated. 

The Folj/gar government Mr. Hurd is considers as highly oppres- Poii/gui .t. 
sive to the peasantry, who are always squeezed by irregular means, 
although nominally they pay a low rent. The Polygars, lie s.iys, 


(MrAl’rKU were oviginally men who had the management of certain tracts of 
land, with all manner of jurisdiction over the inhabitants. Each 
Nov. 13— •:o, j^eep ^p ^ certain number of armed men ready for the de- 

fence of the country ; and they were to account to the king for 
the whole revenue, deducting from the proceeds a certain sum for 
their own maintenance and that of their soldiers. Mr. Hurdis con- 
siders the headmen and accomptants of villages as having an here- 
ditary right to their offices. 

Aloncy. The Vif-Raya Fumm is here the most common currency among 

the people, who reduce all other coins to its standard. In the fol- 
lowing table is given the number of Vir'-lUiya Fanams for which 
each coin passes, with the value of these at the Tower mint price. 

Gold Coins. 

V.R.F. d. 

Sultany, Bahaduty, and Ikeri Varahun, Huns^ or 

Pagodas = 

Star- Pagoda - - - 1 4-|- -j- -V = 7 4 

Poi cO-Novo, ox Fcringy iWtio - 12-’- =6 2-y 

Sultany Fanam - . . - ~0 7-5- 

Silver Coins. 

Pondichery, ox Sullany Rupee - - — 2 o-J- 

Company's il/rn/rrtjf - - 4_3_ 2 1 

These are calculated to the nearest farthing: all sums of money 
in Mr. Hurdis’s district I value at this rate of exchange; using, 
however, the exact fraction, in place of the foregoing approxi- 

The freights in use here are, 

24 Star Pagodas = 1 Polam =: lb. 

100 Polams = 1 Tolam = 17,VbV lb. 

The measure of grain used by the farmers, and that by which it 
is sold in the market, are different. 

Wt ights. 





The measure used by tlie fiirmers for dry-grains is thus formed : CH \P'r!'ri. 
72 Company’s Rupees weight of grain fdl a Pudih: 

4 Puddles =: 1 Bulla or Vullam = cubical inches 2 

\6 Bullas =1 Aloraii, Siliga, or Cand^ - 
6 Aloraus =z \ Podi - - - 23697,7 

Also for Rice. 

AO Bullas~\ Siliga ox Candy - - indies 9874,2 

00 Siligas=:\ Mail ... - 29622, 1 

The Murlict ( Bazar) Pleasures are. 
For Rice. 

84 Sultany Rupees weight of grain fill a Puddy. 

5 Paddies 

= 1 Bulla, containing cubical inches 


40 Bulks 

= 1 Siliga or Candy 


30 Siligas 

= 1 Mau _ - - - 


Also for Dry -grains. 

16 Bulks- 

=: 1 Morau, Siliga, or Candy 


The Measure for Rice-ground. 

24 feet square = 1 Culy. 

220 CuUes = 1 Mau, which therefore contains 2,-;Vo‘a^ac>*es, 

La ml inea- 


The rice lands in this neighbourhood are let to persons of all Rent, 
casts. That of the first quality pays 160 Fanams a year for the 
Mau; the second quality pays 140 Sullany Fanams ; the third, 156 
Fanams; and the fourth 1\S Fanams. These, reduced to English 
money and measure, give 1/. 15s. 9id.; ll. 9^. lO^d.; ll. 9s.; and 
1/. 5 j. Sd. an acre. If the rice land be cultivated for Bclel-leqf 
( Piper Belle), it pays 360 Fanatns, or at the rate of 3l. l6s. 9d. an 
acre. Land cultivated with sugar-cane pays no higher rent than 
that cultivated with rice; yet very little sugar is made here, while 


ClfAPiLR much is raised in other districts, wlicre it is higher assessed. The 
accompanying Table, explaining the cultivation xvet-grains^ has 
N(n.i8— ‘io. been compiled from the reports of the farmers and mercliants as- 
sembled for the purpose. One crop only of the three first kinds 
of rice can be taken in the year. If the Cant Curivay be sown, a 
rin[) of Kerir (CijnosKru-s corocohus) follows. TJiis is mucli used, 
llu*. ]jroducc of the two crops, on the whole, being of greater value. 
It is evident, that the [)roduce here is much under-rated; as the 
wliole v^alue of the crops, alter deducting the seed, is little more 
than the rent paid to government. It must l)e observed, that the 
land licre is much lower rented than at Nala Rdyana Pallijarn ; yet 
the fanners here do not acknowledge a greater produce tlian what 
will pay their low rent, wliile tliosc of Nula lidymm Palbjain acknow- 
ledge a produce, that, after paying the heavy tax imposed on 
them, leaves a considerable gain. Could entire reliance be placed 
on the accuracy oftlu'sc sluKunents, this would show in a very de- 
cisive manner tlie advantages of high rents ; but it must be evident, 
that the data upon which a traveller can fountl his calculations arc 
liable to iniuimerable objections; nor tio 1 think, that less than a 
residence of ten years, with actual experiments on every crop, 
could enable a pci son to speak decidedly on the rate of produc- 
tiveness which the land of any district possesses. 



Statement ot the seed, produce, and value of tlie grains 

Nuujy laud at Darapuram. 




Crop for which 
each is fitted. 






^ c 

.c ft. 

V ^ 

■5 ° 









> r- 
<J fto 




Average value of farm 















ft .1 


1 /) 

Seed per acre. 


Of a Mau land. 


Of an Acre. 


ing &ccd. 







y.R. f. 

j. d. 


5 , d. 

Sfimbau like - - 

Xdtlrn 7 /, or 






0 n| 





2 S 1 

Afahi; MavirMii do. 






0 8 





• 17,35 

1 19 7 

Sri llui fibuHin/i tio. 






0 n 






2 8 1 

Lai n Curn ni/ ditto 







0 ^ 






1 11 4| 

sprouted seed 

Kcvjr, in' Ung/^ 



0 9k 






1 1 \\ 

I also received the following account of the Kiet, or dry-field CHAPTER 

cultivation of Darni/to'am, 1^. 

The best fields let at 60 Canter'-Raya Farmnis a Vullam of 64— so. 

/ r/Mm square ; the worst lands at 4 /hwtfws. Grass land lets irom Rent. 

10 to a Famms. These rents, when reduced to English money and 

measure, areas follow: arable land from Ss. S^d. to 7d. an acre. 

Grass land from Is. 34 d. to 34 d. an acre. 

\ ..... 

The quantity of cotton raised is considerable, and the kind most Cotton, 

commonly cultivated is the Nadum Pirati, which requires a red 
soil. The ground is ploughed four times; and between the 10th 
of April and the 10th of May the seed is sown. No other grain is 
mixed with the cotton. For three seasons it produces a crop once 
a year, in April and May ; after which a crop of grain is taken, be- 
fore cotton is again sown on the same field. In a good year a 
Vullam land produces 5 Tolams, or an acre flO-j-V lb. It sells at 24 
Vir'-Rdya Fanam a Tolam, when containing the seed ; or at -jVs*; 

Vot. II. Ss 



CHAPTKR of a penny a pound ; so that the value of the produce of an acre is 
, Ijp. 5-W, 

Mov. 18 — 20. The 0/nm cotton requires a black soil. It ripens in six months, 

and a Vullam land produces seven Tokms of raw cotton. 

Articirs cul- 
tivated OH 

The following Articles are cultivated here on the Kict, or 









Per Acre. 


V III 1(17)1 



Vullam a. 

Dtc. of Hmh. 


Sholum ( Holcus sorghum) - - 
Axaray ( Dolichos Lahlab ) or To~ 





xarp (Cyiisus Cajan) - - - 





Total - - 





Camhu ( Holcus spicatus ) - ~ - 





Avaruy or Tovary - - - - - 

H I 



/> 1 . 


Total - - 

1 0,2546 


1 1 

1 * '^4 


Coin (Dolichos hi floras) - - - 




Shamay (Punicum miliar c) - - 





Garden-ground rents here at 80, 60, 50, and 40 Canter' -Rayit 
Fanams a Vullim, or at 1 1^. Jd., 8.y. 8|-r/., 7s. 3</., and 5s. 9i</. an 
acre, according to its (juality. When the water is far below the 
AJadiii’.cs for Surface, it is r.aised by the Copily, one of which can supply a Vullam 
of land, or 4^ acres. If the depth of the water be less, it is raised 
by the Yatam, on which four men Avalk along the balance. A 
Vullam of land requires from one to two Yatams, accoixling to the 

Garden c\il 


distance the water has to he raised ; but two Yatams, wrought by ten CIIAPJ’KR 
men, arc here reckoned cheaper than one Capily, MTOught by one 
man and two oxen : the men, however, do other work in the— -’o. 

The principal article cultivated is tobacco; and a crop of grain Tobacco, 
is always procured in the course of the year from the same ground. 

Tlie produce of a i ullcm land of a good quality is 700 bundles of 
toltacco, weighing on an average 8 l*olam$, and wortli L’5 

a hundred. Tlie crop oi' Slioliim is estimated at O' Podis, or 
at 15^ bushels an acre, 'flic crop of Cimlni from tobacco land is 
estimated at the same amount with tliat oi' Sholiitn ; that oi’ liagp is 
estimated at 7 Podia, or 18 busheis an acre. 

The farmers who arc in easy circumstances keep their grain until Siile of grain, 
tliey ('an retail it in the weekly markets. Poor men, in order to 
discharge their rents, arc under tlie necessity ot'setling it to dealers, 
and in general lose 120 percent. 

The .servants employed here in .agriculture are hired in the be- Scrv.aiitf. 
ginning of the year for tAvelve months. They may change their 
service when this term expires, if tltey be not in their master's 
debt; but, as he generally advances money for tlicir marriages, 
anti other ceremonies, they are seldom at liberty to go away. They 
get twenty BuUas of rough vice fPaddi/) a mouth, with i'aur Fanains 
and one Siliga of rough rice yearly ; and their master pays their 
house rent. TIjc wljole is aI)out 31 bushels of rough rice, of which 
one half is husk, with two slulliugs in money, besides the house rent, 
which will not exceed one or two shillings a year. These servants 
generally have one wife, w'ho at scctl-tilne and harvest works 
for the master for tlaily wages. A woman’s daily wages are four 
Puddles of grain, worth about nine-tenths of a penny. A man gets 
6 Puddles of grain. A servant w ith these wages can once or twice 
a month procure a little animal food. Milk is too*expensive. His 
common diet consists of some boiled grain, w'ith a little salt and 



CHAFFKR capsicum, and perhaps some pickles. His drink is the water In 
which tlic grain v as boiled. He lias very little, and tliat— VO. is extremely dirty ; his house is a hovel, and he is commonly 
over-vim with vermin and cutaneous disorders. The Avomen, al- 
though not clean, are fully clothed. 

.'^aliiieiMiths. Throughout the Coimbetore province there are earths impregnated 
with muriatic salts, and others with nitrates; both of which have 
occasionally been made into culinary salt, and nitre. 

Saliijetre. Jn Tippoo’ s reign the makers of saltpetre received advances from 
government, and prepared the saltpetre from the earth. It was 
twice boiled, and was delivered to the government at 1 Vir'-Ruya 
Fanam for the Bulla containing 4 Paddies of 72 Rupees weight each, 
or at about 7s. 6^d. a hundred-weight. This earth seems to contain 
the nitre ready formed, as no potash was added to it by the makers. 
It is only to be found in the hot season ; so that I had no opportu- 
nity of examining its contents. 1 saw the two places in this neigh- 
bourhood where it is collected. The soil in both is very sandy and 
rocky, and the ways passing over them arc much frequented by 

Kot. 21. 



men and cattle. From the 10th of January until the 10th of Fe- 
bruary the saline earth is scraped from the surface, and is lixiviated, 
boiled, and crystallized twice. 

21st November . — I went about eleven miles to Puna-puram. By 
the way I saw very little cultivation, but the whole country has 
formerly been ploughed. From a want of trees and hedges it is 
very bare, and the soil is rather poor. Immense liclds of lime- 
stone are every where to be seen ; and the strata of it at Puna-puram 
are much thicker than I have observed any where else. Many wells 
having been dug through these strata^ to the depth of twelve and 
fifteen feet, give the traveller a good view of them. The calca- 
rious matter seems to have been gradually deposited in horizontal 
strata, or layers. It involves small angular masses of quartz, and 
other stones, which, I suppose, must have arisen from its having 



flowefl over the surface of the original strata while it was in a soft CHAPfER 


state, and collected fragments of these as it rolled along. On the 
surface of the layers, or in cavities, some of it assumes a botryoidal 
form, Avhile other parts of these cavities have a smooth undulating 
or conchoidal surface. Tlie original strata are all aggregate rocks. 
Pum-puram is a small fort, of which the hereditary chief is a young 
boy. He was brought to me by his grandmother, and male relations, 
who are the chief farmers in the place. This season they have had 
scarcely any rain, to which some of the waste appearance of the 
country must be attributed ; but they say, that they liave suflered 
much from the neighbouring Polygars, especially during a com- 
motion that took place about three years ago. 

22d November. — I went seven and a half Malabar hours’ journey Nov. 22 . 
to Mangalain, an open village belonging to a Polygar. The country 
is not so stony as that through which 1 passed yesterday ; but it is 
equally uncultivated. Mangalam is now reduced to forty houses. 

It formerly contained one hundred. This diminution is attributed 
to the oppression of Tippoo, and to want of rain ; for many of the 
cultivators have removed to places blessed with a more favour- 
able climate. The Poly gar is one of the most stupid looking 
men that I have ever seen, and goes about with very little attend- 
ance, or state. 

Wherever wells have been dug into the lime-stone, water has Saline soil, 
been found at no great distance from the surface ; yet here there 
is little or no garden cultivation. Much of the well water has a 
saline taste ; and in almost every part of the neighbourhood culi- 
nary salt may be procured in the dry season by scraping the surface 
of the earth, and by lixiviation. 

23d November , — I went seven Malabar hours’ journey to Pujar- Nov. 23 . 
petta, an open village with a few shops. Like almost all those in 
this neighbourhood, it is surrounded and intersected by many 
hedges, which serve as a defence against the thieves and robbers 




Nov. 23. 

of the coun- 

Nov. 24. 

Roman coins. 

who come to till vr; away the cattle; anti those miscreants, owinj* 
to the vicinity of tlic Holyuars, have always been numerous. The 
village belongs iminediaiely to the government, but is surrounded 
by the lands of Folj/^ars. 

This day’s road led through a eountay which is in nearly a simi- 
lar state with all that I have seen west from Darapuram ; but the 
soil in some places is much better, and really very good. Tin; hills 
of Coimbetore, and those that bound the Jni-malapa pass on the 
south, are both visible from Ptijar-pctia. 

24th November. — I went six Malabar hours’ journey to Palachp. 
As I approached it, the country became gradually more cultivated, 
and better inclosed; and its environs look m’cII, being adorned 
with groves of coeo-nut palms ; but there are no other trees near 
it. The town contains 300 poor houses and a small temple, and 
derives its name from the second wife of a Vaylular, wlio came to 
the place when the country was entirely covered with woods, and 
began to clear it by the Cotu-Cadu cultivation. The town is rising 
fast into importance, having been made the residence of a Tahsildar, 
and being placed in the line of the new road that has been opcneil 
to Pali-ghat. Near it is a small fort. 

Ill this vicinity was lately dug up a pot, containing a great many 
Roman silver coins, of which Mr. Hurdis w'as so kind as to give 
me six. They were of two kinds, but all of the same value, each 
weighing 56 grains. One of the kinds is of Augustus. The legend 

that is, Caisar Augustu.s Divi Pitius Pater Patrke. Above ' the re- 
verse, representing two persons standing with two bucklers and 
spears placed between them, the legend is AVCVSTIFCOSDESIC 
PRINC IVVENT ; that is, Augusti Filio Consule designator principe 
juventutis. Under the ligures is written CAESAREA, or Cte-^ariar at 
some city of which name it has been struck. The other coin is of 
the same weight, and belongs to Tiberius. The legend round the 



A ugusti Filius Augustus. On the reverse, representing a person 
seated, and holding a spear in one hand and a branch in the other, is 
the following legend : PONTIF MAXIM, or Pontifex Maximus. 

The Tahsii(hir showed me a very regular account of the whole 8tati»tic«l 
, 1 • 1 j ‘ atcounlsof 

lands in his district, according to the mensuration and valuation avenue 

made by Chica Dha Raya of Mysore. The proportion of land not 

possibly arable is stated to be very small; and almost the whole 

face of the country, except in the immediate vicinity of Palachy, 

appears to the traveller to be waste ; yet the Tahsiidar's accompts 

state the whole arable lands to be occupied. 

The manner of letting the lands here is very singular. The Tenures of 

s s . 1 /» ' ^4. the farmer*, 

worst ground^ being left for pasture as a common, pays lui rent, 

and must be much more extensive than the Tahsildar states ; as 
is clearly provcablc by the immense extent of uncultivated land 
that is every where to be seen. The remainder of the ground be- 
longing to each village, and which is reckoned all that is arable, 
has an average valuation fixed upon it. In some villages this is 20 
Fanams a Bui for the whole arable land, good or bad ; in others, 
it is so high as 50 Fanams a Bulla. If the ficltls rated as Bulks con- 
tained no more than the proper measure, the first rent would he 
Qs. lOid. an acre, the latter 7s. 3d.; the average value of the whole 
lands of a village having been fixed, the fields are divided into 
three qualities, according to the goodness of their soil ; and they 
are then divided among the cultivators by an assembly of these 
people; in which, in order to prevent partialities, the ofiictrs of 
revenue have no right to interfere. The farmers complain, that 
the land is forced on them, apd that they are compelled to rent 
more than they have stock to enable them to cultivate. A man 
who rents 17 Bullas of land is able only to plough 9 of them; 
whereas, if he had full stock, he would plough between 11 and 12, 
leaving one third part in fallow. The rents, however, have been 





Kov. 24d 

Size of farms 
and plough- 

Servants^ and 
price of la- 


lowered ; in some villages one-fifth, in others one-third, in order 
to compensate the loss which the farmer suffers by this manner of 
renting lands, where there is not a sufficient stock to cultivate the 
whole. This sort of tenure seems to be a great evil, and, in order 
to keep down the rent, will occasion constant clamours of poverty 
among the fai^mers. 

One plough is reckoned here adequate to cultivate 2 Bullas of 
land, or 8,-rVoV acres. A few farmers possess 10 ploughs, but by far 
the greater number have only one. 

There arc here two kinds of servants employed by the farmers to 
cultivate the lands : they are called Pudial, and Pungal, 

The Pudials receive -yearly 3 Podis of grain (29 bushels), worth 
48 Vir'-Rdya Fanams, Avitli 10 Fanams in money, and a house. The 
58 Fanams are equal to W. 8.y. 9rd. The wife and children of the 
Pudial are paid for whatever work they perform. lie is hired by 
the year; but, if he contracts a debt with his master, he cannot 
quit the service till that be discharged. 

The Pungals go to a rich farmer, and for a share of the crop 
undertake to cultivate his lands. He advances th< cattle, imple- 
ments, seed, and money or grain, that is necessary for the subsis- 
tence of the Pungals. He also gives each family a house. He takes 
ho share in the labour, which is all performed by the Pungals and 
their wives and children ; but he pays the rent out of his share on 
the division of the crop, which takes place when that is ripe. If a 
farmer employs six Pungals to cultivate his land, the produce is 
divided into 15 portions, which arc distributed as follow: 

6 to the farmer, or Punnadi, for rent, seed, &c. 

1 to ditto for profit. 

2 to ditto for interest of money advanced. 

6 to the Pungals, or labourers. 

15 portions. 



Out of their portions the Pungals must repay the farmer the CHAPTKa 
money which he has advanced for their subsistence. The farmers 
prefer employing Pudials, when they can be procured ; but among 
the labourers the condition of the Pungals is considered as pre- 
ferable to that of the Pudials. Six-fifteenths of the whole produce 
is indeed a very large allowance for the manual labour bestowed 
on any land ; and, as the farmer can afford to give it, the rents 
must be moderate. 

Grain Measure, in use here is as folloios : Measures. 

63 Rupees weight of 9 grains, mixed in equal quantities, fill a 
Puddy, which measures 54 cubical inches. 

4 Puddles = I Bulla, or Vullam = bushel. 

96 Bui las 2=1 Podi 

30 B alias = 1 Candy, or Siliga 

The TVeights for Cotton are : Weights. 

8 Rupees I Pull = 0, ,Vo*oVo ^h. 

100 Pulls = 1 Tolam = 19, 

The coins commonly current here are Vir'-R&ya Fanams, and Money. 
Feringy, or Porto-mvo Pagodas, equal in value to ten Vir'-Ruya 
Fanams. The revenue is estimated in Canter'-Rdya Fanams at the 
rate of 100 for 125 Vir'-Rdya Fanams. 

The land measure is the same Z'so.tCoimbetore, the Bulla or Vullam Land-mea- 
land being a square of 64 Vaums or fathoms each way, and is there- 
fore equal to 4,-iV^7 acres; but, by the actual measurement of a field, 

I found that it contained 5,-Mo acres, or that the Vullams, by which 
the accompts are kept, arc larger than they ought to be, as 1372 is 
to 1000. Not knowing, however, how far the other fields may ex- 
ceed the true measurement, I have in all my calculations consi- 
dered that as the standard ; but I would warn the reader to think 
VoL. II. Tt 



CH ^PTEIl it probable, that the size of the computed Bullas is at least equal 
in jTcneral to that of the one which I measured, 

Nov 24. In the accompanying Table will be seen many particulars rela- 
Diy-giams. cultivation of the dry-grains, which is here almost the 

sole occupation of the farmers. The produce is taken on the aver- 
age of a good year, as allowed by the farmers in presence of the 

Table explaining the value and quantity of Seed and Produce of the diifercnt Articles 

cultivated on dry-field at Palachy. 





Nov. 24. 

Rotation nf 
crops, and 

Except 240 Bullas, or 102.9 acres, given in En/im, the wliole arable 
lands in the subdivision immediately depending' on PaUtchy are 
rented, and pay at the rate of 0 Fanavis a Vullam, or 9f</, an 
acre. It formerly let for 50 Fanams a Vullam ; but the rents have 
been lowered one-lifth part, on account of the farmers’ poverty. 
Almost the whole is fit for the cultivation of Cambu and Sliolum, 
which renders it so valuable. Twenty-six Bullas only are culti- 
vated with the machine called Capily, and that in a very slovenly 
manner. This pays no additional rent; a strong proof of the advan- 
tage of rent as a stimulus to industry ; for in most places of this 
province, where a great additional rent is demanded, this kind of 
cultivation is carried on with great spirit and care. 

The following statements will show the common manner of crop- 
ping the grovind, which is done here with more judgment tlian is 
usual in India. 

I. First year Cambu, Avith accompanying grains 
Second year 1st crop Sliolum - 14.v. lOd. 

2d crop Coin - - 5.S. 8d. 

Third year grass manured by folding cattle on it 

Value per acre. 

jta 0 

1 0 6 
0 1 6 

Total produce of three years - 2 5 0 

Deduct Rent - - - - IT-J. 4-1(1. 

Seed - - - - Oj. T-jd. 

0 18 0 

Remainder for stock and labour 

II. First year Cambu, with its accompanying grains 
Second year 1st crop Sliamay - l6jr. 4|d. 

2d crop Colu . - 5s. 8d. 

Third year grass 

£17 0 
£13 0 

1 2 Of 

0 1 6 

Total produce of three years * 2 6 6f 

Deduct Rent - - - ' lyj. 4id. 

Seed - - - i4. ol^/: 

0 18 If 

Remainder for stock and labour 

£l 8 H 



In place of Shamay, may be sown JFulindu, or Pacha-Pyra, or CHAPTER 

Pl/u. , . 

III. F irst year with the accompanying’ grains /' I 3 0 

Nov. 2+. 

Second ditto Sholum and Nadum cotton 
TJiird -ditto cotton remains giving.^ of a crop 
Fourth ditto grass - - - - 

Total produce of four years 
Deduct Rent - . - . ly.v, od. 

Seed - - - - O.V. 

0 19 5^ 
0 3 5-^ 

0 1 () 

12 7 5 

— 0 19 H 

Remainder for stock and labour - £^7 

Some farmers in tlic third year sow Sholum between the drills of 
cotton. The crop is very poor. 

The manner of cultivating these crops is as follows: the field, Cultivation, 
while in grass, is manured by folding on it as many cattle as can 
be procured. Then between the SGth of May and the 27th of July 
it is ploughed live times. During this season there are slight 
showers of rain; but in a few days afterwards the heavy rains ge- 
nerally commence. When this happens, sow the Cambu broad-cast, 
and cover it with tlie plough. On the second or third day furrows 
are drawn through the field, at the distance from each other of six 
cubits. Into these a man, who follows the plough, drops the seeds 
of Tovary, Aluchu-cotay, Alutu-cotay, and of Tala-Pyra (see the 
annexed Table), while another plough comes behind, and covers 
them with a second furrow. These accompanying seeds are never 
intermixed ; one being sown in one part of the Held, and another 
in another part : but in every field a proportion of each is sown. 

The Tata-Pyra is sometimes mixed with the Cambu seed, and sown 
broad-cast. At the end of one month, the young Cambu is about 4 
or 5 inehes high, and the field is then ploughed. In five months it 
ripens, and two months afterwards the accompanying grains come 
to maturity. The ears of the Cambu, when ripe, arc cut off’, and 



Nov. 21'. 



inimetliatcly tiodtlcn out. The grain, after being seitaratcd 
the spikes, is dried in tlic sun twf) or tliree days, and put up in 
store-houses, so as to be securctl tVoin moisture and tbe eirculatinii 
of air. After liaving been ke[>t one year, its value is nuich dimi- 
nished, anti at the end of two years it becomes totally useless. 

The Cambu straw is only used ftjr thatch, and is allowed to stand 
on the field until between the l‘2th of March and the lOth of Ajiril, 
when it is pulled u[) by the roots. These being large, the ground is 
loosened by the operation, and, without having been ploughed, is 
iinmcdiatelv afterwards sown with Sholuni, or // uinulu, or Pacha- 
pyra, or Ellu (sec the Tabic). After these seeds liave been sown 
broad-cast, the field is once ploughed. If is ^to be .sown, 
the field is ploughed once, tlic seed is sown between tbe 12th of 
iMay and the llth of .lane, and then covered by the iilongli. One 
inoiitli after having been sown, the Sholmn field must be again 
plouglicd ; the others ripen without any trouble. S/iolam straw is 
here reckoned the best fodder. Tbese crojis ripen between the 
1 ttb of September and the 14-th of October ; and immediately after 
they are reaped the field is ploughed, and sown witbC'u/M, or Hone- 
gram, the seed of which is covered by a second ploughing. At the 
end of a month weeds ought to be removed by tbe hand. In five 
months more it is ripe. 

^Vllcn cotton is cultivated with Sliolnm, the seed of the latter is 
first sown, and then that of the cotton is scattered over the field. 
Roth are tlicn covereil by the plougli, and at the end of the first 
mon'"li tbe field is again ploughed. At the end of the second month 
the weeds are removed by a small hoe. After the Sholum has been 
reapcil, the field is ploughed three times between the cotton plants, 
wliich grow (juitc irregularly three or four cubits from each other. 
Retween the 10th of rebruary and the 10th of April the cotton pro- 
duces a full crop. Next year, according to the, native reckoning, 
between the 1.5tli of October and the 12th of December, the lield is 
ploughed again three times, and at the usual season gives a crop of 



three fourths of what it produced in the first year. Tlic plants are 
immediately pulled up, and the field is allowed a year's fallow. 

The soil here is partly a re<!, and partly a dar!; coloured sandy 
loam; but in some neighbouriiii^ villaj^es there is a rich black soil, 
Avhich every year produces a crop oi’ L’p urn cotton, mixed witli the 
Cicer arktinum, or with two umhellifer 'us i.lants, called Duwytf and 
and Cuderi IVomum. 

The Cuderi JComtim, or Horse-av.7H//w. is used as a carminative for 
horses; and, such being considered by the natives of this country 
as necessary for these, animals, a mixture of it with pc])per, onions, 
and the like, is once a week given to every horse. 

I have already mentioned, that besides the bad stony land, udiieh 
is common, the farmers here keep in fallow for pasture one third 
of their whole laud. They pay full rent for the latter, but nothing 
for the use of the commons. Eor pasture, they never are necessi- 
tated to send their cattle to the hills. 'I'he sickness that prevailed 
last year among the cattle over a great part of the country was not 
severely felt at Paluclnj ; but the year before it had raged. '1 he 
cattle of the cow kind in this neighbourhood are of the .same breed 
with those above the Ghats, but are rather inferior in size. 

The Jni-nudaya P(dygars arc twelve in number. My information 
is taken from one of them, called the Gojnna Gauda. He says, that 
six generations ago they were sent into the country by TrimuUi 
Ndyaka, the Rdjd of Madura. Several of them are of Teiinga de- 
scent, but not any are of the Madura family. Each of them jraid 
an annual tribute, and, according to the extent of his district, was 
bound to keep up a certain number of Caudasharas, or foot soldiers. 
Whenever called upon, the Polygars were bound to serve in the 
field with all these infantry; but then they got liatta, or subsis- 
tence money, from the Rajd. Each Caudashara a small farm, 
which he or his family cultivate*! for his support in peace, and for 
his clothing. Tiic head Cundashara of every villa/e had a large 
farm, and acted under the Polygar as captain; but out of ihc 



Nov, Cl. 

Ctidt ri 


Ptth^ars aruJ 
Jlwdu mi* 



CHAPTF.R profit of his faru; lie was bound to provide arms for liis company. 

Some of the villages in each district were thus divided among the 
Nor. a*. Cumlaslutras ; wliilc others were let for a rent, out of which the 
Polygar maintained his family, and paid his tribute. Within his 
own district he possessed the power of life and death, with every 
kind of juristlietion, civil and military. Of the twelve Polygars of 
Ani-mdaya, five are of the PaycUar cmX., aTtliuga tribe; four are 
Vaylalar, a Tamul east ; one is a Golar Tolia\ also of Tclinga extrac- 
tion ; one is a Poloa, which is a cast of Alalayc.lam ; and the tvvelfth 
is of the Vir-pachry family, the head of which is now in a kind of 
rebellion. The Gop'nia Gauda'.s district contained 6‘0 villages, main- 
tained 1000 Catidasharns, and paid a tribute of 40,000 Vir'-liAyd 
Funatm, or 951/. Ts. '■2^d. Things continued in this state until the 
government of Tlyder, who entirely did away the military tenure, 
but left each Polygar some lands in EnAm, or free of rent, in place 
of what it might be supposed they before enjoyed for the support 
of their families. The EnAm left to the Gopina Gauda was six vil- 
lages, or one-tenth of his district. In this Enlm he retained the 
full jurisdiction that he formerly possessed over his district; for, in 
eastern governments, the life arid property of the subject are fre- 
(lucntly intrusted to the discretion of the most petty officers, or 
laud-holders. On Tippoo's accession, the Asoph or lieutenant of 
Co'mbetore, Khadir All Khan, forced the Polygars to pay tribute for 
the lands which liyder had allowe<l them to retain, and they were 
entirely disarmed; but they were allowed to retain over their 
vassals both civil and criminal jurisdiction. Ten years ago Tippoo 
endeavoured to seize them, in order, by circumcision, to make them 
Mussulmans ; but they made their escape into the country of the 
Cochin Raj(i, and continued there until the fall of Seringapatam. 
The lands left to them by Hyder as En&ms have now been restored 
for a tribute, amounting to three-fourths of what was exacted by 
Tippoo in the beginning of his reign; and their jurisdiction is simi- 
lar to that of the Tahsildars, except that the government docs not 


interfere with tlie manner in which they let their lands. In fiict, CHAPTER 
they are now almost on the same footing with the Zemindars of 
Bengal, only they possess a small authority in matters of police, Nov. 24. 
and a limited civil jurisdiction, and their rents are more moderate. 

(ropina Guiida alleges, that he pays three-fourths of his collections; 

]Mr. Hurdis estimates his profits at 40 per cent, rornierly, during 
the confusion which subsisted in tlie open country, the districts of 
these chiefs, being inaccessihle without great trouble, were an asylum 
for those in distress; hut since the Coinjiany’s government has given 
security to all well-disposed persons, most of the people Mdio had re- 
tired thither have returned to their former places of residence; on 
which account the estates of the /Vz/gr/rA' are now thinly inhahited. 

The /Wygrt/w collect their rents without the assistance of armed men. 
Canduslniras lire allowed to the 'JahsUdars ; hut they serve them rather 
in their ca|)acity of ol'liccrs of police, than in collecting the revenue. 

Throughout the Coimheture province the Zaplalar are a numerous VanMar, a 
trihe of the Tamul race, and are esteemed to he of pure Stidra cast. vf Ta- 
Thcy arc of several different kinds; such •a'sCuracata, Palay, ChoUiy 
Codical, C'oiay, Panddva, and Shayndatay PaylaUirs : of this last kind 
arc those who give me information. All Vaytulars can eat together; 
but these ililferent kinds do not intermarry, nor can a man iijarry a 
woman of the same family with himself in the male line. The Vay- 
latar are farmers, day-labourers, and servants who cultivate the 
earth; many of them can keep acconipts, and read books written 
in their native language. v\t Canghium resides Canghitim Manadear, 
hereditary cliief of .ill the Shayndatay Vaylalars. Formerly this ])cr^ 
sou settled all disputes in the cast; but Mr. llurdis, having found 
that the hereditary chiefs excommunicated unjustly the people of 
their clans, ordered that all cast business should be settled in pub- 
lic court by the Tahsildar, with the advice of a council of person-s^ 
skilled in the rules and customs of the cast in cpiestion. The people 
seem to be satisfied with this change. The Vaylalars are not per- 
mitted to drink intoxicating liquors ; but such of them as have not 
Vot. il. U u 



CIIAI’TKR recelvMid Upadcsa may cat animal food. If their first wife has chil- 
drcn, they cannot marry another ; nor do the men ever keep con- 
Nov. et. cubiiies in their houses. The women continue to be marriageahle 
after the age of puherty ; hut widows are not allowed to take a 
second husband, nor to live with men as concubines. For adultery, 
if the fault has been committed with a person of the cast, a woman 
is seldom divorced, unless her shame has become very public. The 
widow ought to burn herself with her husband's corpse, and this is 
still sometimes, though very rarely, practised. The tombs of such 
women as have committed this action are considered as places of 
worship, and their memory is venerated as tliat of saints. They are 
all worshippers ol' Siva ; but the |)roj)er pemtes, or family gods, are 
various Saktis, or female destructive spirits; such as Kali, Bhadra- 
Kali, and the like. The Vaylalar offer sacrilices at tlie temples of 
these idols, and, if they have not received Upadesa, cat the flcsli ; 
but in Cficra ti e Pujdris or priests in these tem[)les are all Ptoida- 
runii, who are the Siidras dedicated to the service Siva's temples, 
in the same manner as ihc Satituanas arc dedicated to those of 
Vishnu. In sickness, they make vows to ornament the temple of 
the Sakti who is supposed to jjccas'ion the disease; and if they re- 
cover, they employ the potter, who makes an image of a child ora 
horse, which is placed in the court of the temple. This kind of 
offering is extremely common in every part Coimbclore, but I have 
not seen it in any other j>art of India, If the proper funeral ceremo- 
nies are performed, the Vaylalar believe that after their decease 
they will reside at the feet of /niwrf. They do not know what be- 
comes of those who after death arc not burned with the due rites. 
They do not reejuire n Purohiia to read Mantrams at any of the 
family ceremonies ; but, if the Panchanga chooses to come and 
read, he receives something for his trouble. Their Gurus are the 
Siva BrdhmanaSf or Brahmans who act as Pujdris in the temples of 
Siva, and the great gods of his family. These are considerctl as 
greatly inferior to the Smartal, cither VaidiJea, or Lokika. The Guru 



conics annually to each village, distributes consecrated leaves and CIIAFJ'EK 
holy water, and receives a Fattam from each j)er.son, with as much 
[ij'.ain as they choose to "ive. Some of them |mrcliase an Upadha Nm. 2* 
from the ,• iriviiiff for it, according to their circumstances, 

tiom one to ten Fautnns. '^ who have procured this may make 
a Un •j;am ot nuid, and perlorm /hc/</ or worship to this rude emblem 
of the deity, by pouring llowcrs and water over it while they repeat 
the Vptidvsti. Such persons must abstain entirely from animal food. 

"J'liosc who have no /.'yWcwcMniist ]»ray witiioe.t any set form, but 
are allowed to eat the (h di of saeriflees. 

The llandif Cm’/tO/iru lira settled in this eoiintry in small numbers, Uund^Cviu 
and are generally employed as armed messCiigcM^ for the police. 

They are all c)f KdrucUava extraction, and came originally frcni 
K/ind-^iri and .tinigundi. 

The Folcdr are a 'I'r/itd^'d tribe settled here in considerable num- 
bers as cultivators, d'liey arc; very pocjr, and remarkably ignor.ant, 
which prevented me from cditaining any r.'ilional account of their 

‘27th Xo'ixml/a '. — I went seven j\Idld/nir hours’ journey toy////- Fare of the 
iiidldpu. I'ntil f c.aine to the river .Iliidd, tin; road passed through 
a country! cullivated and inclosed. I forded tin* yi//.'//</ at a 
town CAlled Finhyai/oi-pdtlijdiii, which has lonncrly been a lar:.';c 
place, but is now mostly in ruins, having been destroyed by the 
Nail's in their wars witli Tippuo. I then proceeded U|) the side of 
the Alima, having a line canal with rice-fields to my lei t, and woods 
on my right. These occupy the grounds of a vii! age, in wliich there 
was formerly much cidtivation of dry grains. 'I'liis also was de- 
stroyed liy the Nairs, who are considered liy the people lierc as 
fierce and cruel harbarians. 

ylni-maldija, or FJephanl-hill, is so calleal from the great number Ani-imtuvja. 
of elephants and hills in its neighbourhood. It is a town wliieli 
contains about 400 liouscs, and is situated on the west side of the 
Alima. It is the coninion thoroughfare between Malabar and the 


CUAPTIMI southern part of the dominions, being placed, opposite to the 

wide passage that is between the southern end of the Ghats of 

Nov, 27. Karmita, and the hills that run north from Cape Comorin. The 
Alathira Rqjh, the former lords of the country, built a fort close to 
the river; which having fallen to ruins, the materials were removed 
l>y the Alysorc Rajiis, and a new fort was built at some distance to 
the westward. Twelve years ago gave it some repairs, and, to 
procure materials for the purpose, pulled down five large temples. 
It is still a very poor work, and is in the district of Vatachy. 

Dcvastiitioij. The greater part of the dry-ficUl in the neighbourhood is now 
overgrown with woods ; for eight entire villages to the westward 
have been completely destroyed by the Nairs, and have never been 
rcpcopled. There arc three dams on the AUma^ that water much 
rice-ground, the greater part of which is cultivated. There was 
formerly a fine tank, supjilied with water fioin a branch of the 
Alima called i\\t Shimr ; but it fell into decay, and now the work- 
men are only beginning to put it in order. The whole watered- 
land in the village of AnUmulaya amounts, according to the mea- 
surement of Chka Dtva Raja, to 7.'50 Candacas, which should be 
about 3100 acres. The dry-field is rated in the books at 400 BtiUas; 
but of this threc-lburths have become totally waste, and 70 Bullas 
only are actually cultivated. Ten villages in the immediate vicinity 
are without a single inhabitant. This shows how very inaccurate 
the accompts are that were shoivn to me at Palachy by the Tahsildar. 
Indeed, very little dependence is to be placeilonthe statements of 
native officers of revenue. 

Und-mea- When the measurement of this district was made by the order of 
Chica Deva Raja of Alysore, a pole was taken, which was 25 Adies, 
or native feet, in length. Marks have been made on a long stone, 
which is preserved as a standard. These show the pole to have 
been 24f English feet in length. 20 poles in length, by 15 in 
breadth, are called a Candaca of watered-land, which is therefore 
4 ,toVo acres. The Candaca of grain is rather more than 3 bushels. 

Mysore, canaRxA, and malabar. 


Tlic whole rice-lands pay 72^ Canter" -Jluya Fanams a Candaca CHAPTER 
(10#. 107 </. an acre), whether the soil be good or bad. Every ten 
years the different farmers draw lots for the fields, each of which, Nov. 27. 
being a long narrow stripe of land, contains all the varieties of 

The fiirmersof AnUmalaya are mostly ; and, owing to the Watcred- 

want of hands and stock, can only take oiic croj) in the year from 
their lands ; but there being plenty of water for two crops, one lialf 
of the farm is cultivated at one season, ami the otlier at another. 

Rice and a little Betel-leaf (Piper Belle) are the only articles raised 
upon watered ground. The crop sown between the 13th of .Inly 
and the 13th of August is cultivated after the dry-seed manner. 

The sprouted -seed may be sown at any time between the lOth of 
May and the 10th of December, and is attended with the least 
trouble. This year a little transplanted rice has been tried, but 
in the present want of labourers it is considered as requiring too 
much trouble. 

In the accompanying Table will be seen the particulars of the Produce, 
cultivation of rice in this district. The estimate is formed on the 
average of good soils, according to the report of the cultivators, 
who say, that the smallest produce is about three quarters of that 
stated in the Table. I however think it rather probable, that what 
I have given may be considered as the average produce of the 
whole lands, good and bad. The Cutari rice is that most commonly 
cultivated, as it is less liable than the others to be injured by the 
herds of wild elephants ; for these animals, although they eat rice, 
do not kill that kind when they tread on it. The Cartic Sambau is 
^he best. At Ani-malaya no manure, cither of leaves or dung, is used. 




Table explaining the cultivation of Rice at Ani-malaya, in Coinibetore. 



Tirnt it 
to j^nnv. 

Value in the 


of seed 
and lent 
for one 


For 3 

For an 
Ac ic 



P r 


Of J 

Of an Acre. 





J. d. 





J. d. 

Punedi Ricos, or tliusc sown 


Anaaimha Sundiuu - - 




0 Hi 






u .^i 

Perum Sawhau - - - 





0 !)} 





13 lO! 

Molagy - - - - . 




<) Pi 





1‘3 *3,' 

Cai VaijrapH Rices, or those 

sown sprouled-bootl. 

Pvrum Sawlfou - - • 


3,6' ki 



0 5)1 

37 1: 

-7,3 1 




13 lo; 






0 Pi! 37 i 







3, (>4;') 


0 !)p 40 





13 10' 

ShurinaxaVin - - - 


0 Pi 


30, ys 




13 lOj 

Cartk iSainbau - - - 




j () 

0 Hi 

4'.! : 

30, ps 




I'.’ 10.1 


Kt'V, *7* 

Hilly coun- 
try belwttMi 
ftiid Alfitlura. 
DniR-i en- 

Although this is in the Pa/iichy district, the niauner of letting the 
dry-field at tlie two jdaccs is.qnitc different. The rent here is paid 
according to the kind of crop, A linlla land, sown witli Catnbu or 
Sholum, pays Co Canter -Raya Funavis, or 3.v. l^-d. an acre; if culti- 
vated for Shamay, Coin, itc. it pays 1.5 Fanamx, or 2.s. 2r/. an acre; 
if left fallow for pasture, it pays 5 Fanains, or about an acre. 

Here is a person called Maluya-pudy, ov hill-tUta'^e-man. He rents 
the exclusive privilege of collecting drugs in the hills south from 
Ani-malaya, These are collected for him by a hill people called 
Cadar, of whom, among the hills two days journey hence, there is a 
village of 13 houses. The renter has there a small house, to which 
he occasionally goes to receive the drugs that the Cadar have 
collected, and brings them home on oxen. The men only work 
for him, and eacli daily receives in advance (onr Paddies of rice, 


worth half a Vir-Raya Fanatn, or a^ut 3d. At the end of the year CHAPTER 
the accompts are settled, every article having a fixfed value ; and 
the whole that each person has delivered having been estimated at Nov. 27. 
this rate, he receives the balance, if any be due. In Ttppoo' s. gov tn\- 
ment, the renter paM annually 30 Canter'-Rdya Pagodas, or 61. 4j. 1 ~d. 

His rent has this year been raised to 150 Pagodas, or 3\l. 0^. 8-yf/.; 
but then l)e is allowed to take all the ivory that is found where 
elephants have died, and which formerly belonged to the govern- 
ment. The articles collected on account of the renter are as 
follow ; 

1. Nonaputia ; the bark of a Morinda, which is used as a red dye. 

2. Magali Calangu ; the root of a.non-descript Cynanchum, wjiich 

is a favourite pickle with the natives, and smells exactly 
like bugs. 

5. Inji; wild ginger. 

A. Munjal; tvild turmeric. 

5. Mutti palu; the juice of a tree, which by long keeping con- 

cretes into a kind of gum ; both juice and gum are used by 
the natives to fumigate their clothes. 

6. Cunghi-lium; the resin of a non-descript tree, which I have 

called ChloroxylonDupada, and which is a kind of frankincense. 

7 . Shica-gai; the fruit of t\\t Mimosa saponaria, used by the na- 

tives to wash the oil out of their hair. 

8. Honey and wax. There are here four kinds of honey-bee; 
1st. Malanitn, a large bee which builds in cavities of rocks, 
and forms a large nest. One will produce four Paddies, or 
about 3 quarts of honey; and four Polams, or 12^ ounces 
of wax. In procuring this there is much trouble, as the bee 
stings violently, and builds in places very tlilhcult of access. 
A J5am6oo-ladder is, let down by means of a rope, from the 
summit of the rock, to where the honey is. The Cadar, taking 
a fire-brand in his hand, descends by the rope to the ladder, 
and, having chased away the bees by means of the fire, he 




Nov. ‘.:7. 

Tribes occu- 
pying tlic 



collects the honey, ami is then drawn up. Two men this 
year have been so violently stung by the bees, that they let 
go their hold, and were killed by the fall. 2d. Todu^y ten, 
a middling sized bee, that builds in the hollow trunks of 
old trees. Its nest is but about a fourth part of the size of 
that of the MaUrn ten. The only trouble in eollceting this 
is the enlarging the hole by which the bees enter, so as to 
get at the combs. Their sting is of no eonse<pictu;e. ;h1. 
Cosfiu ten, a very small bee with a proportionably small 
quantity of honey, and that of a bad quality, it also builds 
in hollow trees. 4th. Cnmhu ten. a large bee which Imilds 
its nest round the branches of trees. The ijuantity ol'honey 
is small, but it is of the best quality. This bee is easily' 
driven away by the twig of a tree switched round. The 
common price of wax is 30 Hr - Raya Fanaiiis for the Totam 
of 800 Rupees weight, or 4/. ^s. 6d. a humlred-wcighi,. 

9. Casturi Afunjal ; a kind of wild turmeric, whicli has a smell 
somewhat resembling musk. It is mixed with the ponder 
of sandal-wood, with which the Hindu women of rank i nb 
their skins. 

U). Lei'u/igu putty ; the hark of the Launis Cassia. It is the 
Cassia tigneu of India, which is very inferior to that of 

1 1. Ivory. 

•The renter trades with villages belonging to Travancore, and in- 
habited by rude tribes called Visuar or Caravan, Cucatnar, and 
Munnan. These tribes occupy a hilly tract ten days journey in 
length, and are scattered through this extent in villages of ten or 
twelve huts. They use the Cotu-cadu cultivation, and collect the 
same articles with those above mentioned, and have besides carda- 
moms, which is the only thing that they sell to the renter who lives 
at Ani-malaya. In January they are brought to him fit for the 
market, and he knows nothing of the manner in which they are 



prepared, only that they grow on the hills without cultivation. The CHAPTER 
Cadar inform me, that their neighbours in the hills of Tnivancore 
know the places fit for cardamoms, by observing in the woods 
places where some of the plants grow. There the hill-people cut 
all the trees, and give the sun access to the plants, which after- 
wards shoot up apace. It is three years, however, before they come 
to perfection. In the thud and fourth years they produce abun- 
dantly, and then die; when the w'ood is allowed to grow up, and 
another part is cleared for a future crop. Between the 10th of 
January and the 9th of February the fruit is fit for cutting. If the 
seed be to be prcserveil in the capsules or husks, the scapi, or fruit- 
stems, before the fruit is quite ripe, arc cut off by the root, and 
kept in a heap for some days ; after which the capsules are sepa- 
rated from them by the hand. If the seed only be to be collected, 
the fruit-stems are allowed to ripen, until they become redish, and 
until the birds begin to eat the seed. They are then cut, dried 
under the [uessure of a stone for three or four days, and rubbed 
with the hand to separate the seed. This sells in the market here 
for 6 Canter' -Raya Pagodux a Tolam, or 10/. 6s. S-^id. a hundred- 
weight. The capsules are rarely brought hither for sale, and are 
higher priced. 

VVild black-pepper is also found in these hills; but it is of a bad pepper, wild, 

In .some of the hills which belong to Erupa Ndyaka. one of the M^robalmt. 
Company’s Polygars, a renter has the exclusive privilege of collect- 
ing the Myrobalans cdMcd Cadugai, which are the fruit ofthc A/yr<j- 
balatms Arula Buch: MS.S. 

At Ani-malaya are three persons called tamarind-renters, who pay Tamarinds, 
a trifling rent for the exclusive privilege of collecting the tama- 
rinds, honey, wax, ami Nonaputta, that are found in the woods, 
which lie near the town. The people employed by them are called 
Malasir, and are also the wootl-cutters of the country. 

VoL. II. X X 




Nov. fr. 
Nerium tine- 





Wild ele- 

Cadar^ a 
rude tribe. 


Tl>ere « here plenty of the Pda-tree, or Nmumtinctorium Rooeb: 
MSS. ; -bHt at preseitt wobody makes it into P-cUac, or indigo. Four- 
teen years ago a iiian from Dti vpuram cainc for tliis purpose, but 
lie was carried away by tigers. 

in the gardens round the town a few sandal trees have been 
planted. It does not come to any perfection ; but its leaves serve 
as an offering to the idols. It does not grow on tdie hills. 

I could have wished to liave passed some days among these Mils 
in botanical investigations ; but at this season my attendants would 
have iboen exposed to great danger from the unhealthy air, and one 
hsailf of them would probably have been seized with fevers; as I 
experienced in the bills of the Kaveri-pura pass, >vhich are not 
reckoned so bad as those of Ant-malaya. 

The elephants are increasing here in number, owing to no hunt 
having been made for some years past. They are very destructive 
anti formidable, and kill many poor people who are travelling in a 
solitary manner. 

The Cadar arc a rude tribe inhabiting the hills in this neighbour- 
hood, and speaking a dialect that differs in accent only from the 
Tamil. The men live by collecting drugs for the renter, as 1 have 
already mentioned. The women collect wild roots that arc edible. 
They have no means of killing game, but eat any that they find 
dead. They rear no domestic animals, nor cultivate any thing 
whatever ; but their clothing is as good as that of the neighbouring 
peasantry. They pay no taxes, and the renter settles all disputes 
among them. They live in villages called Malaya-pudy. . They 
always marry in their own tribe, but cannot take a girl who is of 
the same family \^ith themseltes in the male line. They are allowed 
a plurality of wives. The lover presents the mother of his mistress 
with some cloth, and iron tools, and the ceremony consists in a 
feast given to the relations. The girls continue to be marriageable 
after the age of puberty, and a widow can without disgrace marry 



again, If a woman commit adultery, the tribe assembled deliver CHAPTER 
her over to her paramour, who pays a fine to the husband, and takes 
the woman to be his wife. They do not drink spirituous liquors; Nov. 27. 
and they bury the dead. After death, tlu; spirits of gowl men re- 
side with a god named Mud'mrum, while those of wicked men go 
to a bad place. Their temples are small huts, in Avhich rude stone* 
repre.sent Mudivinim, and two female deities called I*ay-cotu~U»i~ 
mum, and Kali Vmmum. These deities protect their votaries from 
tigers, elephants, and disease, but have no priests. Once a year the 
whole people assemble at the temple, and offer rice and flowers to 
the images, and sometimes sacrifice a goat. When in the low coun- 
try, they say that they are of VishmCs side ; but they pray to every 
image that they see. They say, that the men of anotlier tribe 
living in the hills, and called Visahuu, or Corabun, are their Gurus, 
and arc able to read and write. They make presents to their Guru, 
and he gives them consecrated ashes. They have nothing to do 
with the Brahmans, 

November. — I went Malabar hours’ journey to ( on the 

gara, a place in the middle of the Ani~mahiya forest, and on the 
frontier of the country which formerly belonged to the 'I'amuri 
Rdja, where a guard of 15 armed men is placed by the 'J'ahsildar of 
Palachy. The men arc hutted on the banks of a mountain torrent ; 
and, although relieved once a fortnight, suffer e.xcecdingly from 
this unhealthful climate. They are stationed here to prevent, 
the passage of thieves and armed vagabonds, to prevent smug- 
gling, and to intercept unlawful correspondence. The three 
small hilts which they occupy are the only habitations near the 

On strong high trees the guard has constructed two stages, to Wild elc- 
which the men fly when they are attacked by solitary tliscontented 
male elephants, who are not to be driven away by firing at them, 
unless the ball takes place in ^omc sensible part. Herds of 



Nor. 28 . 



elephants come very frequently to drink at the torrent ; but are 
easily alarmed, and run away at the first shot. The guard meets 
with no annoyance from tigCis. For the sake of water, merchants 
stop to breakfast at this place, and very often pass the night under 
protection of the guard. The road is a great thoroughfare, and be- 
tween this and Ani-malaya is very good for loaded cattle. Carts 
might pass all the way, but in some places with difficulty. A very 
little expense would make the whole good. 

The woods are stately, and clear of bushes or climbers ; nor does 
the grass reach higher than the knee. The season for examining 
them would be March and April ; at present they are extremely 
unhealthful. The greater part of the soil, in the woods between 
this and Ani-malaya is tolerably good, and consists of gently swell- 
ing lands, with a moderate descent towards Malabar ; so that the 
whole might be cultivated. The forests are too remote from water 
carriage to be valuable on account of producing timber for expor- 
tation ; and the hills afford a sufficient quantity of timber for the 
use of the country. 

The following are the trees which I observed in passing through 
this forest; the names are Tamul; .and the account of their qualities 
is given on the authority of some wood-cutters that I purposely 
hired to accompany me. 

1. Buriga. 

>A lactescent tree, with leaves three-lobed, petioled, alternate, and 
without stipules. It has a strong disagreeable smell, like that of a 
dirty man at hard labour, and its timber is of no use. 

a. Vagy, Mimosa speciosa Jacquini. 

A large tree with black timber. 

3. Vayda talla, Mimosa cinerea. 

4. Parumba, Mimosa Tuggula Such: MSS. 

It grows here very large and straight, and its timber is reckoned 
very good. 



5. Carungali, Mimosa Sundra Roxb: MSS. CHAPlKU 

A small tree, producing black wood, that is used by tlie natives 
for making the large pestles with which they beat rice'to remove Nov. 28 . 
the husk. 

6. Puchay, Shaguda Cussum Buch: MSS. 

A small but strong timber tree. 

7. Caraciittay, Zizyphus Caracutta Buch: MSS. 

Used for beams in the huts of the natives. 

8. Vaypa Maram, Melia azadirachta. 

9. Calocuita Tayca, Premm iomentosaW'ilM. 

A small tree, and bad timber. 

10. Tayca, Tectona grandis. 

In great abundance, and of the best (]uality. 

11. Bamboo. 

Here are both the hollow and the solid kinds. When 15 years old, 
they arc said to bear fruit, and then to die. The grain is collected 
by the rude tribe called Malasir, and is occasionally used by all 
ranks of people. What is reckoned a delicacy among the Hindus, 
is formed by taking equal quantities of honey and of the Bamboo 
seed, putting them in a joint of Bamboo coated outwardly with 
clay, and roasting them over the fire. 

12. Bayla naca, Andersonia Panchmoun Roxb: MSS. 

Large, good timber. 

13. Wodagu. 

Bad timber. 

14. Aty Bauhinia. 

Its bark is used for matches. 

15. Buruga. 

Perhaps an Aleurites ? The timber is very soft, and used for making 
the scabbards of swords. 

16. Patekely, Dalber^pankulataBo'sh-. 

Reckoned good timber here ; but that must be a mistake. 



CHAPTER ] 7. Iruputiu or Carachu, Dalbergia or Pterocarpus. 

This is the black-wood of Bombay^ and is called by the people 
Nov. 28. of Malabar. 

1 8. Vaynga, Pterocarpus bilobus Herharii Banksiani. 

Th is differs from the Pterocarpus santoimus which above the Ghats 
is sometimes called by the same name. It is a good black-wood. 

IJ). Aia Mar am. 

A good timber, taking a fine polish. 

20 . Tayta Maram, St rychnos potatorum. 

21. Malaya TayngOy Sterculia J'oliis digitatis. 

It wants the offensive smell of the Sterculia ftetida. Its name sig- 
nifies the hill coco-nut. The follicles are as large as the two hands 
joined, and contain many seeds about the size of nutmegs, which 
the natives cat. 

22. Tameu, Sterculia foliis lobatis, capsulis hirtis, 

A middle sized tree, but its wood is very soft. 

23. Pay lay, Pehn Hart: Mai: 

The timber makes beams for the hats of the natives. The elephant 
is very fond of its fruit. 

24. Shorghilly, Sweitenia febrifuga Roxb: 

\ very strong timber, but not large. 

2.5. Calani, Clutia retusa. 

It strongly resembles the Clutia stipularis, but its fruit is disposed 
on long spikes. A small tree; but its timber is strong, and is used 
for beams and posts in the huts of the natives. 

26’. Conay, Cassia fistula. 

27. Valambery, Helictera Isora indica. 

A small tree of no use. 

28. Manjay Cadumbay, 

Used by the natives for stocks to their matchlocks. 

29 . Cadumbay Nauclea Daduga Roxb: MSS. 

A large tree and good timber. 



30. Mava Lingo, Cmteoa Tapia f .CIIAFrER 


31. l^llp Marlaro, Chuncoa Huiiva Bvich: MSS. Nqv. as. 

A large tree, and good timber. 

32. Toni Cai Maram, Myrobalanus Taria Buch: MSS. 

A large tree, and good timber. The fruit is used in medicine. 

33. Cari Marada, Chuncoa Mar ado Buch: MSS. 

A large tree, and good timber. 

34. Peru Maram. 

This is the Doda Maram of Karnuta. Botli names signify the 
great tree ; not owing to its size, which is small, but to its great 
power in stopping alvine fluxes. The fresh bark is beaten with a 
little butter-iniik ; the juice is then squeezed out, and taken by 
the mouth. 

35. Cat Elavil. Bomhax. 

Probably the Cciba. A soft wood, used for trunks and sword- 

36. Tumbi Chirongia sapida Roxb: MSS, 

The timber is bad ; the fruit is esculent. 

37. Pioiga. Robinia mitis. 

A large tree with useless timber. Lamp oil is expressed from 
the seeds. 

38. Bilputri Limonia cremilata Roxb. 

Corunga Munji Maram, Rottleria tinctoria Roxb. 

The name Monhey's-f ace-tree, or Mimusops; for these ani- 

mals paint their faces red, by rubbing them with the fruit. The 
tree is small, and the timber bad. The natives deny all* know- 
ledge of the dyeing quality possessed by the red powder that 
covers the fruit; but at different places in Mysore, 1 was told 
that the dye was imported from this part of the country. 

In the channel of a mountain torrent I here found the iron Iron ore. 
ore, of a nature exactly similar to the black sand, but in lumps 



CHAPTER about the size of peas. The surrounding strata were all ag- 
gregate stones of a foliatetl texture, running east and west, and 
Nov. 28. strangely undulated, so as to resemble marbled paper. From 
these, while they arc in a state of decay, the ore is probably 





B efore euterin}^ MalabaVy it may be iiecessary to premise, CHAPTER 
that this province is subject to the authority of three com- 
inissioiicrs ; under whom are employed a number of gentlemen, 
that act in their respective circles as magistrates and collectors. 

These olficers, formerly appointed by the government of Bombai/, 
have been lately placed under the Presidency of Fort St. George. 

With an establishment the expense of which has far exceeded the 
revenue, a complete protection from invaders, and a most tender 
regard to avoid the punishment of the innocent, it might have 
been expected, that this province would have been found in a 
situation very different from what I am compelled to represent it. 

No doubt, this has arisen from a lenity in punishing crimes, and an 
aversion to employ harsh mcasurc.s to repress the turbulent, 
originating in a gentleness of disposition, which, however amiable in 
private life, in a government often produces the utmost distress to 
the peaceable ami industrious subject. 

JVbrt'»jicr 29 th, 1800. — Having crossed the rivulet immediately w. ?f). 
after leaving Mingara, I entered the .province of Malabar, in that 
part of it which formerly belonged to the Tamura Raja, as the 
Zamorin is called by the natives. I found that they considered it 
unlawful to mention the real name of this personage, and always 
spoke of him by his titles. 

The stage that I went to Colangodu is of moderate length, and Forest, 
the road crosses the rivulet five times, which from that circumstance 
is called JFiinan-Ar. 1'he Avoods through Avhicli Ave passed to-day 
are very fine ; but the declivities are rather steeper, the roads 
worse, and the country is more rocky, than between Ani~nuUuya 
anti Mingara„ About half way to Colangodu are the ruins of a small 
Voi. II. V y 





(it the coun- 


T)iaiect of 
Mala i/ a la. 

mud fort which was built by the Tamuri Rqjd, and destroyed by 
Tippoo. The circumjacent country has once been cultivated, as is 
evident from the remains of corn-fields. Teak and other forest 
trees are now fast springing up among the Banyan (Ficus henga- 
knsis) and Palmira trees (Borassus Jlabelliformis), by which the 
houses of the natives have formerly been shaded ; and this part of 
the country will soon be no longer distinguishable from the sur- 
rounding forests. 

The environs of Colangodu are very beautiful. The high moun- 
tains on the south pour down cascades of a prodigious height ; and 
the corn fields are intermixed with lofty forests, and plantations of 
fruit trees. The cultivation, however, very poor. Most of the 
dry-field is neglected, and the quantity of rice-land is not great. 
Here the rain, without any assistance from art, is able to^ bring one 
crop of rice to maturity j and in a few places the natives have 
constructed small reservoirs, which enable them to have a second 

Cohngodu has a resemblance to many of the villages in Bengal, 
although the structure of tlie bouses is quite different ; but each 
is surrounded by a smaU garden, and at a little distance nothing 
is to be Seen, except a large grove O'f trees, mostly Mangoes (Man- 
gifera) or Jacks (Artocarpus). The houses in Colangodu arc about 
1000 in number, and many of them are inhabited by Tamul weavers 
of the Coicular cast, who import all their cotton from Coimbetore. 
The Malayola language is, however, the prevalent one, and differs 
considerably from that of the Tamuls, or what among the Europeaiis 
at Madras is called the Malabar language. They are, nevertheless, 
both branches of the same dialect ; and my Madras servants and 
the natives are, to a certain degree, able to understand each other. 
The accents are very different; and the Malayala language, con- 
taining a larger share of Sanskrit, and of the Boat, or poetical dia- 
lect, than the language prevailing to the eastward, is generally 
allowed tO be the more perfect. The character used in Malayala \s 
nearly the same with that used among the Tamuls for writing 



poetry ; and the poetical language of both people is very nearly CHAPTER 
the same. 

30th November.— I went a long stage to Pali-ghat. Tlic country so. 
through which I passed is the most beautiful that I have ever seen, co^unuy. 

It resembles the finest parts of Bengal; but its trees are loftier, and 
its palms more numerous. In many places the rice grounds are 
interspersed with high swells, that arc crowded with houses, while 
the view to the north is bounded by naked rocky mountains, and 
that to the south by the lofty forests of the Travancorc hills. The 
cultivation of the high grounds is much neglected. 

1st — 4th December, — I remained with Mr. Warden, the collector De^.. i— ♦. 
of the district, taking an account of the neighbourhood ; and from 
him I not only received every assistance <luring my stay, but have 
also been favoured with very satisfactory answers to (jueries which 
I proposed to him in suiting. Of these I shall avail myself in the 
following account. Owing to Mr. Warden's kind and hospitable 
attentions, I found myself perfectly at home while under his roof ; 
which was indeed the case every where in Malabar, when I liad the 
good fortune to meet with an English gentleman. 

Pah-ghat is a beautiful fort, built by Ili/der on his conquest of Pali-ghaf. 
Malabar, and situated in the country called Pali-ghat-sheri/, which 
belonged to the Shchhiny Ptfja, one of the petty chiefs ol Malaifa ; Mnlayala, or 
a word from adiich, by sundry corruptions, Malabar is rlcrived. In 
the list of the .5f) Detas of Bharata-khanda, given me by the Brah- 
mans of Jrava-courchy, Malayala and Kerala arc laid down as two 
distinct Desas ; but among the Brahmans here they are considered 
as the same; or at least, i\vaX Malayala forms a part Kerala. 

Some consider the words as synonymous, and say, that Malaycda is 
the vulgar M’ord, for what is called Kerala in the Sanskrit ; while 
others allege, that Kerala comprehends the whole country below 
the western from Cape Comorin Xo Surat ; while Malayala 

includes that part only which is situated to the south of the 



CHAPTER Chandra-giri river. The Malayala of the list given me at Arava- 
courchy is probably a corruption for Malayitchula. 

Dec. 1— 4 -. According to the accounts of the Brahmans licrc, no part of 

Kirala is included in the 56' Desas of Bharata-khanda, and it is of 
a much later origin. They say, that Avhen Parasu-rdma, one of the 
incarnations of Vishnu, had conquered all Bharaia-khanda, had de- 
stroyed all tl'.c Kshalri cast except the families of the Sun and 
Moon, and had divided tlie wJiolc of their dominions among the 
Brahmans, these favourites of heaven were still dissatislied, and 
continued to importune the god for more charity. To free himself 
from their solicitations, which he could not resist, he created Ke- 
rala, and retired thither : but he was followed by the Brahmans, 
who extorted from the go<l the whole also of this new creation. 
For many ages the Brahmans retained possession of Kerala, and 
lived under a number of petty chiefs of their own cast, who were 
called Potties. Dissentions, petty wars, assassinations, and every 
other sort of ilisordcr, became so common under this kind of go- 
vernment, that the Brahmans of Malayala, who arc called Namburis, 
were forced to ap[)ly fora viceroy to govern them under the Sholun 
Rajas, who were at that time the most powerful j)i inces in the south. 
Each of these viceroys was continued in power for twelve years, 
and a successor was then appointed by tlic sovereign. This conti- 
nued until about a thousand years ago; when Cheruman Pertnal, 
having acquired great popularity during his viceroyalty, retained 
his government for twenty years. The Sholun Raja, called also 
Permal, enraged at this disloyalty, inarched with an army into 
Malayala, and, having forced Cheruman Permal to retire into the 
forests, cstalilishcd his court at Teravanji Callum, a place now be- 
longing to the Covhi Raja. There he reigned for some time; but 
at length the Namhar'is, who were extremely attached to Cheruman 
Permal, persuaded some of their own cast to undertake the assassi- 
nation of the king. Tlic chief of these murderers, having, from 



his rank and sacred character, gained admission to Sholun Permal, CHAPTER 
soon ingratiated himself so far into the prince’s favour, that lie and 
his companions were admitted into the inner apartments of the 
palace, while none of the guards nor servants were present. They 
embraced their opportunity, and, having cut the king's throat, 
made their escape to Cheruman Permal ; who, taking advantage of 
the confusion occasioned by their crime, re-established his authority 
over ail Malayala. About this time the Arabs had settled on the 
coast, where they carried on a great trade, and were called by the 
natives Moplaymar. Some of their priests seem to have converted 
Cheruman Permal, who came to the resolution of retiring to Mecca. 

Having called a great assembly of the Namburis at a place called 
Trishu meru mcadu nada mami covil, he in their presence divided 
his dominions among his twelve principal chiefs, of whom five were 
of the Kshatri cast, and seven were Nairs, who are the Stidras of 
pure descent belonging to Malayala. He then retired to the place 
which we call Calicut, where he was to embark. He was met there 
by a Nair, who was a gallant chief ; but who, having been absent 
at\he division, had obtained no share of his master’s dominions. 

Cheruman Permal therefore gave him his sword, and desired him to 
keep all he could conquer. From this person’s sisters are descended 
the Tamuri Rdjas, or Zamorins, who, although among the most 
powerful of the chiefs of Malabar, were never acknowledged as 
their superiors, as in Europe, has been commonly supposed. From 
the time of Cheruman Permal, until the time of Hyder, Malayala 
continued to be governed by the descendants of these thirteen 
chiefs’ sisters; among whom, and among the different branches of 
the same families, there subsisted a constant confusion, and change 
of property; which was greatly increased by many inferior chiets 
assuming sovereign power, although they abstained from the title 
of Rhja. Many also of the former Namburi Putties continued to 
enjoy every jurisdiction of a sovereign prince. The country be- 
came thus subdivided, in a manner, of which, 1 believe, there is 



CHAPTER no example ; and it was a common saying, that in Malayala a man 
could not make a step, without going out of one chief’s dominions 
^ *• into those of another, Hyder, taking advantage of these dissen- 
sions, subdued the northern part of Malayala, or what is now ealled 
the provinee of Malabar ; while the Kerit Ram' Raja, and Cochi Raja 
rendered all the petty chiefs of the southern part obedient to their 
authority. Both of tlvem are descended from sisters of chiefs ap- 
pointed by Chcruman PermaL The former, wliom we call the Ruja 
of Travancorc, has always retained his independence ; but the Cochi 
Raja was compelled by Tippoo to pay tribute, as he does now to the 
Company. The violent bigotry and intolerance of Tippoo forced 
the greater part of the Rajas, Nairs and Narnburis, either to fly to 
Travancorc, or to retire into the forests, and other inaccessible 
places. On the landing of the British arnjy, a good many of the 
Hairs and some of the joined it; and after the province was 
ceded to Lord Cornwallis, the Rajas were in general placed in au- 
'thority over the countries that had formerly bedonged to their 
families; but their government having been found such, that it 
could not be tolerated, or protected, consistent with the principles 
of humanity that inlluence Englishmen, they have in general been 
deprived of all authority^, and are allowed one fifth part of their 
country’s revenue to support their dignity, which is more than any 
sovereign of consequence in Euroi)e can spare fur that purpose. 
Some of them, however, are in actual rebellion ; some are refrac- 
tory, and all arc undoubtedly discontented ; although before the 
arrival of the -Ibitish army they had been very wretchedly sup- 
ported on the allowances which they received from the Rtjja of 
Travancorc. It is alleged, that they are in some degree excusable ; 
as promises, for corrupt purposes, were made to them by persons 

high in oflicc, although perfectly unauthorised by government. 

«^rv,anil the 

Pali-ghai-shery, on the division of Malayala, fell to the lot of 
Shekhury Raja, of the Kshairi cast; but as this family invited Hyder 
into the country, they are considered by all the people of Malabar 


as having lost cast, and none of the R^as of Kshatrya descent will 
admit them into their company. To an European the succession 
in this family appears very extraordinary ; but it is similar to that 
which prevails in the families of all the chiefs of Malayala. The 
males of the Shekkury family are called Achtins, and never marry. 
Tlic ladies are called Naitears, and live in the houses of their bro- 
thers, whose families they manage. They have no husbands ; but 
arc not expected to observe celibacy, and may grant their favours 
to any person of the Kshatri cast, who is not an Achun. All the 
male children of these ladies are Achuns, all the females arc Nai- 
tears, and all are of equal rank according to seniority ; but they 
are divided into two houses, descended from the two sisters of the 
first Shekhury Raj6. The oldest male of the family is called the 
Shekkury, or first RAja ; the second is called Ellea Raja, the third 
Cavaskiry Rdjd, the fourth Talan Tamburan Rdjd, and the fifth Tari- 
putanmra Rdjd. On the death of the Shekhury, the Ellea Rdjd suc- 
ceeds to the highest dignity, each inferior Rdjd gets a step, and 
the oldest Achun becomes Tariputamura. There are at present be- 
tween one and two hundred Achuns, and each of them receives a 
certain proportion of the fifth of the revenue that has been granted 
for their support, and which amounts in all to 66,000 Vir'-Rdya 
Fanams a year ( 1638/. 9 a 8(/.) : but one sixth part of this has been 
appropriated for the support of the temples. Formerly the whole 
was given to the head of the family; but, it having been found 
that he defrauded his juniors, a division was made for each, accord- 
ing to his rank ; and every one receives his own share from the 
collector. Every branch of the family is possessed of private es- 
tates, that are called Chericul lands ; and several of them have the 
administration of lands belonging to temples ; but in this they are 
too closely watched by the Natnburis, to be able to make any profit. 
The present Shekhury R^d is a poor looking, stupid old man, and 
his abode and attendance are the most wretched of any thing that 
I have seen, belonging to a person who claimed sovereignty, llis 




Dec. I— 4* 

35 * 



Dec. 1—4. 
Temple of 



Agrarum, or 
Oramatn^ or 
village of 
Puttar Br&h* 



principal house, or Colgum, is called Hatay Toray^ and stands about 
three miles north from the fort. He is now engaged in rebuilding 
the temple of Bhagmat, at Callay Colam; which was pulled down 
by Tippoo; but that bigot did not venture to destroy the image, 
which is in the form of a human hand. Bhagawat is the mother of 
Baram-rlma, She followed her son to the mountains above Pali- 
ghat, and sat down there on a three peaked hill. At the interces- 
sion of the BrMmans, she consented to appear at a certain hour in 
the tank called Callay Colam, On going thither at the appointed 
time, the Brahmans found the image projecting from the water of 
the tank, and there it has remained for these eight thousand cen- 
turies. Two marks on a rock are shown, as the print of the deity’s 
feet as she descended to the tank. They are of the human size. 

Around the fort of Pali-ghat are scattered many i)cm (districts), 
Agraritms (villages), and two Angadies ; all together containing a 
considerable population : but there is vci’y little appearance of a 

In Angady is a street occupied by shops, or what in many other 
places of India is called a Bazar. Those here arc rather mean. 

The Agrarums, or Gramams, are villages occupied by Puttar 
Brdhmans, as they are here called ; tliat is to say, by Brahmans, 
who, coming from other countries, are not Namburis, and who, are 
looked upon by the people of Malayala as inferior in rank ; at Avhich 
they are of course exceedingly offended. The houses of the Gramas 
are built contiguous, in straight streets ; and they are the neatest 
and cleanest villages that I have seen in India. The beauty, clean- 
ness, and elegant dress of the girls of the Brdhmans add much to 
the look of these places. Their greatest defect is, that the houses 
are thatched with palm leaves, which never can be made to lie 
close, and which render them very liable to fires, that when they 
happen generally consume the whole Gramam. 

Both Angadies and Gramams have been introduced by foreigners; 
the Namburis, Nairs, and all aboriginal natives of Malayala living 


in detached houses surrounded by gardens, and collectively called chapter 

D6sas. The houses of the Namburis, Nairs, and other wealthy per- 

sons, arc much better than those usually met with in the villages of Dec. i— 4. 

India, They are built of mud, so as generally to occupy two sides 

of a square area, that is a little raised, and kept clean, smooth, and 

free from grass. The mud is of an excellent quality, and in general 

is neatly smoothed, and cither whitewashed or painted. These 

higher ranks of the people of Malayalit use very little clothing, but 

they are remarkably clean in their persons. Cutaneous disorders 

are never observed, except among the slaves, and lowest orders ; 

and the Nair women are remarkably careful, by repeated washings 

with various saponaceous plants, to keep their hair and skins free 

from every impurity, a thing very seldom sufliciently attended to 

among the natives of India. 


Accompts arc kept in Feringy, or Porto-novo Pagodas, or Vara- Money. 
huns; Pudameni, commonly called Vir'-R/iya Fanams ; and Cash. 

I have already mentioned the intrinsic value of the two gold coins. 

No Vir'-Raya Fanams are current, hut those of the last coinage 
struck at Calient. The Madras Rupee at present exchanges for 3^ 
Vir'-Rdya Fanams, 2|- Cash. A vast variety of other coins are cur- 
rent in the country, but not in any considerable (juantity : Couries 
are not in use. A Br&hman has the exclusive privilege of coining 
copper money, which is every year recoined. He pays a certain 
sum annually to government, and at the beginning of the your 
issues out his money at the rate of 22 Cash for the Vir'-Ruya 
Fanam. lie buys in the old ones at the rate of 40 for the Fanam. 

The value of the Cash therefore gradually sinks toward the end of 
the year, until it falls to be the 40th part of a Fanam, below Avhich 
it never can descend. The Company’s Niruc, or rate of exchange, 
is necessarily varied occasionally, and is generally altered accord- 
ing to the representations of the money-changers. The exchange 
Vot. II. Zz 



Dec* I— 


an re. 


of the Pagoda into Fanams is very variable, and alters from 11^ to 
Ilf; so that a profit of from "4: to n| per cent, may be had by 
bringing Porto^nwo Pagodas from Daraporam to PaU-ghat, and 
carrying back the Vir'-llupa Fanams. The Batta, or allowance 
made to the money-changer, for giving Fanams for Pagodas^ is 
2 Cash for each Pagoda. 


9 Pondichery Rupees and 1 Cashes 1 Polam= 1624 gr. 

Polams = 1 Seer = 4060 gr. 

5 Seers =zlVisay = 2,8S<)061b. 

8 Visays = 1 Tolayn = 23, 19248 lb. 

By this are sold Betel-nut, black pepper, turmeric, ginger, sugar 
and other ; onions, tamarinds, sandal-wood, wax, Dupada 

gum ; tin and other metals ; cotton and thread. 

Grain Measure. 

The merchants sell by the following standard ; 84 Pdndkhery 
Rupees (each weighing 177 grains) weight of rice fid a Puddy mea- 
sure, which by actual measurement I found to contain 79,-,*oVs- ^'n- 
bical inches. 51 Paddies arc equal to 1 Poray, which is therefore 
about I,^’3i.y_peck. 

The farmers divide their Poray into 10 Edanga Hies ; and about 
100 Pi/rfi/iw being equal to 111 or WO EdangalUes, the two Porayj 
ought to be nearly the same. Government have afiixed a stamp to 
the Tolam and Puddy, to ascertain their being according to stan- 
dard. The other denominations of measures are made up in various 
rude manners, and differ so much from each otlicr, that in all bar- 
gains for goods it is customary to specify the person’s weights and 
measures by which they are to be delivered. 

By the grain measure arc also sold mustard, capsicum, oil, and 
Ghee or boiled butter. 



Land Measure. 

No land measure has ever existed at Pali-ghat ; but the natives 
form computations of extent by saying, that such or such a space 
of ground is a Poray-candum, or what ouglit to be sown Avith a 
Poray of rice-sccd. It being a matter of great importance to ascer- 
tain the extent of a Poray-candim, I used much pains in endea- 
vouring to come at the truth ; but I met Avith such opposition, from 
the fears of the natives of all ranks, that I could ascertain nothing 
to my own satisfaction. The field that seemed to me best ascer- 
tained as a Poray sowing measured 7622 square feet ; but Mr. 
Warden informs me, that, after my departure, he made particular 
emjuiries on this subject ; and the result of these, which he corn- 
siders as not liable to material error, is, that the Poray sows a 
field of 58 feet square. One acre therefore contains about 12xV5‘ 





Land mear 

i'hc people of Malayala reckon by the era of Parasu-rdma, and Calendar, 
divide it into cycles of one thousand years. This is reckoned the 
<)76th year of the cycle : but as their year consists of 365 days, 
without any means of intercalation, its commencement must con- 
stantly, though sloAvly, be A'arying through the seasons. The 
following is a Table of the current year, Aviththe corresponding 
days of our calendar. 

Tamul Months. 

European Months. 

Canni 976 - 



September 1800. 











EoTOpean Months. 

Canni 976 - 




September 1800. 








27 : 


















Dec. I— 4. 

Tamti Months. 

£uropeaa Months. 

Tamul Months. 

Europetn Months; 

Canni 976 - 



October 1800. 

Vtichica 976 



November 1800. 


















































Tulam - - 











































Danu • • 






























November. 1 





1 1 













































Janosry 1801. 





yrichica- * 
































Tamni Months. 

European Months. 

Tamut Months. 

European Mouths. 

Carcataca 97 ^ 



July 1801. 

Siiighium 976 



August 1801, 













































































































Dec. 1— !■. 

Having assembled the principal merchants, they gave me the Commetce. 
following account of their commerce. They are chiefly of the kind 
called Tarragaimr, who are a sort of brokers, or rather warehouse- 
keepers. They have storehouses, in which the merchants coming 
from the east or west deposit their goods, until they can dispose 
of them to those coming from the opposite quarter. Tlje principals 
in general remain to make in person their sales and purchases ; but 
some of them, that are rich, employ the Tarragamar of this place 
to sell their goods. The merchants that frequent this mart are 
those of Colicodu ( Calicut ), 'Jiruvana-angady, Panyani-lVacul ( Pa^ 
niany), Parupa-nada, Tanur (Tannore), Manapuramy Valatire, Man- 
jeryy Puten-angady, Skaoacadu (Chmghat), and Cochi (Cochin) on 



CHAPTF.U the west : and Coimbetore, Dindigul, Daraporani, Salient, Sati-mm- 
gala, Palani (Pulni), IVudumalay-cotay, Tritchempnly, Tanjore, Ma- 
J)cc. i~i. dura, Tinhelli/, Madras, and Set'ingapatam from the east. 

The broker is not answerable for fire, or theft; nor is he even 
bound to pay any loss that may happen from the badness of his 
storehouses, The commission is ^ of a Fanam on every Tolam of 
weighable goods, whether they be stored seven days or one year, 
which is at the rate of a hundred-weight. Cloth-merchants 
always sell their own goods. On each load, they pay as warehouse 
rent half a Fanam. The brokers say, that during the reign of 
Tippoo they had a more extensive trade than at present. Even after 
Malabar fell into the hands of the English, the trade with Coinibetore 
was not interrupted. These assertions appear to me highly impro- 
bable ; but I am not able to ascertain the truth ; for the reports of 
the custom-house, which Mr, Warden was so good as to send me, 
through the commissioners, have not reached my hands. 

Manufoc- The weavers here are very few in number, and make only very 
tuiei. coarse cloth : but at Colangodu all the kinds are made that are 

wrought at Coimbetore. The quantity, however, is very inadequate 
to the supply of the country. The weavers are all of foreign ex- 
traction, from above the Ghats, or from the eastward ; anti arc all 
either Dhangas or Coicular. The looms enjployed in the whole 
district, according to the returns made to the collector, are .552. 
Propfrty of I have already mentioned, that the Namburis pretend to have 
Id'iMho*** been possessed of all the landed property of Malayala, ever since 
Nmiuiit. its creation ; and in fact it is well known, that before the conquest 
by Ihjder they were the actual lords of the whole soil, except some 
small parts appropriated to the support of religious ceremonies, 
and called Dtvnstdnam ; and other portions called Chericul, which 
were appropriated for supporting the families of the Rdjas. All the 
remainder, forming by far the greater part, was the Jenm, or pro- 
perty, of the Namburi Br&hmans ; and this right was, and by them 
is still considered us unalienable: nor will they allow, that any 


other person can with propriety be called a Jenmear, or proprietor ciiaptkr 
of land. As, however, both duty and inclination prevented the 
Namburis from attending to the management of their lands, they Die. i— 
took various means of obtaining an income from the Hudras, to 
whom they granted a temporary right of occupancy. 

The whole of this district may be divided into two portions; the 
one of which is well inhabited, and much cultivated ; the other is 
covered with thick uninterrupted forests, among which arc scat- 
tered a few villages of the rude tribes, who subsist by collecting 
the productions of these wilds. 

I .shall endeavour in the first place to describe the state of the 
cultivated part; and iu doing so, I must express my thanks to Mr. 

Smee, one of the commissioners, who was so good as to give me a 
very satisfactory report, that he formed when employed in valuing 
the middle and soutliern divisions of Malabar ; and also to Mr. 

Warden, for the pains which he bestowed in answering the statis- 
tical queries that I proposed to the collectors of Malabar. 

Mr. Warden states the houses of the inhabited part of his district Popul«tion. 

to be as follow : 

Occupied by the families of R/tj&s - - 42 

by Nazaranies - - - 13 

Mussulmans - - 146‘9 

Nambu?'is - - - 137 

Put tar Br&hmans - - 330^ 

Nairs - - - - 4292 

Artificers, tradesmen, &c. - 232.9 

Shanars, or Tiars - - 4287 

Fishermen - . - 539 

People of Karmta, or ChSra - 5054 

Total houses - 21,473 

From an enumeration of the houses and persons in the southern - 
district of Camra, who live in a state of society similar to that 
VoL. 11. 3 A 





Dec. 1—4. 

ivstcut of tlic 
country, and 
of the varii)iis 
voils of which 
it is coin- 

here, the number of houses may he multiplied by 4 ,yV^ to give 
the number of persons. This will give - - 106,500 

Add Churmar, or slaves ... l6,574 

Total population - 123,074 

This is exclusive of military, camp followers, travellers, vagrants, 
&c. &c. From an enumeration of the inhabitants in one of the 
districts of Ahtlabar, given by Mr. Baber, the number of persons 
in each house is nearly. This would reduce the number of 

free persons in Mr. W^irdcn’s circle to - - 78,925 

Add slaves - - . - 16,574 

Total inhabitants - 95,499 

but I think the estimate formed on the enumeration by Mr. Raven- 
shaw more likelv to be true. 

The extent of inhabited country, as stated by Mr. Warden, is 
given in the accompanying Table. He was at the pains to consult 
all the land-holders in this district, and to procure from each a 
computation of the different kinds of ground in the DSsam to 
which he belonged. This computation was made by estimating 
how many Porays of rice such an extent would sow. From the 
extent contained in the Table, however, some deduction must be 
made in the article of Ubuijim lands, Mr. VV^ardeu, in this article, 
followed Mr. Smee’s calculation of the number of Porays of seed 
sown ; without recollecting, that a considerable proportion of this 
kind of land is sown twice a year. Say that this is the case with 
one fourth part of it, and we must reduce the Ubayum land now 
cultivated to 581,021 Porays, and to 46 , 8627 - acres ; and the ge- 
neral total to 792,.941-j- Porays, and to 60,540 qcres; for it must he 
observed, that Mr. Warden, after much inquiry, fixes the land 
sown with a Poray of rice at 58 feet square. According to these 
estimates, we have a country containing 60,540 acres, and these 
by no means all cultivated, and yet maintaining 123,000 inhabitants. 



This is at the rate of 13()0 inhabitants to the British square mile, CMAl’TE l 
•which appears to me impossible ; especiaBy considering that there 
are few or no towns in the country, and few or no manufactures; Dec i — i. 
and still more so, considering that large quantities of grain arc ex- 
ported. That the population is not exaggerated, I have strong 
reason to think. I'rom Mr. Smee's valuation of the <listricts under 
Mr. Warden, it would appear, that the average (luantity of rice in 
the husk annually produced there, after deducting seed, amounts 
in round numbers to 6,.')0(),000 Porai/s. Now, allowing one Edan- 
gally daily for every person, which is a reasonable maintenance, 
the annual consumption of lfJ3,000 persons in round numbers will 
be 4,500,000 Pamt/ji, leaving 2,000,000 Ponii/s, oralniost a third of 
the whole produce, for exportation. I omit bringing to account 
the other grains raised in these districts, as tliey arc of no great 
importance, and are not more tliaii sufllcicnt to make up for the 
maintenance of strangers, vagrants, and cattle. I suspect, there- 
fore, that Mr. Warden's estimate of tl»e extent of a Poray land is 
inadmissible. Even taking the Poray lands to be all of the same 
size with the one that I measured, the population will amount to 
56’7 souls to the square mile, and that is more than can be reason- 
ably allowed. Mr. Baber’s estimate of the numbers, of persons 
being taken would indeed rc<luce the number to 440 persons in 
the square mile; but I am more inclined to think that the dimen- 
sions of the territory are diminished, than that the number of 
inhabitants is over-rated. However, as I have no better data to 
proceed on, I consider the Poray sowing of land to be equal to Po'a^'can- 
7622 square feet, and, on that supposition, give a corrected Table. 


Tublo cxplaiiiiup tho slntc of the inhabits) part of Mr. Waidciy’s district iu , according 

to bis estimate of the Poray-i unJuni, 

C A. Lands too rocky, steep, or barren, for cultivation 
\ li. Lunds tlmt are arable, or that might be inuJc so 

Is that are arable, or that might be muJc so 

1. Dhanmurryy or Paddum-^land, 

n. Now actually cultivated. 

( 1. PaUalil Parana J‘2,18 1, acres 2,485 
( 2. Ubayut/if ditto 7‘2b*i276’, ditto 5(),092f 

Total cultivated 

At present waste, but foiincriy cultivated 
That itevcr have been cultivated 

738, 46*0 





fa. A 
Jb. A 
^c. N 
(d. Tl 

Total Dhanmnrrjy or Paddum^land 
II. Pannnha hinds. 

At present in rotation for various kii 
Not lately employed nor cultivated 
That never has been cultivated 


Total Parumba lands 
Total inhabited lands 

The preceding Table coiTCCted according to my Ei,timate of the Poraj/^candum 

y A. Lands too rocky, steep, or barren, for cultivation 
I H. Lands arable, or that might made so 

I. DAanmurri/t or Padditm laiuls. 

" a. Now nctually cultivated. 

C 1. Pnkalil Porays 32,184, acres 5,()31| 

X^.Ubayuni - 581,021 - 101,667 


' Total Paddim land cultivated - 6 13,205 

b. At present waste, but formerly cultivated - 39,731 

^c. I'liut never have been cultivated - - 300 





ms 11 







Acre*. I 
107 . 298 ^ 

Total Paddum land - 

11. Parumba ]diid9. 

Forays, Acre*. 

At present occupied bylioubes, gardens, and plantations 32,392 5,668 

At present in rotation for various kinds of grain - 49,659 8,690 

Not lately cultivated - - - - 15,445 2,703 

That never have been cultivated - - 2,000 350 

Total Parumba land 

Total inhabited land 



The lands capable of cultivation in this province are of two kinds: CHAP'ri'.R 
the one called by the natives Paddum^ or Padda land; the other 
Parumy or Parurnha, ‘ ' 

The Paddum land is by the Mussulmans called Dhamnurnf^ and 
Batty fieXA by the English gentlemen of the Bombay establishnicnl; 
but there can be little doubt, that this is the origin of the word 
Paddy-Jield used by the gentlemen of Madras, and which from 
thence has been carried to Bengal, and extended to the grain 
nsually cultivated in such fields. It comprehends all the lower 
grounds of the province, which are cultivated almost solely for 

Parian land by the Mussulmans is corrupted into Pcn/i^ or 
Purm, ill Avhicli they have been generally followed by Kurapeans. 

It consists of the higher grounds, generally formed into terraces, 
and is partly occupied by the houses, gardens, and orchards or plan- 
tations; partly reserved for pasture ; and partly cultivated with a 
peculiar kind of rice, Jind with various pulses and grains. 

There being very few plantations in the neighbourhood of Pali- Planfdtn>ii>. 
g/iat^ I shall coniine my account of the cultivation to the arable 
lands, and only state the extent of the plantations from the autho - 
rity of Mr, Smcc. 

Coco* nut palms (^Coco* wz/i’j/traj. > Total 53,305. In full bearing 20,i C7 

Betel-nut ditto - - 101,897 - - 35, 

Jack trees ( Artocarpus inte^rij'olia) - - 18,089 - - S,S40 

Pepper vines - - 13,310' - - 4,305 

Brab pdXras (Borassu$ flabdtiformis) - (>2‘J,S01 - - lJ3,0l9 

The palm, which in Malabar is called Brab by the English, is in Borastut. 
such immense quantity, that the Jagory prepared from it commonly 
sells at 1 Fanamdi Tolam, or about 2^. 7j[d. for the hundred-weight. 

I am persuaded, that, with proper care, an excellent spirit might 
be extracted from this ; and no place seems more favourable for 
he experiment than Pali-ghat, 





Dec. 1— 4. 
Tenures mi 
Jenm Patom, 


Cantwfy or 

I now return to the manner in which the Namburi proprietors 
managed their arable lands ; for, as I liave before mentioned, al- 
most the whole o't AlaluifaUi was the property of these Bvuinnatis. 

Before the invasion oi' lljfdtr, ii few of them cultivated their 
estates by means of their slaves, called in this country, in the sin- 
gular, Cburmiin, but collectively C/ninmir or Chtirmacul. These 
industrious Brahmans were said to receive the Jemn Patom, or full 
produce of tlicir lands. 

A much greater number of the landlords let their lands to far- 
mers called Cudians, for what was called Vir'-Patom, or neat pro- 
duce. The allowance made to these fanners was very small. 'I’hey 
deducted from the gross produce the (juantity of seed sown, and an 
equal quantity, whicli was the whole granted them for their stock 
and trouble; and they gave the remainder to tlie landlord under 
the name of Vir'-Patom, or neat produce. This was a tenure very 
unfavourable to agriculture. The farmer had no immetliate interest 
in raising more than two seeds, of which he was always sures and 
the only check upon him was the fear of being tunuul away from 
his farm, which was a very inadequate j)rcventivc against indolence, 
where the reward for industry was so scanty. 

By far the greater part of the arable lands, however, had been 
long mortgaged, or granted on Canton. A\'hcn a man agreed to 
advance money on a mortgage, the proprietor and he determined 
upon what was to be considered as the neat produce (Vir'-Patom) 
of the land to be mortgaged. The person who advanced the money, 
and who was called Canumcar, took upon himself the management 
of the estate, and gave a sum of money, the interest of which, at 
the usual rate of 10 per cent, per annum, was deducted from the 
neat produce; and the balance, if any remained, was ])aid to the 
proprietor of the estate. Sometimes the balance was fixed in mo- 
ney ; at other thnes the proprietor was allowed, instead of it, a cer- 
tain portion of the gross produce in kind, such as a fifth and a 


tenth. The proprietor always reserved a right of rcassuining the CliAP'i'l'.lt 
estate whenever lie pleased, by paying up the sum originally ad- 
vanced, and no allowance was made for improvements. This tenure Doc. \—i. 
also is evidently unfavourable to agriculture ; as no prudent man 
would lay out money on an estate, of which he might be deprived 
M'henever he had rendered it more valuable. Tlie fact is, however, 
that this right of redemption was rarely e.xerciscd by the Nambiiris; 
and from the existing bonds it is known, that the same family, for 
many generations, has continued to hold estates in mortgage. 

This I consider as a clear proof, that this tenure prevented improve- 
ment ; and that agriculture, as an art, was at least not progressive. 

Before the comiuest of Htjder, the mortgagees were mostly N^airs ; 
but after this event many MopUtys, and still more Piittar Brahmans, 
ac(]uired that kind of property ; and now many Sfianars, and other 
persons of low cast, have become Canumcars. 

Under the government of the RZ/jas there was no land-tax ; but Xfifadi, or 
the conqueror soon found the necessity of imposing one; as the **^'*‘*'‘“'* 
expenses of his military establishment greatly exceeded the usual 
revenues. The low ground ( Paddum ) was the only - part of the 
arable land on which this tax called Negadi was imposed. The 
reason of this seems to have been, that had the Pariimba, or high 
grounds, been taxed, almost the whole property of the Namburis 
would have been annihilated. The Ncgadi of course fell upon them 
first, and the share which they had reserved in the mortgage bonds 
being totally inadequate to pay this ta.x, the interest of the pro- 
prietors in the assessed lands entirely ceased, and the balance fell 
upon the mortgagees (Canumcars), who were very well able to pay 
it. The small profits arising from the high (Parian) lands were 
left entire to the proprietors (Jenmears), to prevent them from 
falling into absolute want ; but they were all reduced to great com- 
parative poverty. 

The violent outrages of Tippoo having forced most of the Nam- Condition of 
huris, in order to avoid circumcision, to fly to Travuncore, many of 



CHAPTER the families have perished, and the mortgagees on their estates 
have in general assumed the title of Jenmcars, and in fact enjoy 
Dec. 1—4], all the rights belonging to that class of proprietors. It is pre- 
tended, that, when the Narnbiiris fled, being in want of money, they 
sold their estates fully, and took the whole balance of the value of 
the (Vir'-Patom) neat produce. 

Pntom, or Many of the mortgagees, and other landholders, now let their 

ubua rent, jands to (Cudianx) tenants; but they can seldom procure any person 
who will give the (Fir'-Patom) neat produce. The leases in gene- 
ral are for three years, and the annual rent is fixed, and always paid 
in kind. This is what is commonly called the Palom, or produce 
of an estate. When the landholder is poor, he is under the neces- 
sity of allowing the farmer to pay the land-tax, who of course 
says, that he is obliged to sell his rice at the lowest rate, and there- 
fore charges a large share of the produce as expended for this pur- 
pose ; but landholders in tolerable circumstances keep their grain 
until it rises to a medium price, and discharge the land-tax tliem- 

Dua-stanum The Devaslaiium, or temple-lands, and those called Chcricul, which 
belong to the Rajas, were under the management of these chiefs, 
and were let out exactly like those of the Narnburis. The temple- 
lands were exempted by llj/der from the assessment : but the Chc- 
ricul lands were considered as private property. Tippoo seized on 
the former, and they are now subject to the tax ; but they still 
yield a |)rofit, and are managed by the Rdju for the benefit of the 

Profits of the Acconling to the account of the principal proprietor here, the 

tiiniu-rY'i'ni Patom, or rent paid for a Poraii sowing of land, varies from 5 to 3 
Po/YU/.? of grain. That which pays tlie high rent produces two 
crops in the year ; that which pays the low rent produces only one 
crop; so that the crops are considered as not varying greatly in 
value from a difference in soil; and the average rent for one crop 
may be about Pontys for one Pomy-soxcing, According to 


Mr. Smee’s estimate, in which I place great confidence, the average CHAPTEn 
produce of rice in this district of Pali-ghat, after deducting 10 per 
cent, for contingencies, is 7\ seeds. This, deducting 4^ for rent 
and expense of every kind, leaves 2-J- for clear gain to the farmer, 
or rather more than 40 per cent, on the gross produce. The pro- 
prietor of the land therefore, were the land-tax to exhaust the 
whole rent, and were he in consequence reduced to the necessity 
of cultivating his estate on his own account, would be in a much 
better condition than farmers are in general in India; but they are 
by no means reduced to this state, although in general they now 
cultivate as much of their own lands as they can conveniently su- 
perintend. The whole (Dhanmurry) low land is assessctl here at a 
tax of 1 j Famm for what is called a Foray- la nd ; but it is absurd 
to suppose, that land paying five seeds, and that paying two, could 
be equally assessed ; these Forays are merely imaginary, and the 
tax imposed by llydcr was on the supposition that the land paid 
five seeds ; and where that was not the case, so much land as made 
up the deficiency was included in the accompts as one Foray-land. 

Mr. Since values the rice at SyV Forays for a Fanam; which indeed 
is its price when lowest, and the market glutted, after harvest. 

Acconling to this valuation, the proprietor of the land would pay 
84 per cent, of his neat rent as land-tax, which is more than the 
Zemindars of Bengal in general pay ; and some necessitous men may 
be forced to do this ; but men of common prudence, unless the 
revenue be collected at unreasonable seasons, ought to expect a 
medium price for their grain, and that is two Forays for the Fanam; 
so that the land-tax would exhaust 60 per cent, of the neat rent. 

This is, no doubt, a heavy tax, and must have greatly distressed 
individuals not accustomed to pay a land-tax of any kind, and 
must also have annihilated the property of ’■hose whose 
estates were involved in mortgages: still, however, t- e present 
occupants of the ground possess a much larger property iu it than 
is usual in India. 

VoL. IL 






Citdian,s, ur 
Ciiurmar, or 

Tenures by 
which slaves 
arc held. 

Some poor men, chiedy of the Shamr cast, cultivate with their 
own liands the lands which they hold as farmers [Cudiam) ; but 
Brahmans never labour, and t'uc Nairs or Atoplays very rarely. 

By far the greater part of the labour in the field is performed by 
slaves, or ('hurmar. These arc the absolute property of their IX- 
varuSf or lords, aud may be employed in any work that their masters 
please. Tliey are not attached to the soil, but may be sold, or trans- 
ferred in any manner that the master thinks fit, only a husband and 
wife cannot be sold separately ; but children may be separated 
from their parents, and brothers from their sisters. The slaves are 
of different casts, such as Parriar, Vullam, Cameuv^ Eriiay, &c.; 
and the differences in the customs by which tlie marriages of these 
casts are regulated occasion a considerable variation in the right of 
the master to the children of his slaves, according to the cast to 
which they belong. The master is considered as bound to give the 
slave a certain allowance of provisions : a man or svoman, while capa- 
ble of labour, receives two Edan^a/Zies of rice w the husk weekly, or 
two-sevenths of the allowance that I consider as reasonable for 
persons of all ages included. Children, and old persons past la- 
bour, get one half only of this pittance ; and no allow'ance what- 
ever is made for infants. This would be totally inadequate to 
support them ; hut the slaves on each estate get one-tw'enty-first 
part of the gross produce of the rice, in order to encourage them 
to care aud industry. A male slave annually gets .seven cubits of 
cloth, and a woman fourteen cubits. They erect for themselves 
small temporary huts, that arc little better than large baskets. 
These are placed in the rice fields while the crop is on the ground, 
aud near the stacks while it is thrashing. 

There are three modes of transferring the usufruct of slaves. 
The first is by Jenmtim, or sale, where the full value of the slave is 
given, and the property is entirely transferred to a new master, who 
is in some measure bound by his interest to attend to the welfare 
of his slave, A young man with his wife will sell for from 250 to 


^00 Fanams, or from 6/. 4-5. lir/. to 7/. 8^. lU-c?. Two or thrco CHAPTER 

^ . XI. 

young cliihlreii will add 100 Fanams, or 2/. 9^. to the value of 

the family. Four or five children, two of whom are beginning to t*"** 

work, will make the family worth from 500 to 6‘00 Fanams, or from 

12/. 8.y. od. to 14/. I?''. Hr/. The second manner of transferring 

the labour of slaves is by Canum, or mortgage. The proprietor 

receives a loan of money, generally two-thirds of the value of the 

slaves; he also receives annually a small quantity of rice, to show 

that his property iu the slaves still exists ; and he may reassume 

this property whenever he pleases to repay the money borrowed, 

for which in the mean while he pays no interest. In case of any of 

the slaves dying, he is held bound to supply another of equal value. 

The lender maintains the slaves, and has their labour for the in- 
terest of his money, and for their support. The third manner of 
employing slaves is by letting them for Patom, or rent. In this 
case, for a certain annual sum, the master gives them to another 
man ; and the borrower commands their labour, and provides them 
with their maintenance. The annual hire is 8 Fanams (3a’. il\d.) 
for a man, and half as much for a woman. These two tenures are 
utterly abominable ; for the person who exacts the labour, and fur- 
nishes the subsistence of the slave, is directly interested to increase 
tlie former and diminish the latter as much as possible. In fact, 
the slaves are very severely treated ; and their diminutive stature 
and squalid appearance show evidently a w'ant of adequate nourish- 
ment. There can be no comparison between their condition and 
that of the slaves in the West India islands, except that in Malabar 
there are a sufficient number of females, who are allowed to marry 
any person of the same cast with themselves, and whose labour is 
always exacted by their husband’s master, the master of the girl 
having no authority over her so long as she lives with another 
man’s slave. This is a custom that ought to be recomnjended to 
our West-India planters j and, if adopted, I am persuaded, would 
soon induce the Negro women to breed, and would give a sufficient 



CHAPTF.R supply of inhabitants, without having recourse to an annual ini- 
portation from Africa. 

Dec. 1—4. Five families of slaves, proh;.l ly amounting to 24 persons of all 
cfafiTrin. are adequate to cultivate 200 Forays of rice-land, which ac- 

cording to my estimate is a little more than 35 acres. They require 
five ploughs and ten oxen, of which two ought to be of large size. 
Now I know, that in Bengal a plough cultivates about 7j acres of 
rice-land, which confirms my opinion of tlie extent of a Foray of 
land, A fanner with such a stock as that above-mentioned is reck- 
oned a substantial man, and hires a servant to superintend his 
slaves. All the morning he sits in his house, washes his head, and 
prays ; then eats his dinner quietly at home, and once a day takes 
a walk round his farm, and gives his orders. The superintendant 
is a yearly servant, and is not expected to perform any labour with 
his hands. He gets lb Fanams worth of cloth, and from 24 to 32 
Fanams a year in cash, with from eight to ten Forays of rough rice 
a month, and one Faddy of Sesatnum oil ; so that he is able to main- 
tain a family. This account is given me by the farmers them- 

Cultivation I shall HOW proceed to give an account of the cultivation of the 
oi nee. land called Faddum, or Dha/itriarry, which I took from three Sfmiar 
farmers, who were intelligent men, but who either actually were, or 
pretciJilcd to be, afraid of giving offence to the landlords. In all 
their estimates of seed, prtxiuce, and rent, they were guided by an 
average of the computed Forays, which I find impossible to reduce 
tt/ any standard ; and indeed for the same extent of ground, the 
dilfcient modes of culture retjuire different quantities of seed. 
Quantity of H‘ a Foray be sown on 58 feet stjuare, according to Mr. Warden’s 
M c (! itijiund estimate, an acre would retiuirc almost 44 l)ushcls of seed : but by 

lor an acre. ... . . . 

my estimate, it will require rather less than two busliel.s, which is 
more than is usually sown in other parts of India. From ivhat I 
afterwards learned, I am persuaded that the quantity of seed re- 
quired for an acre in Malabar is from 2 to 52^ bushels an acre, and 

Quantity of 
svi‘(i uiijuift (I 
lor an acre. 



more commonly nearer the last than the first quantity. According 
to Mr. Smee’s c;ilciilalion, the average protku c of a Poray .sowing, 
including all Mr. Warden's district, h 7-~ Porays ; which, accord- 
ing to Mr. Wa.dcn's estimate, would make the produce of an acre 
32 y hiislicls ; hut according to my measurement J4; bushels, and 
according to the last mentioned estimate U)^- bushels. 

The only article of any con.sequcnce that is cultivated in the 
Paddum land is rice. A little sugar-cane has been lately introduced; 
but it is ])lantcd only in small spots by the sides ol’ tanks, or on the 
banks of rivulets. These places are not included in the lands as- 
sessed by government, but they ])ay rent to the landlord. 

The rain is every where sullicieut to bring one crop of rice to 
maturity ; and in the lower grounds a second crop of rice may be 
depended on, wherever small reservoirs have been constructed to 
give a few weeks supply toward the lipening of the corn after the 
rainy season has abated. Tliese have licen formed, and arc kc])t up, 
at the expense of the landlord.s. The declivity of the country is 
in general .such, that, whenever the cultivators please, all super- 
fluous water can be let off, and the fields may again at jileasurc be 
inundated ; and by custom, a regular plan of watering every v.illey 
has been established ; so that the eajniee or maliei; of those who 
occupy one part of it may not prevent their neighbours from re- 
ceiving the usual supply. In some places, wlierc there is notasuf- 
licieut level, the superfluous w'ater is thrown off by a basket sus- 
pended between four ropes, and wrought by two men ; a manner 
of raising w'ater practised in Chin.!, as w'ell as in every part of 

The Dha)imurry, or ricc-field, is divided into two kinds; the one 
called Palcalil, ami the other Ubayum. 

The Palcalil lauds arc the iiigher parts of the rice-ground, and 
never produce more than one crop in the year. On this kind of 
land two sorts of rice are cultivated, the Navara, and the Mumlu- 



Doc. 1 — i. 





Hire, Irrlgn 


la Ik 1^4 





Doc. 1 — 4?. 

<)1 XaViUn 

Mariner of 
'Jic grain. 

For Navura rice the fieUl is ploughed tcu times, between the 
12th of May and the 12th of June, after the rain lias reduced the 
soil to mud. The manure is given after the third ploiighintr. The 
field, having been ploughed, is smoothed with the Uridio Marmn 
(Plate XIX. rig. 4fi. ), which is drawn by two oxen, yoked as usual 
by the yoke, or Nocam (Plate XIX. Fig. 17.). To drain off the 
water, two furrows are then drawn, with the usual plough of the 
country (Plate XfX. Fig. 48.). When drained, the field is smoothed 
by the women, who dravv over it a small square stick, called Pali. 
After this the seed is sown broad-cast, having been previously pre- 
pared so as to sprout. This prepared seed is here called Moht vitlu. 
The field, after having been sown, is for fifteen days kept free of 
water. Tlic female slaves then weed it, and with the hand separate 
the young plants to e<jual tlistauces. This operation takes u]> four 
or live days, after which the fiehl is inundated, until ripe, which 
iiappens in three months alter it has been sown. The corn is cut 
about nine inches from the ground. The grain is sej)arated from 
the straw hy beating handfuls on the ground, or a stone. 
That which is wanted for seed must be beaten immediately after 
being cut, and <lricd in the sun seven days. That intended for 
consumption must he all beaten in the course of three days, and 
recjiiires only four days sun to be sufficieiuly dry. The straw is 
afterwards dried In the sun four or live days, and tlien trodden hy 
the feet of oxen, or beaten with a stick, lo separate the rice that, 
from having been less ripe, did not fall at tlic lirst beating. This 
second quality of rice is kepi for the use of the slaves, and is con- 
sidered as adequate to their maintenance. The grain in the husk 
is kept in large Bamboo baskets, from six to nine feet high, and 
from three to five feet in diameter. These baskets, called Vulla^ 
vutli, are coated on the outside with a mixture of cow-dung and 
clay, and are, covered with lids of the same materials. I'liey are 
kept on planks, which are raised from the floor of the house upon 
stones. Rough rice is also preserved in larger baskets, called Pullam, 



which contain from two to four humlreil Poruys, or from CJ to 130 CIIAPTEU 
hiislicls, and arc placed under sheds built for the purpose. In eithe" 
of these rough rice will keep well for three years. All kinds of this i— 4. 

grain keep equally well, and the harvest of ail the kinds is managed 
i;i the same manner. This crop Is apt to f.iil from drought, hut ex- 
cessive rain docs it no injury. 

The rice called Mumiu-pallaxi may be cither cidtivated, like the Cultivation 

ot Mundn- 

Nirvftra, after the sprouted-secd manner; or tiie dry-seed may lie toAsi 
sown broad-cast; or it may be transplanted. The only dilfereiicc 
between it and the Ndvani, when cultivated after the sprouted-seed 
manner, is, that it retpiires four months to ripen. In this country, 
when the dry-seed is sown broad-cast, the cultivation is called Pu^ 
dtaki. When this is to be performed, the groiiml is ploughed two 
or tliree times, immediately after the preceding crop has been 
reaped. Then, at any time in the course of six or seven anonths, it 
is manured. Between the l^ith of March and the JOth of April, 
after a shower, it is ploughed again ten times. After a heavy rain, 
ill either of the two following months, the seed is sown broad-cast, 
and covered with the plough. On the third tlay the field is 
ploughed across. At each ploughing the clods must be carefully 
broken with a stick, and smoothed with a hoe called Caicotu (Piute 
XXL Fig. 55 .]. At the end of the month the weeds are removed, 
and the field is afterwards inundated. This is reckoned the least 
troublesome manner of cultivation. The seed requires to be sown a 
little thicker than in the sprouted-seed cultivation, and the produce 
is nearly the same. 

The following is the manner of cultivating the transplanted Ciiltiv.ition 
Mundu-paftay, which method of cultivation is liere called‘'A'</(/Myf/. 

The Maytan, or ground kept for raising seedlings, is chosen in a tiunqilamcrf. 
high situation and poor soil. It pays neither rent nor land tax. 

In the course of the preceding year it is plouglied three or four 
times. Some then give it clung, others do not. After rain, between 
the 11th of April and the 11th of June, it is ploughed again five or 





Dec. 1—4. 



First crop. 

six times, no water being- kept on it. The clods are then broken 
with a stick, and cleaned by a rake drawn by o.xen, and called 
Varumly Maram (Plate XX. Fig. 4.9.), which is drawn twice over 
the field in different directions, and .serves as a harrow. On one 
l*nra^-ca/idii)}i, three Ponn/s of seed .are sown, and covered by two 
liarrowings with the rake drawn by oxen. On the third day the 
field has a slight ploughing, the plough-share being purposely drawn 
up, .so as not to jti ojcct beyond the timber part. The water is never 
allowed to iiuindate the seedlings until they are fit for transplant- 
ing, which they are in from to 30 days. When the seed has 
been sown, the field into which it is to be transplanted begins to be 
cultivated. It is ploughed two or three times, then dunged, and 
afterwards plonglied again five or six times. It is always inundated, 
except when any operation is going to be performed, and then the 
water is let oflV After the ploughings the clods arc broken with 
the implement called Chaxita Manim (Plate XX. Fig. 50.), wliicli 
is drawn by two oxen, while the driver stands on it, to increase the 
weight. The field is then ploughed again twice, and smoothed 
with the implement called The seedlings arc wa- 

tered for a day to loosen the roots ; then they arc pulled, and for 
three days small bundles of them are placed in tlie mud, with the 
roots uppermost. On the fourth and fifth days they arc planted. 
The seedlings raised on one Ponitf-cajuium serve to plant four fields 
of that extent. Fifteen days after planting the field is inundated. 
This is the most troublesome manner of cultivating rice. 

The lower parts of the ricc-land (Dluinmurrif) are caUed l/bayum, 
and a great number of these produce annually two crops. 

The kinds of rice cultivated in the first crop arc Sambau, Shor- 
nali, Callma, and Carpali. The first crop is cultivated, in all the 
three manners, in about the following proportion : yVo dry-seed, 
as transplanted, and as sprouted-seed. 

The cultivatio is the same with that which is used for the rices 
called Navard, and Mundu-pfiUaj/ ; only the soil, being stiffer. 



requires two more ploughings, aiul the s*.*ason-i nt v, liicli ilu- u|icru- ciiAi'i r.r. 

tions are performed' are somewhat diUcreiit. 'I'lie time for sowing 

the dry-seed is the same, and so is the harvest of the Carpali rice; * *'• 

but i\\& Sanibau is one month, the Shornnli one month and a half, 

and the Callma two months later in coming to maturity. The cjuaii- 

tity of seed sown on the same extent of ground is nearly e(|ual; 

hut the produce is more considerable, especially that ol' the Callma. 

In the transplanted cultivation the seed is sown toward the 11th of 
May, and the transplantation must he perfoimed between the 11th 
and the Chth of June. 'I hc (juantity of seed is the same as that of 
JMamlu-pallap ; the produce is rather more, especially that of the 
Callma. These kinds of rice, cultivated as sprouted-sced, i)roduce 
very poor crops. 

The kinds of rice cultivated in the second crop arc, or .Sreoai 

Shiriga Sambau, Sliitfatip, Bat/p Sliit/am/, and i\'o>/a?i. It is almost 
entirely trausplantcil : lor these kinds of rice, none hut a few poor 
creatures use the sprouted-seed cultivatiotu The J/aylaii, or seed- 
ling bed, receives less seed at this season than lor the lirst crop, 
especially of the Jlaliga Sambau. It may he sown at any time fmm 
the 28th of July until the 28th of August. The seedlings may he 
transplanted at any time between the IJth of August, and the IJtii 
of November. Before the Malign Sambau, the first crop is often 
omitted, and then it is sown early, and its produce is considerahlc. 

The crop of the other kinds is small, ami very precarious. It de- 
pends upon rain coming from the eastward in Decemher, which it 
sometimes fails to do. 

In this country there is another set of rices, that requii c eight uict; n i)uir. 
or nine months to ripen. Tiie only one of these that is cultivated 
in this immediate neiglihourhood is that called Ariciray. It is ./o; V-’v. 
sown on land lower than the Patealil, hut not so low as that which 
gives two crops. It i» cultivated in the same manner as the Mumlu- 
pullay, both as dry-seed, and as a transplanted crop. J’he former 
is sown about the 1 1th ol April, and the ciop is rather a scanty one, 

Vot. II. 3 C 



ni APTI-.R 

1 — 1 . 

ranit.'hn, <'r 
L)i;li liiiicls. 

Pi u(J uce. 

The seedlings, in the transplanted crop, are moved between the 
i2th of June and the 3Jth of July, and are planted very thin. 

In some parts of the country there is a kind of rice called Cuta- 
(ku, which rc(iuires a year to ripen, and grows in places where the 
water remains long, and is very deep. The persons from whom 
I have my information are not ac(juainted with the manner iiv 
which it is cultivated. 

In the arable parts of the high or Pariim lands, which pay na 
land tax, the following articles are cultivated : 

Aloiiim, Morun, or hill-iicc. 

KUu, or Si'Kttmum, liy the English in India called CUngtly. 

I'llndu, Pliitsciflu.i vnmmoo UoxI): MSS. 

Carum Pin o, Dulkliiia ('at.yitni'^ acnunc ingro. 

S/t(njr<) Pi/ro, Phust alus mango. 
tSIaiinai/, Paniatm viiliarc Jv. M. 

Hanuic. This kind of land is in general cultivated once in two y(;arsonly, 
and rc(|uircs a year's tallow to recover its strength ; but in places 
near villages, where it receives manure, or is much frequented by 
men and cattle, it gives a crop every year. Whatever crop is to be 
takim, the long grass and bushes growing on this ground arc always 
cut down by the roots, ami burned, before the first ploughing, for 
the ashes .servi; as a necessary manure. 

'i/.'Mia-. Vov Modan rice the ground is ploiigheil two or three times be- 
tween the l ull of November and the 1‘Jth of December. IJetween 
the I'ith of March and tlur 10th of April, with the early rains, the 
field ismannreil with dung and ashes, and is ploughed again two 
or three times. IJetween the 1‘Jth of June and the 13th of July 
(he seed, without preparation, is sown broad-cast, and covered with 
the plough, after which the clods arc broken with a large stick. 
On the third day the lield is ploughed across, and the clods are 
lirokeii again, and inadc smootli with the lioc called Padana Cai- 
loia (Elate X.\I. Eig. 5b'.), At the end of a month the weeds are 
icmovcd hy the hand. If the rain does not come plentifully between 


Ihc l itli of August and tiic l;;tli of Scjitcinbci. tlu‘ n yolo crop is CIIAPI KK 
lost; Imt, when the season is favonrahle, this crop is as gon<l as is 
tisiial ill the low or Veddum lauds. I’or all the grains cultivated on Dec. i — -r. 
this kind of land, the Valom, or neat rent, is one-lifth of the gross 

J. 4i 

The most considei.ihlc ero[) here on Panim land is Scsciiiiii)), of Saammr, 
whieli there are two kinds, the SItirai/ and Peri KUuf. These arc 
always sown separately; hut they arc cultivated at the same season, 
in the same manner, and in the same kind of soil. Detween the 
14 th of. Inly and the 13th of August, the small bushc.s, growing on 
t!ie (lelds are cut, dried for two days, and then Inirned. Tlie held * 
is then ploughed seven times. Detween the 14lh of August and 
the l.'Jth of Septemher, after seven days fair weather, the seed is 
sown, and covered with the jilough. Twenty days afterwards, that 
is, ahouL four weeks after the rains from tlic westward have ceased, 
the rains from the eastward ought to eommence. If tliese come, 
there will be a good crop, Mhieh is ripe lietween tlie 1 ;Jlh of l)c- 
eeinhcr ami the 1 1th of .lamiary. 'i'hc A//.ov/y ripens ten day.s ear- 
lier than the Peri. Too nuieli rain, when the plants are in llower, 
is very apt to injure the crop. 

All the. pul>es ealleil Uiuidn, Canon Pj/ro, and Sfiaijro Pyro, arc Pulse, 
cultivated in the same manner. The held is ploughed once bc- 
cv ceil the l‘2th of January and the .9lh of February ; the seed is 
sown immediately afterwards, and covered with a cross ploughing, 

Detween the 14th of September and the l4th of October these 
pulses ripen without farther trouble. 

For Shamay the held is ploughed five times between the 11th of Shama^. 
April and the 11th of May. After a show'er of rain, it is harro\yed 
Avith the rake drawn by o.\cn; then sown ; and the seed is covered 
by another harrowing. It is ripe between the ll'th of July and the 
10th of August. 

In such part of the high lands as is manured suiliciently to cn- notation, 
able it to produce annually a crop of grain, a rotation has been 



Tlu* wont «.>t’ 


to i ullivu- 

CHAPTER iiitroililfcd : 1 st year Shamay, 2 il yeixi' ['lindu, 3cl year either of 
tlic Pyrott. Another rotation is alternate crops of Semmum and 
Di'c. 1—1. Sliit))uiy. The pulses and Sesamum can never be sown in the same 

Tlu'wnsit i>i’ The cultivation of the arable part of the high lands is that which 
to is l)y lav the most neglected in this part of the country, yet no 
tiuii. land-tax has been imposed on itj which in rny opinion clearly 

shows, that the. clainoiirs raised against that tax, as injurious to 
ciiltis’atioii, arc groundless. 

M.v.iiiv. Ashes aiul cow-dung are carefully collected for nsanurc; and the 

latter is preferred when dry and rotten. The (juantity is therej'orc 
very .small, as nothing is mixed with the dung, to loi, and iiteieaso 
its bulk. 'I'hc Ic.ives of every kind of bush and tree that is not 
prickly are, however, used as a manure for ricc-kind. 

Clink' cf ti.e The uativc oxen of this country arc of the same forni or hre,ed 
cuA .yy'itii those ill Coimbctorc. and Mym'C ; hut they arc nuudi smailcr, 
and arc indeed the most diminutive cattle that i have e\cf seen. 


Clink' cf tiie 

A few good ones are imported from Comhefure, gcncrftily when very 
young. Mr. Warden thinks tlie native cattle very inadetjuate to 
cultivate the laud jiroperly ; and states, tliut upon impiiry he lias 
been informed, that the protluce of a field plouglicil with large 
oxen is viearlv double of that which l)u,s been tilled with the com* 

11 ion oxen of Main bur. 

Ill small luits contiguous to their houses the Puttar Bra/imuns 
commonly keep four or five cows, and the farmers have generally 
one or two. W hen a man’s stock of cows is larger, they .irc kept, 
with the labouring cattle, in a house built at some distance from 
the abode of frcc-mcn, in the place where the .slaves are permitted 
to ilwcll v hen the crop is not on llie ground; for these poor crea- 
tures are eoiisidcred as too impure to be permitted to approach the 
house of their Devaru, or lord. The cow, in her fourth or fifth year, 
has her first calf, and generally breeds five or six times. She gives 
milk about fourteen montlrs, and is then dry al.'out tea months 



DCtore she has another calf; so that she lives about sixteen years. CHAPTER 
For the first fifteen days, the calf is allowed to suck the whole milk; , 

for the first ten months it gets a share, but none afterwards. A good Dec. i— 4. 
cow, fed by a Brahman, besides what the calf gets, gives daily 1 j 
Buddy of milk, or about 80 cubical inches: but, if fed by a fanner, 
ow'ing to his comparative poverty, she will give only one Buddy. 

The cows feed all day on the pasture, and at night have cut grass, 
or stra'v ; but the Brahmans give them oil-cake also during the 
time they are in milk. 

The women of the Brahmans, when they arc atraid of not having Neglect of 
children, carry a bull-calf to the temple of Siva, and dedicate it to 
that god, in hopes that he will avert, wdiatthey consider as a great 
evil. The bulls so dedicated are ever afterwards considered as 
sacred, are allowed to roam about wherever they please, and are in 
general very w'ell fed, almost every one that has any grain to spare 
giving them some as they pass. These arc properly the town-bulls; 
but their duties arc often performed by the young cattle intended 
for labour, which are not emasculated until they are between four 
and five years of age. This want of selection, in the males intended 
to keep up the brcc<l, seems one great cause of the degeneracy of 
the cattle. 

The oxen are never wrought until after they have been emascu- Managcmenc 
lated, and they continue capable of labour for five or six years. 

Rich men feed their labouring cattle four months on grass, and eight 
months on straw'. Poor people can only allow’ straw for one half 
of the year. Every man who occupies rice-land has 

a certain part of the high land attached to it for pasture ; and to 
this he has an exclusive right, without paying rent; but any man 
may cut grass wherever he pleases. 

The buifaloes also of this country are of a very poor breed. Buffalo. 
Both males, and females when not giving milk, are put into the 
yoke, and, like the ox, are wrought from about six to nine in the 

of the cattle. 




Dec. 1 — 4-. 

among the 

Stock of 

Estimate of 
the propor* 
tion of land 
giving two 

morning, and from two to six in the evening. In the sowing season 
they are wrought an hour longer. In. the same space of time the 
ox performs somewhat more labour than the buffalo ; but the buf- 
falo, having more strength, is capable of turning up stiffer soils 
than the ox can do. The male buffaloes, intended for labour, are 
emasculated Avben they are between five and six years of age. The 
two kinds of cattle are fed much in the same manner. The quan- 
tity of milk given by the female buffalo here docs not exceed that 
given by the cow, and it is reckoned of an inferior quality : both 
are, however, generally mixed for making butter, which among the 
natives of Malabar is very bad and nasty. 

Last year, >for five months, the distemper prevailed among both 
kinds of cattle, but was most severe upon the buffaloes. It is said 
to hav-c carried off about one half of the whole stock, but the loss 
is perhaps greatly exaggerated. 

According to Mr. Warden’s returns, the number of cattle of the 
■ox kind in his districts amounts to 3<J,57o, and of the buffalo kind 
to ll,7fi2, in all 51,337. The number of ploughs which these work 
amounts to 14,433. It must be observed, that the farmers esti- 
mated a plough to be capable of cultivating 40 Forays of low 
(Paddum) land, probably including the small portion of arable 
high (Parumba) land which falls to each man’s share, in proportion 
•nearly to the extent of the low lands that he occupies, and which, 
requiring little comparative labour, would add about 2 Forays to 
each plough. Now on this supposition, which cannot be very erro- 
neous, the number of ploughs in the district could only cultivate 
577,320 Forays of low land (Dhanmurry). Mr. Warden’s estimate 
makes the Forays actually cultivated 738,460, This I have cor- 
rected, by allowing one fourth of the low land called Uhayum to be 
cultivated twice a year, to 613,205 Forays; but it is probable, that 
I have uuder-rated the extent of land producing two crops : the 
dilFerence, however, bn the data given is very small ; in place of 



of the Ubayum lanch being cultivated twice, as I supposed CHAPTER 
by the statement given of the number of ploughs, we ought to 
allow Dec. 1— ♦. 

No liorses, asses, swine, sheep, nor goats, are bred in Meiayala^ Fewdomestic 
or at least the number is perfectly inconsiderable. All those re- among th« 
quired for the use of the inhabitants are imported from the east- 
ward. The natives had no poultry; but since Europeans 
have settled among them, the common fowl or pullet may be liad 
in abundance. Geese, ducks, and turkeys, are confined to the sea 
coast, where they are reared by the Portuguese. 

The part of Mr. Warden’s districts occupied by thick forests, and ForesU. 
almost uninhabited, is very extensive. The forest which is a con- 
tinuation of the Ani-malaya woods, and which lies between the 
frontier and Co/angodu, is about seven miles long, and nearly the 
same in breadth. To the eastward of Pali-ghat there is^ another 
extensive forest, and there is a long narrow space in the south-east 
corner of the district. The hills toward the south are covered with 
trees to the summit; while those toward the north, like all the 
other Ghats extending from thence to the east, are naked on the 
prominent parts, and only covered with trees in their recesses or 

The forests here arc divided into Puddies, each of which has its ptiddUs, ot 
boundary ascertained, and contains one or more families of a rude 
tribe, called Malasir. Both the Puddy and its inhabitants are con- called Mala- 
sidered as the property of some landlord, who farms out the labour 
of these poor people, with all that they collect, to some trader 
(Chitty, or Mamdi), who treats the Malasirs much in the same 
manner as the Malypuddy of Ani-malaya does the rude tribes under 
his authority, and receives from them nearly the same articles. In 
fact, this is a most iniquitous mode of taxing the Malafiir^ and the 
produce of it is a mere trifle. The most productive Puddy in the 
whole district pays only four Rupees a year. A capitation tax on the 



CHAPTKR Malasir might raise a greater income to the proprietors of the 
woods, and he much less oppressive. 

Dec. 1—4. Having sent for some of tiicsc poor MalasirSy they informed me, 

theMalastr. that they live in small villages of five or six huts, situated in the 
skirts of the woods on the hills of Daraporam, Ani-walapa, and Pali- 
ghat. They speak a mixture of the Tamiil and ]\Ialayala languages. 
They are a better looking people than the slaves ; hut are ill 
clothed, nasty, and apparently ill fed. They collect drugs for 
the trader, to whom they are let ; and receive from him a subsist- 
ence, when they can procure for him any thing of value. He has 
the exclusive right of purchasing all that they have for sale, and 
of supplying them with salt, and other necessaries. A great part of 
their food consists of wild Yams ( Dioscoreas), which they dig when 
they have nothing to give to the trader for rice. They cultivate 
some small spots in the woods after the Cotii-cadu fashion, both on 
their own account and on that of the neighbouring farmers, who 
receive the produce, and give the Malasirs hire. The articles cul- 
tivated in this manner arc Rail (Cynosurus corocanus), Avaray (Do- 
Ikhos Labial), and (Ricinus palma christi). They are also 

hired to cut timber and firewood. In this province they pay no- 
thing to the government. They always marry girls of their own 
village, and never take a second wife unless the first dies. Marriage 
is indissoluble, except in case of infidelity on the part of the woman. 
When such a thing happens, . the people of the village assemble ; 
the woman is well flogged, and returned to her parents. The hus- 
band never receives her back ; but any other person, that is in- 
clined, may marry her. A widow may marry again ; but a girl 
who has arrived at the age of puberty as a virgin is considered 
impure, and no person will take her for a wife. When a man wishes 
to marry his son to any girl of the village, he speaks to her parents, 
generally while both the parties are very young; the father of the 
girl must give her to the first suitor ; and should the boy die, before 



the ceremony is perrormed, the poor girl cannot get a husband, CHAPTER 
The boy's father, m'Ijcii tlic proper time is arrived, gives a dinner 
to all the relations, with two Vamms to the bride’s mother, two 
Fanams to the girl for a new dress, and one Fauam's worth of spi- 
rituous licjuors for the guests. The girl is delivered over to the 
boy, and the marriage is considered as valid. The elder sons of a 
family, as they grow up and marry, build separate huts for them- 
selves. The j)arents continue to live with the youngest son ; but 
his elder brothers contribute to their parents support when they arc 
no longer able to work. The Malasir burn the dead, and seem to 
have no knowledge of a future state. The god of their tribe is- 
called Afalltiv<r, who is represented by a stone that is encircled by 
a wall, which serves for a temple. a year, in April, a sacrifice 
of goats, and olVeringsof rice, honey, and the like, arc made by the 
Malusiv to this rude idol. If this be neglected, the god sends ele- 
phants and tigers to destroy both them and their houses. There is 
no priest for this god, nor do the Mahuir acknowledge any Guru, 
or a dependance on the Bruhmum. The wax that these poor people wav. 
niiuht collect in a v’car Mr. Warden estimates at 6'00 Tolams, or 
about '24|- hundred-weight. 

The most valuable production of these forests, however, is their Timber, 
timber, of which there are several good kinds; but the Teak is by 
far the most valuable. To the increase or preservation of tins, 
little or no attention lias been paid ; but about two years ago an 
order was issued by the commi-ssionens, prohibiting any trees from 
being cut that were under certain dimensions ; and trees of the 
regulated girth are said by Mr. "Warden to be too heavy for the 
native carriage. These forests possess a great advantage, in being 
intersected by many branches of the Pami/tui river, which in the 
rainy season are large enough to float the timber down to the sea. 

All the hills near this river seem naturally fit for producing the 
Teak; and with a little pains, in the course of time, very valuable 
forests of that excellent tree might be reared. All that would be 
VojL. II. 3 D 




Dec, 1—4. 


Iron ore. 



required wstild be to cut down every other kind of timber, allow- 
ing the Teak to spring up naturally, which it will every where do; 
and to enforce the conimissioners’ regulation concerning the size 
of the trees. In the course of fifty or sixty years, very excellent 
forests might thus be formed near water carriage, very much to 
the advantage of their proprietors and of the nation; but these 
people are so ignorant, that, without compulsion, it could not be 
expected that any such plans should be carried into effect. At 
present, every mati mIio chooses to give the landlord a Tamm may 
cut down a tree, and all the valuable trees being cut, while the 
useless ones are allowed to remain and come to seed, the conse- 
quence is, that in all places of easy access the valuable kinds have 
become almost entirely extinct. Mr. Warden thinks, that at pre- 
sent between four and live thousand Candies ot 'Teak, fit for ship- 
building, might be annually procured from the forests in his dis- 
tricts; but that could only be done by a large body of trained 
elephants, an expense beyond the reach of individuals, and only to 
be undertaken by the Company. The Candij of Teak timber, when 
seasoned, measures lOf cubical feet. 

The elephants are a dreadful nuisance to the farmers who live 
near these forests, and have prevented much land, formerly de- 
serted, from being again cultivated. A regular hunting of them, 
carried on from Ani-malaya to Priya-pattana, would be a great re- 
lief, and might be done to advantage if the Company could afford 
to purchase the elephants. 

Near Colangodu four forges are supplied with iron ore. The ore 
is the usual black sand, and is found mixed with clay in stratantZiX 
the river. 

An immense rock near the temple of Bliagatvai consists of a good 
grey granite, very fit for building ; and indeed the temple is con- 
structed of this stone. The structure of this granite is evidently lamel- 
lar, the plates being vertical, and running east and west, as they do in 
Coimbetore : in some places the plates have a sortof circular disposition 



Tounrl a centre, somewhat like the layers roiintl a knot in wood; in CHAPTEIl 
others they are undulating, and have a resemblance to the waving 
figures on marbled paper. Each of the plates containing difl'erent Dec. i— 
proportions of the felspar, quartz, and mica, they are more distin- 
guishable by their colour, than by its being practicable to separate 
them. The rock here contains fewer veins of (juartz than any granite 
that I have hitherto seen in the peninsula. Althougli the plates are 
vertical, the rock is divided by parallel horizontal fissures that have 
a smooth surface, and which is frequently the case with aggregate 
rocks in all the south of India. This greatly facilitates the cutting 
of stones for building; as wedges readily cut off large anasses, by 
being driven in at right angles to the fissures'. 

.“^th December. — I set out, iu company Avith Mr. ^Yaddel, lately Dec. 5. 
superintendant of the southern division oi Malabar, whose activity 
as a magistrate, while his office lasted, had procuied him many ene- 
mies among the rullians who have long infested this part of the 
countiy. Ml’. Wai’den was so good as to accompany us to our stage 
at Lacadai! colay. On our route we Avei’e joined by armed Nairs, 

Avho said they had come fV ail quarters to protect us from the 
ruffians, who arc mostly Moplays. We saw nothing, however, to 
cause alarm. ^V^e first crossed the river which passes the south side 
of the fort, and is a fine clear stream. We afterwards crossed the 
same, after it had united Avith the northern river, forming one of 
the clearest and most beautiful streams that I have ever seen. 

The ford is at Mangada, called by Major Rennell Mangery cottay. 

The fort that was there has gone entirely to ruins, and there is no 
market at the place. The country is very beautiful; a mixture of 
little hills, swelling grounds, and rice fields, which seem to bear 
but a small proportion to the high lands. These are in a very bad 
state of culture. Sesamum is the most common crop, and it looks 
very well. Lacaday is in the territory formerly belonging to the 
Tamuri Raj&. The remains of the fort are now scarcely discernible. 



CHAPTER There is at this place a small market, chiclly iiiliahitcd hy Tamuls; 

th? original natives of MvAayalu seem rarely, if ever, to have 
D«'c. 6. kept shops. 

sounuy. " December, — In the morning Mr. Watidel and I went about 

ten miles toward the south, as it was dangerous for him to go by 
the direct road. We passed through a beautiful country, consisting 
of low hills intersected by narrow fertile vallies; the whole, like 
that which we saw yesterday, finely M'ooded and well peojiled. The 
high grounds in a few places are rocky, but their soil is in gene- 
ral good. Their cultivation is exceedingly neglected. Wc first 
crossed the same river that wc did yesterday at jMangoda, and then 
a branch of the same coming from the south-east. Roth of them 
are fine streams. At the first river we entered the dominions of 
CKiili^ja. Coc/ii Rajdf and found the chief men of the country, called 
Numhirs, waiting for us with a numerous band of JS’airs, who were 
commanded by an olliccr in a uniform resembling the Dutch. 
Every possible attention was shown not only to ourselves, but also 
to supply the wants of our followers ; and we were escorted by the 
officer's party to Paryuiiuru, where we encamped. 

The Cochi Raja pays an annual tribute to tlie Company, as he did 
to Hyder aud Tippoo ; but he retains full jurisdiction, civil and mi- 
litary ; and his country is so far better administered than that more 
fully under the authority of the Company, that neither Moplays 
nor presume to make any disturbance. It is said, that this 
prince’s government is rather severe and cruel ; but with a people 
so exceedingly turbulent, a vigorous government at least is ne- 

Furbuleiicc Roth Nairs and inland Moplays pretend to be soldiers by birth, 
disdain all industry. Their chief delight is in parading up and 
down fully armed. Each man has a firelock, and at least one 
sword ; but all those who wish to be thought men of extraordinary 
courage carry two sabres. As every man walks about with his 

it{ the na- 


sword drawtJ, assassinations are very frcf|iient ; widt h indeed CHAPTER 
cannot be avoided among a barbarous people witli weapons alwavs 
ready : 6. 

AuTof yap tf£/.it£Ta» ocvipx (TiJn;^. 

It is said also, that the Jt/ijii wrinss;', much money from his 
people ; but I see no appearance of their being reduced to poverty, 
either in their houses or persons. 

Paryunum is a large iJtsam without any market. It has a small 
temple, and a Colgum, or house belonging to the Raja 

7th Dccmber. — We went a short stage to Shehicary, 'llie road rite. 7- 
leads through a most beautiful Vonntry. The rice grounds are country, 
iianow valleys, but are extremely well watered by small perennial 
streams, that enable them annually to produce two crops. Very 
little of the high ground is cultivated. I observed, however, some 
fields, that contained the Cytims Cqjan, more luxuriant than I ever 
before saw. The houses of the natives arc buried in the groves of 
jialms, 7ii(aigoes, Jdch, and plantains, that skirt the bottoms of the 
little hills. Above these are woods of forest trees, which, though 
not (|uitc so stately as those of Chittagong, are still very fine, and 
are pleasant to walk in, being free from and other climbers. 

The Teak, and Viti, or black-wood, abound in these woods; but all 
the large trees have been cut ; and no care is used to encourage 
their growth, or to check that of useless timber. 

We were escorted by many of the R/tjas Nairs, and were met Nairsoima 
by one of his officers of cavalry, well dressed in a blue uniform 
with white facings, and attended by two orderlies in a similar 
dress. They w'ore boots and helmets, and the officer had a gorget; 
the whole exactly after the European fashion. He informed us, 
that the Raja had been very desirous of meeting us ; but that at 
present he was so unwell, that he could not stand without support. 

This information, I believe, was merely complimentary. The Roads, 
has made tolerable roads through the hilly parts of the country 






Culguf/iy or 
of a. 

Rain of Ma- 

Dcr. 8. 
Tacc of the 
Count ry. 


Doc. J). 


all the way we have come, and for our accormnotlatioii they had 
been rej)aire(l; but wc were always much <)l)striicted when we 
came to a valley, as the roads Ijave not been continued through 
the rice fields. In fact, the road has been made from ostentation 
alone, and not from any rational view of facilitating commerce or 
social intercourse. There are no shops at S/iclaairi/, but people were 
sent by the Rqjd to supply our wants. Indeed, nothing can be 
more polite or attentive than the whole of his conduct. 

Near our tents was a Colgum, or house belonging to the Rqjd. 
It is a large square building, composed partly of stone, and partly 
of mud. The greater part of it is only one story in height ; but 
in some places there is an upper floor. It is roofed with tiles, and 
totally destitute of elegance or neatness, but is looked upon by the 
natives as a pro<ligy. Like the other houses of the country, it is 
surrounded by a grove of fruit trees. Some Sepoys were here on 
duty, the mud walls surrounding the house being considered as a 

8th December. — Wc went a long stage to Nellaway, through a 
country similar to that which we p.assed yesterday ; but the hills 
are liigher, and nnxch of the roaxl is very bad. From the people of 
the Rdjd wc continue to receive every possible attention. NeUaxcay 
has a small temple, but no shops. 

9th December. — In the morning we went a .short stage to Cacadn, 
through a country differing from that seen on the two preceding 
day.s, by its hills being much lower, and covered with grass in place 
of forest trees. Although the soil of these hills appears to be good, 
yet scarcely any part of them is cultivated ; but the pasture .seems 
to be tolerable, the cattle, though remarkably small, being in good 
condition. The country is very beautiful : its round hills covered 
with grass are separated by fine verdant fields of corn, skirted by 
the houses of the inhabitants, which are shaded by groves of fruit- 



Opposite to our encampment was a Nazaren, or Christian village, 
iiamc<l Cunnuvg colung curry Angudy, which looks very well, helng 
seated on a rising ground amid fine groves of the Iklcl-nut palm. 
The Papa or priest waited on us, lie was attended by a pupil, Mdio 
behaved to his superior with the utmost deference. The Papa was 
very well drcssc<l in a blue robe; and, though his ancestors have 
been settled in the country for many generations, he was very fair, 
with high .Jewish features. The greater part of the sect, however, 
entirely resemble the aborigines of the country, from whom indeed 
they arc descended. 

The Papa informed me, that his sect are dependent on the Jaco-, 
bite patriarch oi' Antioch ; but that they have a metropolitan, who 
resides in the dominions of Travancore, and who is sent by the pa- 
triarch on the death of his predecessor. None of the Papas, or 
inferior clergy, go to Antioch for their education, and all of them 
have been born in the country. My visitor understood no lan- 
guages but the Aymc, and that Malayata. He preaches in the 
latter; hut all the cciemonies of the church are performed in the 
Syriac. In their churches they have neither images nor picture.s, 
but the Nazarens worship the cross. Their clergy are allowed to 
marry; my visitor, however, 'scemed to be not a little proud of his 
ohserving celibacy, and a total abstinence from animal food. He 
said, that, so far as he remembers, the number of the sect seems 
neither to be increasing nor diminishing. Converts, however, are 
occasionally made of both Nairs and Shanars ; but no instance 
occurs of a Moplay having been converted, nor of a Namhuri, un- 
less he had previously lost cast. 

The Papas'dya, that the Nazarens were introduced, 1740 years 
ago, by a certain saint named Thomas, wlio, landing at Mcila-pura, 
took up his residence on a hill nfscc Madras, and which is now called 
after his name. He afterwards made a voyage to Cochin, and in 
that neighbourhood settled a churcli, which is now the metropo- 



Oi'c. p. 
NazartiiSf or 
Mu! alar 


CHAP'iKIl litan, as tlie Portuguese drove all tlie Aazan/i,s from the ensl^rn 
coast. St. 'riiomas afterwards returned to MdlU'pKra, he 

Dec, 0, died. At that time Malayala belonged to tiic llrahmnns, who wcfe 
governed by a R/ijd sent by Sholun Permal, the sovereign kinj; of 
the south. The Papa then related the history of Clurumuit PcnuJil, 
nearly as I have given it (page 348, 9.) on the authority of the 
Naniburis ; only he says, that this traitor, after having divided his 
usurped dominions, died before he reached .Mecca. It was in his 
reign that the Alnssulmans first arrived in India "fhey landed at 
Challkm, a place near Vappura. U'he Papa says, that the metropo- 
litan has an account of all his predecessors, from the time of Saint 
Thomas, w'ith a history of tlie various ])crsecutions that they have 
been subjected to by the governing powers, the worst of which 
would appear to have been that indicted by the Portuguese. He 
promised to send me a copy of this kind of chronicle, hut has not 
been so good as his avord. 

A Brahman of the place says, that when any slaves arc converted 
by the AVci/rtw, thcMe- people bestow on them their liberty, and 
give them daily or monthly wages. lie .said also, that the Xazarens 
are a very orderly, industrious -people, who live chietly by trade 
and agriculture. 

In the afternoon we went to the village, which contains 

many houses regularly disposed, and full of people. For an Indian 
town it is well built, and comparatively clean. It has a ntw church 
of considerable size. An old clmrcli is situated at soiiic distance 
on a beautiful rising ground. It is now unroofed ; but the walls, 
although built of indurated clay only, continue very 1‘resh and 
strong. The altar is arched over with the same materials, and pos- 
sesses some degree of elegance. The burying ground is at the 
west end of the church, where the principal door is placed, From 
its being very small, the graves must be opened long before the 
bones arc consumed. As the graves are opened for new bodies, 



tlic old l)oncs arc collected, and tliroMU into an o]>cn pit near the 
corner of tin; church, Avhere they are exposied to the view of all 

From thcncc wc went to Choxci^aut, where we embarked in a 
canoe, and went to the house of Mr. Uruinmond, the collector, 
who resided then at the place called by us Chltzca, but by tlic na- 
tives Slietuxcui. 

10th and 1 1 th /)ccc»//jcr. — I remained with Mr. Drummond at 
Chilxi'a. This place is situated in an island, w'hich is twenty-seven 
miles long, and in some places five milbs wiile, and which by Euro- 
peans is commonly called the island of C/f/Vrra ; but its proper 
name is ]\[a)U(-puram. It consists of two districts, Slieluziai, and 
Alty-puraui ; and is separatoil from the continent by beautiful 
inlets of salt water, that form tlic northern part of one of the finest 
inland navigations imaginable. The soil of the island is in general 
poor; and, although the w'liole may be consitlered as a plain, the 
rice fiehls are very small in proportion to the Pariim or elevated 
land, w'hieh rises a few feet only above the level of the sea. Water 
may every where be procured by digging to a little depth ; there 
can be no doubt, therefore, but that with proper industry the 
whole inighi be made productive. The shores of the island are 
covered with eoco-mit palms, from which the revenue is chiefly 
derived. The whole is rented by the Cochi liuja of the Company, 
at 30,000 Rupees a year. He possesses no legal jurisdiction over 
the inhabitants; but daily complaints are preferred against him to 
tlie collector, to whom he is accused of great cruelty. 

I here had a conversation with one of the Carigars, or ministers 
of iiitTavturi the person who manages the aftairs of that chief, 
lie says, that all the males of the family of the Tamiiri are called 
TamburanSf and all the ladies are called Tamhiirettis : all the chil- 
dren of every Taniburetti are entitled to these appellations ; and, 
according to seniority, rise to the highest dignities which belong 
to the family. These ladies are generally impregnated by Namburts; 
Vot.II, 3E 

ciiAPi r.jt 

l)('c. 0. 

CIuI a u, <m* 
Sh'/uicni, » n 
lilt" isl:nwl dJ' 


Doc. 10, 11. 



Of tlic V'l ■ 



394 . 


CIIAIM’KR althougl/, if they choose, they may employ the higher ranks of 
Nftirs; but the sacred cliaracter of the iVirwjiMrw almost always pro- 

Dec. io,ii. cures them a preference. The ladies live in the houses of their 
brothers; for any amorous intercourse between them and their 
husbands would be reckoned scandalous. The eldest man of the 
family is the Tamuri Raja, called by Europeans the Zamorin. He 
is also called Mana I'icrami Samudri R/ijd, and is crowned. The se- 
cond male of the 1‘ainily is called Eralpata, the third Munalpata, 
the fourth Kdatara Rafana RJyV/,, the lii’th Nirinipa Aluta F.raleradi 
Tirumutpata Rdjd, and the sixth ICl/earadi Tirumtilpatu Rdjd. The 
younger Tamburans arc not distinguished by any particular title. 
If the eldest Tarnburclti happen to be older than the Tamuri, she is 
considered as of higher rank. The Tamuri pretends to be of a 
higher rank than the Brdhmam, and to be inferior only to the invi-. 
sible gods ; a pretension that was acknowledged by his subjects, 
but which is held as absurd and abominable by the Brahmans, by 
whom he is only treated as a Sudra. 

Government. During the government of the Tamuris, the business of the state 
was conducted, under his authority, by four Savadi Carigars, whose 
offices were hereditary, and by certain inferior Carigars, appointed 
and removed at the pleasure of the sovereign. The Savadi Carigars 
are, 1st. Afangutachan, a Nair of the tribe called iV/Wra; 2d. Ye- 
nanchcri Elliadi, a Brahman ; 3d. Bermamuta Banycary, also a Shdra 
Nair ; and 4th. Paranambi, a Nair of the kind called Nambichan, 
The inferior managed the private estates, or C/tericM/ lands, 

of the Tamuri, and collected the revenues. These consisted of the 
customs, of a fifth part of all the moveable estates of every person 
that died, and of lines ; of course, the Carigars were the adminis- 
trators of justice, or rather of what was called law. They were 
always assisted by four assessors ; but, the selection of these being 
left to themselves, this provision gave little security to the subject. 
Eight tenths of all fines went to the Tamuri, and two tenths to the 
judge. For capital punishments, flie mandate of the Tamuri was 


required. The defence of the country rested entirely on such of 
the Nairs as received arms from the Tamuri. Tlicse were under , 

the orders of Nadirwim, wlio commanded from COO to 3000 men, Dec. to, n. 
and who held tlieir authority by hereditary descent. The Carigar 
says, that these Nadawais had lands given them, in proportion to 
the number of men that each commanded ; but how that could be, 

Avhen the whole lands belonged to Namburi landlords, I do not un- 
derstand. The soldiers, tvlien on actual serviec, received a certain 
small subsistence. 

In cases of emergency, certain tributary or dependent chiefs Tribuiaiio. 
were also summoned to bring their men into the field. These chiefs, 
such as Punetur, Talupu/i, Manacollatil, Ai/cnecutil, Tiriiwanadtcry, 
and many others, acknowledged the Tamuri as their superior; but 
they assumed the title of 7u^V/, and in their respective territories 
possessed full jurisdiction. They were merely bound to assist the 
Tamuri with military service. He never bestowed on any of them 
the title of Raja, either in w'riting or conversation, and treated 
with contempt their pretension to such a dignity. The principal 
Colgum of the Tamuri is near the fort at Ckowgaut; but at present 
he is absent on business at Calicut. 

The Tolam^ b}' wdiich all wx-ighable goods arc here sold, contains Weights. 

120 Polams, each of ten PomUchery Rupees, or is nearly 30, -f- lb,; but 
it dift'ers in almost every circle. 

The Poray grain-measure is the same as at Pali-ghat, and is the Dry-mea- 
same every where in Mr. Drummond’s districts. By the merchants 
it is divided into ten Edangallies ; but by the farmers it is divided 
into Naras, which dilfer in almost every Desam, and vary from five 
to ten in the Poray. 

The-i *oray-candum, or Poray-land, is said, by the people here, to Land-mca- 
be nearly the same in extent all over Malayala; but the quantity 
of seed sown on a Poray-candum dift'ers according to the soil. The 
proper extent of a Poray-candum is said to be 32 Pur racolus square. 

The Varracolu is equal to 28 inches and ^ English measure; and 



CHAPTER the Poj'dii-vaiHiiim is therefore very nearly 5825 square feet. This 
I am inclined to think applicahle to at least all the low nee land 
Dec. 10, 11 . near the sea. 

Padilum^ the 
only rice- 
land near the 


rent, and 
taxes of 

Mr. Druinmoiurs answers to the statistical queries which I pro- 
posed to him through the commissioners, not having been received, 
in my account of his district 1 have no assistance, except from 
Mr. Snice’s valuable communication. 

Tlie low land that lies near the sea is extremely sandy, and the 
(juantity of rice-field is not very great. It is all of the kind called 
Paddum, no hill rice being cultivated except in the inland districts. 
A largo proportion of it produces only one crop, and the second crop 
is always very precarious. The average produce of the whole rice 
lands ill this district, according to Mr. Since, is five Porays from 
one sown, or from one Pordy-aindiim, which, according to the ex- 
tent lately mentioned, will make the average produce a little more 
than 12:} bushels 'an acre. Iliit Mr. Since deilucted ten per cent, 
for contingencies, in order not to distress the cultivator; so that 
the actual average produce is a little more tlian bushels an 
acre. Accortling to the account of the people, every Pomy-candum, 
on an average, pays two Poraya of (Palom) rent ; and the farmer, 
besides, discharges the land-tax. As this amounts on each Poray- 
caiidian to Pamim, which is worth at the cheap season I,y‘~oo Po- 
rfiys of rough-rice, it is evident that the Poray-candnm, by which 
the tax is paid, must be quite tliflerent from an actual Porr/y-CffW- 
dnm; for, deducting two Porays for sectl and expense of cultiva- 
tion, two Porays for rent, ami 1,-fVoV foi' taxes, the Poray-candmn 
should on an average produce Porays, besides what may be 

supposed necessary for the trouble of the farmer. On consulting 
these people, they explain this by saying, that it is only the best 
lands that arc rated in the revenue accompts at their true extent, 
and that of the poor soils five Poray-candums are sometimes written 
as one. In middling soils two Poray-candums are rated in the reve- 
nue accompts as one, which reduces the medium Nc^adi to eight 



Endangallies, even when the rice is lowest. Thus the farmer tie- CHAPTER 
ducting ten per cent, for contingencies, on an average, pays 
Forays for each Foray-land, and ha^ -J- of a Foray for neat profit, 
after deducting seed and expense of labour. The profits of the 
landholder here are much greater, and those of the fanner much 
smaller, than at Pali-ghat. 

All the three methods of cultivating rice, which I call dry-seed. Manner of 
sprouted-seed, and transplantation, are here in use 

For dry-seed, tlie field immediately after the preceding crop has Dry-seed, 
been cut, between the 14th of November and the 12th of Decem- 

ber, must be ploughed twice. Every month afterwards, for the five 
following times, the ploughings must be repeated twice, and at one 

of these times some ashes must be sprinkled on the field. Between 
the nth of April and the 11th of May, after a shower of rain and 
a ploughing, the seed is sown broad-cast, one to a Porcy- 

candum, or 2^ bushels to an acre. Some farmers plough in the seed, 
while others cover it with a hoc. ktheu gets a sprinkling of ashes, 
the Avhole cow-dung being burned. The weeds are removed by the 
hand one inontli after the seed has been sown ; and at the same 

time, if possible, some more ashes should be given. After this the 
banks are repaired, and the water is confined on the field. About 
the middle of July the weeds must be again removed. The seed 
time is sometimes a month later than that here stated. The kinds 
of rice thus cultivated are IVonavuttun, Velktty vuttum, and Erica- 
lay samhau, requiring four months to ripen ; and Jrien, which re- 
quires six months to come to maturity. 

The sprouted seed cultivation is managed here as follows. The Spronted- 
ploughing season lasts six months, commencing about the middle ’ 
of May, During any thirty days of this period, the field is ploughed 
from twelve to eighteen times, and is always kept full of water, 
except when the plough is at work ; then the field is drained until 
the water does not stand deeper than a hand’s breadth. At each 
ploughing, some leaves of any bush or weed that can be procured 



CHAPTER arc put into the nuul. Then manure is given, twenty baskets to 
one Foray of land. After tins the mud is smoothed, by dragging 
Doc.10,11, over it a plank yoked to two oxen; and the water is allowed to 
' drain off completely, by two or three small channels formed irith 
the hoe. The prepared seed is then sown, as thick as in the dry- 

seed cultivation. Ten davs afterwards two or tliree inches of water 


are allowed to rest on the field, and as the com grows the depth is 
increascil. When it is a month old, some ashes are sprinkled on it. 
This requires no weeding. The kinds of rice thus cultivated are 
fifteen in number, and require from three to six months to ripen. 
Transplanted The manner of ploughing, and manuring, for the transplanted 
cultivation, is the same as for the sprouted-seed, and is performed 
at the same season. If the ground be clean, the seedlings are 
transplanted immediately from the field in which they were raised, 
into that in which they are to be reared to maturity ; but if this be 
full of worm.s, they are exposed for three days in bundles on the 
little banks that separate the rice-plots; and there, in order to 
hai'dcn them, they are kept with their roots uppermost. When they 
are planted, the field contains about three inches depth of water. 
■On the fourth tlay it gets nine iiicacs, and ever after is kept inun- 
dated to that depth. Good farmers manure the field ten days after 
it has been planted. It requires no weeding. 

Two crops. The first crop may be cultivated after any of these three methods. 

The dry-seed cultivation requires by far the least trouble, and, if 
the early rains are copious, is equally productive with the others. 
Of the other two, the transplanted rice is rather the most trouble- 
some ; but, being most productive, it is much more commonly em- 
ployed. In the second crop, the dry-seed cultivation cannot be used. 

On X\\G (Dhanmurry) low land no other article but rice is cul- 

Parum, ot The only grains cultivated on the higher lands here are Carum 
highland. Pyro (l)olkhos catsjang), Wulindu (Phaseolus minimoo), znd Ellu 
(Sesamum and these in very small quantities. In the island of 

Two crops. 

Paruftif or 
high laud. 


Mana‘puram a large share of the whole land is of this kind, and by CHAPTER 
far the greatest part of it is totally waste. The whole might pro- 
bably be cultivated for these grains, or planted with coco-nut trees, Dec. lo, u. 
which in gardens near the sea coast are the principal object, and 
which indeed near the sea arc the most valuable articles cultivated; 
for there is always a great demand for them from the countries 
to the northward, where they do not thrive; and, as they are a 
bulky article, a vast saving is made by raising them near Avater 

Having assembled the most Avealthy proprietors of coco-nut plan- 
tations, I obtained the following account of the manner in Avhich 
these are formed. 

The soil reckoned littest for the coco-nut is a mixture of mud Manner of 
with a very large proportion of sand; and such is generally found 
in greatest (juantity near the banks of rivers, Avhere the tide floAvs ; ycra,orcoco- 
and near inlets from the sea, by Avhich the Avhole coast is very much 
intersected, although they have not a depth of Avatcr sufficient to 
admit ships. 

The Parum, or garden, called Oart by the English, having been 
inclosed, between the 12th of May and the 11th of June, holes are 
dug throughout for the reception of the young palms. These pits 
are I Varacolu (28-|- inches) square, and the same in depth. They 
arc placed at the distance from each other, in all directions, of 12 
VaracoluSy or 28 feet 7 i- inches. In the bottom of each pit is then 
dug a small hole, in Avhich is placed a young palm, or coco-nut tree, 
together Avith some ashes and salt. A little earth is then put round 
the roots, the young tree receives a little Avatcr, and some thorns 
are put round the pit. For the first three weeks v.'ater must be 
given three times a day; afterwards, until the garden is three 
years old, the trees must be watered once in tAvo days. Once every 
month a little ashes must be put into each pit. Between the 12th 
of June and the 13th of July of the third year, a trench one cubit 
aeep is dug round the young tree, at cubit from the root. The 




D€c. 10 , n. 

Produce of 
the coco-nut 



use of this is to confine the water near tlie tree during the rainy 
season. When this is over, bctwcfMi the 1.5th of October and the 
13th of November, the whole garden is ploughed, and the trenches 
are levelled. Every year afterwards, before the rains commence, 
the trenches are renewed, and each tree is allowed a basket full 
of ashes. When the rainy season is over, the garden is ploughed 
again, and the trenehes arc filled. The cattle of the proprietor arc 
always folded in the garden, and in the course of the year moved 
over the Avholc. The fold is covered with a roof. Between the 
10th of February and the 10th of April the grass that has sprung 
up in the plantation is burned. The young plants are raised from 
the seed as follows. Between the l!2th of June and the 1.3th of 
July, the nuts for seed arc ripe. At that time a plot of ground is 
dug to the depth of three-fourths of a cubit. The nuts are placed 
on this, contiguous to each other, and suidc into the earth throe 
fourths of their height, the eyes being placed uppermost. The 
plot is then sprinkletl with ashc.s, and a bank of earth is ibrmed 
round it to confine the water. The following day, if no rain falls, 
the plot must be watered. After the rainy season is over, it is wa- 
tered every second day, and once a month gets some ashes. In 
three or four months the nuts begin to shoot. In three years the 
young plants are fit for being removed ; aiul the nut even then 
adheres to some of them, although not to all. The gardens arc not 
allowed to die out, and then formed anew, as in some places is 
the case with the coco-nut plantations; but, as one tree dies, a 
new one is set in its .stead. The coco-nut palm, after having been 
transplanted, begins to bear in from thirteen to sixteen years. It 
continues in full vigour forty years, and lives for about thirty years 
more, but is then constantly on the decline. 

When the trees begin to flower for the first time, a trial is made, 
by cutting a young flowering branch (spatha), to ascertain whether 
it will be fit for producing nuts, or for producing palm-wine. If 
the cut bleed, it is lit for the latter purpose, and is then nvore 



valuable than a tree whose spalha, when cut, continues dry, and CHAPTER 

which is fit only for producing nuts. I'he palms fit for wine are 

let to the Tiars, or Sha/nirs, who extract the juice, and boil it down Dec. to, ii. 

to Jagory, or distil it to extract arrack. In a good soil the trees 

yield juice all the year; hut on a poor soil they are exhausted in 

six months. A clever workman can manage iVom JO to 40 trees, 

and pays annually for each from I to tV I'anani. Coco-nut Jfigorj/ 

is reckoned better than that of the lini// ( Ilora.siH(.s ), and on an 

average sells at Fanams XhcTolam, or 3s. Sr/, the hundred- weiglit. 

This account must be compared with that which was afterwards 
given by the 'Juirs, or men who manage the palms. 

The Cuflian, or occupant of the garden, cultivates the soil, and 
collects the nuts. Each tree produces five or six hunches, and 
each bunch seven or eight full grown nuts, or fourteen or fifteen 
of an inferior size, and of very little value. A little bad Coir (or 
cordage) is made from the husks of the nuts that arc used green 
in the country. A few of the nuts are exported with the husk on ; 
but in general they are sent to the nortli inclosed in tlic shell only. 

They arc bought up by the Aloplay merchants, who make advances .Moii<y ad- 
from six to three months before the time of delivery. The price |,*"rbaiu^ 
advanced is from two to three for every hundred nuts i«i the nuts, 

which the garden is expected to produce. If the occupant be not 
necessitated to take advances, he will be able to sell his nuts at 
from 4 to 41 Famnns the hundred. If the produce of tlie gartlen be 
greater than that for which advances have been made, the occu- 
pant sells the overplus as he pleases; but, if he has been too san- 
guine in his expectations, and has received advances for more than 
he can deliver, he must pay for the <leficiency, not at the rate of 
the advance, but at the rate of the market. A proprietor, who Remand 
lets his garden, gets from S to 15 Fanants rent (Patom) for every P*^*^**®*' 
hundred trees ; and the occupant (Cudian) pays tlie land-tax, which 
is halt a, Fanam for every tree that is in full bearing : old and young 
trees are exempted, as unproductive. Mr. Drummond says, that in 
Vot. II. 3 F 



CIlAPTEll fact not above ten trees in a hundred pay the tax; while all the 
others, under pretence of being aged or young, are excused. He 
Dec. 10, u. jjIjq alleges^ that the trees are much more productive than the pro- 
prietors acknowledge, and give annually from 80 to 100 nuts. 
Monkeys and mice (squirrels?) are very destructive in the planta- 
tions of Shctwwai. 

IVuit anti Among the coco-nut trees are raised plantains, and a variety of 
dens. ** kitchen stuffs, called here Caigariy on which no tax is exacted. 

There are also planted many fruit trees, especially Jacks (Ai'tocarpus 
integrijolia) and Mangoes ( Mangif'era). The fruit of the former 
enters largely into the food of the natives, and has always a ready 
sale ; so that, the tree being valuable, a tax is levied on it. The 
Mangoes are so numerous, that they are not saleable, and no tax is 
demanded for them. 

Bettl-kaf. In Malabar there arc no Betel-leaf gardens ; but every person 
Avho has a garden plants a few vines of the Betel (Piper Betle), and 
allows them to climb up the Mango trees, or any others that are 
most convenient. Once in three years the vines are renewed. Al- 
though in most parts of India the Betel-leaf \s an object of , taxation 
that produces a considerable and fair revenue, in Malabar no tax 
has been imposed on it ; but this seems by no means to have been 
of service to the people ; as very large quantities of the leaf are 
imported from Coimbetore, where a heavy tax is levied, and no- 
drawback allowed. 

The quantity of Betel-nut and pepper that is raised on the sandy 
levels near the sea is so small, that for the present I shall defer 
saying any thing concerning these valuable productions. 

Tenures by ^ tenures by which plantations are held differ considerably 
which plan thosc by which the Paddum, Dlummurruy or low land, has been 

held. granted by the Namburis. When a man wishes to plant a space of 
Parum land, he obtains from the landlord a lease called Cuey Canuniy 
which is granted for a time sufficient to allow him to have at least 
two years full produce from the garden, and often much longer. 



If the lease be for any considerable time, he in general pays some CHAPTEii 
money in advance, which is called theLV/«^/wj, or mortgage. When 
the term of the lease has expired, the landlord may reassuine the Dec. 10,11. 
plantation, by paying up the mortgage, and liquidating the amount 
of all the charges incurred by the Canumcar, or mortgagee, for 
buildings, wells, fences, ^c. together with the value of the trees 
brought to maturity. The amount of these sums due to tlie mort- 
gagee by the landlord, who wishes to reassuine a plantation, is ge- 
nerally determined by arbitration. When the lease has expired, 
and the sum due to the (Cuey Canumcar) mortgagee has been de- 
termined, the landlord either reassumes the garden by li<}uidating 
the claims of the planter, or he grants it to the planter on proper 
Ctifiitm, or fidl mortgage. In this case, the Patom, or neat rent of 
the garden, having been ascertained to the .satisfaction of both 
parties, the mortgagee agrees to |)ay the amount to the landlord, 
after deducting the land-tax, and the interest of his claims ; which 
are then consolidated into one sum, called Canum^ or mortgage. 

In Mr. Since’s valuable survey, the trees producing less than ten Produce, of a 
nuts arc considered as altogether unproductive, and therefore it is 
proposed to exempt them entirely from taxes. Taking the average 
of all the trees yielding above ten nuts, the produce of each is 
stated by him to be 33 nuts. I confess, that Mr. Smec’s opportu- 
nities of information were in many respects superior .to mine, and 
his assiduity could not be exceeded ; yet I suspect, that he has very 
much under-rated the produce, and am induced to do so both from 
the confession of the natives, and from the appearance of the 
bunches on the trees. His inquiries were attended with one great 
disadvantage ; namely, that they were avowedly made with a view 
to assessment ; and of course all means possible were taken to con- 
ceal the truth, and to diminish the value of the produce. 

When Arshid- Beg- Khan, by the orders of Hyder, imposed a tax Assessment 
on the plantations of Malabar, he formed an estimate of their pro- 
duce; and then, having calculated the average amount of the 



CHAPTER produce o£ a tree, be imposed upon each what he considered as a 
* ’ ‘fair tax. The amount of this or ^very coco*nut palm was half a 
Dec. 10 , 11 . Fanam. Old and young trees were exempted, which has given rise 
to immense frauds on government. The young trees, of course, 
ought injustice to be exempted, because they do not produce any 
fruit ; but old trees ought either to he paid for, or to be cut, there 
being no possible means of ascertaining what trees arc really pro- 
ductive enough to alFord the tax. If the rate be found too heavy, 
it would be much better for government to lower it, and to exact 
the tax for every tree above a certain age that a person chose to 
have in his plantation. Mr. Smee thinks the tax on coco-nuts, 
imposed by Arshid-Beg-Kh/at, too high, and has proposed to reduce 
it to one third of a Famwi. According to his own estimate, the 
average produce of a tree is worth Fanain : now above the 

Ghats the cultivators of gardens pay one half of the produce, in a 
less favourable soil and climate, and yet are reckoned to possess by 
far the most valuable property that is in the country, and new plan- 
tations are forming in every part that will admit of them. I do not 
see, therefore, why the people of Malabar should cry out against 
the tax in the manner they do : and I perfectly agree with Mr. Smee 
in thinking that the tax proposed by him is extremely moderate. 
Say, that a man has a garden containing 40 trees, rateable ac- 
cording to Mr. Smee’s plan of excluding all those which do not 
produce more than ten nuts; the produce of these, at 33 nuts a 
tree, will be 1320; which, according to Mr. Smee, are worth at 
the rate of 35 Fanatns a thousand : the produce is therefore worth- 

Fanam 47 10 

Deduct revenue - - 13 13f 

Annual charges - - 8 0 

21 13i 

Clear profit - . - - 25 Sfif- 

Out of which is to be deducted the iaterestofthe money employed 



in making the garden. But this is not the whole that the |)ropvietor CHAPrER 
of tlie garden receives. In these gardens he cultivates plantain trees 
and all kinds of kitchen stnil's, free from rent; and, what is still Occ. 10,11, 
more, he has the whole produce of the trees reckoned not productive. 

These, in a garden containing 40 productive trees, may safely be 
taken at 25 trees, each producing six nuts, which amount to 150, 
in all worth 5^: Fanamii : so that the jiroprietor’s share, after deduct- 
ing the expense of cultivation, amounts to nearly three fifths of the 
gross produce. 

This whole system of finance, however, appears to me unfavour- The 
able to the revenue, and injurious to the morals of the people. It 
can only be exacted, cither by suffering immense frauds, or by 
constant surveys carried on at a great expense ; while all the offi- 
cers of revenue, and all the proprietors will be constantly exposed 
to temptations that are scarcely to be resisted, owing to the diffi- 
culty attending their detection. The quantity of the produce of New t.i.'s pro- 
these plantations that is consumed in this country, except that fjead' 
used for distillation, is inconsiderable, and in a fiscal view may be 
altogether neglected ; and that which is exported, being a bulky 
article, may, by means of an excise, be made a source of revenue 
to any extent, compatible with leaving such a profit to the cultiva- 
tors, as to make it worth their while to raise the commodity. I un- 
derstand, that the Jlajas of Trarancore have adopted a plan some- 
what analogous with their pepper, which in the plantations of 
Malabar is one of the grand articles of produce. In their domi- 
nions, they are the only merchants who are permitted to deal with 
foreigners in that article. They take from the cultivator the whole 
pepper produced in their country, at a fixed price, and dispose of 
it in the best manner that they can. The Company have adopted 
in Bengal a similar management with respect to salt and opium, and 
even advance money to carry on the manufacture and cultivation 
of these articles of commerce ; and no doubt the same might be 
done with .the pepper, coco-nut, and Betel of Malabar. 1 am 




Value of 


inclined, however, to give the preference to duties levied on the 
export, and cheeked by an excise; it being dangerous, tyherever 
it can be avoided, for tlie sovereign to act as a merchant. My 
opinion is, therefore, that all Ncgadi, or taxes on plantations, should 
be done away in Malabar; and, in place of them, cither a tax 
should be imposed on the exportation of their produce; or the 
Company should agree to receive ail that is brought to the sea 
coast, or frontier, at such a price as would allow them a profit, and 
the cultivator a reasonable encouragement. The latter plan, of 
course, implies an absolute monopoly ; and the former, in order to 
avoid the frauds incident to duties levied bv custom-houses, re- 
quires the establishment of an excise. Either plan, however, seems 
to me greatly preferable to that system of falsehood and deceit 
which is at present employed. 

In order to judge of the value of ground cultivated with coco- 
nuts, let us suppose a plantation, as described by the proprietors of 
100 trees, which will occupy Sl,y40 square feet. Among these the 
taxable trees, according to the general proportion of the country, 
as establishetl by the survey', will be trees, producing J 122 coco- 
nuts ; to which wc m^ay safely add 12S, for those produced by trees 
not taxable. The produce is then worth to the cultivator 43-| Va- 
jmmsy besides plantains, kitchen-stuff, coco-nut leaves, &c. &c. and 
the tax paid at Mr, Smee’s rate would be 11} Famms. Reducing 
these measures to the English standard, the produce of an acre 
will be 12a‘. and the. ta.x will be 3^. taking the FanamSit 

for the Rupee. 

I have already mentioned how far the tenure by mortgage 
(Camm) is prejudicial to improvement. In order to remedy this 
in some measure, Mr. Drummond compels all landlords, Avhen sued 
for the payment of a mortgage, either to pay the money or to sell 
the estate. This seems to be contrary to the custo.mary law of the 
country, but will no doubt be advantageous. 

At Manapuram a slave, when 30 years old, costs about 100 Fanatns 



or 9,1. 14-9. 7</.; with a wife lie costs double. Children sell at from CHAPTER 


15 to 40 FanamJi, or from 8.9. 2^^/. to 21.v. 10(/. A worVjug slave 
gets daily three-tenths of z Foray rough rice, or about 36’4 bushels P‘'f- 

® •' Value of 

a year. He also gets annually 1 Fatiam for oil, and {■{■ F0nam for si.nvcs,an(l 
cloth, which is just sufficient to wrap round his waist. If he be 
active, he gets cloth worth 2 Fanams, and at harvest time from 5 to 
6 Porajfs of rough rice. Old people and children get from one to 

two-thirds of the above allowance, according to the Mmrk 'which 
they can perform. 

12tli December . — I went with Mr. Drummond to his house at D«:. 12 . 

Choregaut, which, for what reason I do not know, is called by the 


natives SliavacadUy or deadliy forest. The town is a small place, 
chiefly inhabited by Moplay.s and Nazarens, and is the sea-port 
belonging to the Naxartny town named Cunnung Colung Curry. 

On the way I e.xamined a machine, by which the natives remove Chakram, or 
superfluous U'ater from their rice-grounds, when there is no level, JaUi^owater. 
by which these can be drained. It is called Chakram, or the wheel, 
and is represented in Plate XX. Figure 51. The arms of the wheel 
are 3 feet long, and 14 inches broad, and are confined in a case 
consisting of planks, and supported by four feet (ab, ab,). That 
part of the case (b b) which is farthest from the center of the 
wheel, being placed towards the bank inclosing the field; so that 
the upper part of the segment of a circle (c c c), that lines the 
bottom of the case, is on a level with the top of the bank ; while 

all the lower part of the case is immersed in tlie water; it is evi- 
dent, that each arm of the nhccl moving from a to c-will force 

put, by the opening b c, the volume of water contained between 
the lines ad, dc, and the segment of the circle ccc. The wheel 
is moved by six men, who support themselves on slight Bamboo 
i^tages, and , push the upper arms of the wheel with their feet. Two 
sets relieve each other, and three Chakram, or 36 men, will, in the 

course of a day, clear ten Forays of three feet of water. The ten 




Porays arc 1-; acre, and the quantity of uatcr thrown out is 174,800 
cubical feet. 

lX;c. 12. 


(Ju»t<inis oi' 
the \(iin in 
the >ouih of 


The Ntizarenif priest (Papa) of Choxcgaul waited on us, to inform 
me, that luy wishes for procuring the history of the sect in India 
had been communicated to the nictroj)olitan, who desired liim to 
say, that a copy of tlie chronicle Avould be sent to me through 
Mr, Drummond. Unfortunatelv, I liavc not received anv account 
from tliat quarter. J’hc Papa denied that the Nazurtns give liberty 
to such of their slaves as are converlcfl ; |)robably thinking that 
the conversion might be attribute<l to this circumstance, more than 
to the apostolical virtues of his brethren. He also maintained, that 
the sect was rapidly increasing in numbers, and daily gaining pro- 
selytes. In these points he ditfered in his account from the Papa 
whom I had before seen. 

Having asseiv.blcd the most respectable of the A'airs in this 
neighbourhood, they gave me the following account of their 

The Nai)\ or in the j)lural the Nahnar, are the pure Sudras of 
Alalayala, and all pretend to be born soldiers ; but they are of va- 
rious ranks and professions. The highest in rank are the Kiriiitt, 
or Kirit Nairs. On all public occasions these act as cooks, which 
among Hindus is a sure mark of transcendent rank ; for every per- 
son can eat the food prepared by a person of higher birth than 
himself. In all disputes among the inferior orders, an assembly of 
four Kirums, with .some of tlie lower orders, endeavour to adjust 
the business. If they cannot accomplish this good end, the matter 
ought to be referred to the Namburis, The Kirit Naimar support 
Uiemselves by agriculture, or by acting as officers of government, 
or accomptants. They never marry a woman of any of the lower 
Nairs, except those of the Sudras, or Charnadu, and these very 
rarely. The second rank of the Nairs are called Sudra, although 
the whole arc allowed, and acknowledge themselves to be of pure 


Sudrd ong\n. Tliese Sudra Nairs are fanners, olliccrs of govern- CHAPTER 
ment, and accomptauts. They never marry any girls but tliose of 
their own rank ; but their women may cohabit with any of the low Dec. 12. 
people, without losing cast, or their children being disgraced. The 
third rank of Nairs arc the Charnadn, who follow the same profes- 
sions with their superiors, 'j'hc fourth are the nUium, or f llliit 
Nainmr, Mdio carry the palatupiins of the Namburis, of the Rajas, 
and of the persons on whom these chiefs have bestowed the privi- 
lege of using this kind of conveyance : they are also farmers. 

The fifth rank ot' Nairs are the IVattacata, or oil-makers, who are 
likewise farmers. The sixth rank, called are rather a 

low class of peojjle. When a Nair dies, his relations, as usual 
among the Hindus, arc for fifteen days considered unclean, and no 
one approaches them but the Jttacourchis, who come on the fifth, 
tenth, ami fifteenth days, and purify them by pouring over their 
heads a mixture of water, milk, and cow’s urine: the Altacourchis 
arc also cultivators. The seventh in rank are the IVullacutra, who 
are properly barbers ; but some of these also cultivate the ground. 

The eighth rank are the WuUatcrata, or Avashermen, of whom a few 
arc farmers. The ninth rank is formed of Tunar Naimar, or tailors. 

The tenth are the Andora, or pot-makers. The eleventh and lowest 
rank are the Taragon, or Aveavers ; and their title to be considered 
as Naimar is doubtful ; even a pot-maker is obliged to Avash his 
head, and purify himself by prayer, if he be touched by a weaver. 

The men of the three higher classes arc allowed to eat in com- 
pany; but their Avomen, and both sexes of all the loAvcr ranks, must 
eat only Avith those of their OAvn rank. 

Among the two highest classes arc certain persons of a superior Nambirs. 
dignity, called Nambirs. These were originally the head men of 
Disams, or villages, who received this title from an assembly of 
Namburis and Tamburans, or of priests and princes ; but all the 
children of Nambirs sisters are called by that title, and are con- 
sidered as of a rank higher than common. 

Vox.. II. 3 G 





Dec. 12. 
Priilc and 


and doc- 

The whole of these Nairs formed the militia of Malaijala, directed 
by the Nambum, and governed by the Rujh. Their chief delight 
is in arms ; but they arc more inclined to use them for assassination, 
or surprise, than in the open field. Their submission to their supe- 
riors was great ; but they exacted deference from those under them 
with a cruelty, and arrogance, rarely practised, but among Hindus 
in their state of independence. A AVnV was expected instantly to 
cut down a 7'/V/r, or Muaui, who presumed to defile him by touching 
his person ; and a similar fate awaited a slave, who did not turn out 
of the road as a Nair passed. 

The have wo Purbhilas ; but at all their ceremonies the 
Elleadu, or lowest of the Nambui'is, attend for cliarity (Dliarma), 
although on such occasions they do not read prayers ( Mantrams ) 
nor portions of scripture (Sdstrams). The Namburi Brahmans are 
the Putteris or Gurus of the Nairnar, and bestow on them holy 
water, and ashes, ami receive their Dana, and other kinds of 

The proper deity of the Nairnar cast is Vishnu; but they wear 
on their forehcatls the mark of Siva. They offer frequent bloody 
sacrifices to Marivia, and the other Saldk, in whose temples the 
disdain not to act as priests (Pujaris); but they perform 
no part of the sacrifices, and decline being present at the shedding 
of blood. The Nairs can very generally read and write. They 
never presume to read portions of the writings held sacred (Sds- 
trams); but have several legends in the vulgar language. They 
burn the dead, and suppose tljat good men after death go to heaven, 
while bad men will suffer transmigration. Those, who have been 
charitable, that is to say, have given money to religious mendicants, 
will be born men; while those, who have neglected this greatest 
of Hindu virtues, will be born as lower animals. The proper road 
to heaven they describe as follows. The votary must go to Kdsi, 
and then perform the ceremony in commemoration of his ancestors 
at Gya. lie is then to take up some water from the Bhduirathi, or 



Ganges, and pour it on the image of Siva at Ramhwara. After this CHAPTER 
lie must visit the principal Kshetras and Tirthas, or places of pil- 
grimage, such as Jagarnat, and I'ripatlii, and there he must wash in 
the Piiscarunny, or pool of water tliat sprung forth at tlie actual 
presence of the god. lie must always s[)eak truth, and give much 
charity to learned and poor Brdliinaus. He must have no carnal 
knowledge of any woman hut his wife, which witli a Nab' confines 
him to a total abstinence from the sex. And lastly, in order to ob- 
tain a place in heaven, the votary must very freiiuently fast and 

Tlic Nub'S marry before they arc ten years of age, in order that Sexual in- 
the girl may not he dcilowcrcd by the regular operations of nature; 
but the husband never afterwards cohabits with his wife. Such a 
circumstance, indeed, wouhl be considered as very indecent. He 
allows her oil, clothing, ornaments, and food ; but she lives in her 
mother’s house, or, after her parents’ death, with her brothers, and 
cohabits with any person that she chooses of an equal or higher 
rank than her own. If detected in bestowing her favours on any 
low man, she becomes an outcast. It is no kind of rellcction on a 
Avoman’s character to say, that she has formed the closest intimacy 
Avith many persons ; on the contrary, the Nair women arc proud 
of reckoning among their favoured lovers many Brahmans, Rajas, 
or other persons of high birth : it would not appear, however, 
that this Avant of restraint has been injurious to population. When 
a lover receives admission into a house, he commonly gives his 
mistress some ornaments, and her mother a piece of cloth ; but 
these presents are never of such value, as to give room for sup- 
posing that the Avomen bestow their favours from mercenary mo- 
tives. To this extraordinary manner of conducting the intercourse 
betAvecn the sexes in Maluyula, may perhaps be attributed the total 
Avant, among its inhabitants, of that penurious disposition so common 
among other Hindus. All the young people vie Avith each other, 

Avho shall look best, and Avho shall secure the greatest share of 



Dec. 12. 



Dec. 13. 
Face ol' the 


favour from tlic other sex ; and an extraordinary thoughtlessness 
concerning the future means of subsistence is very prevalent. A 
Kair man, who is detected in fornication with a Shanar woman, is 
put to death, and the woman is sold to Moplays. If he have 
connection with a slave girl, both are put to death ; a most shock- 
ing injustice to the female, who, in case of refusal to her lord, 
>vould be subject to all the violence of an enraged and despised 

In consequence of this strange manner of propagating the spe- 
cies, no Nair knows his father ; and every man looks upon his 
sisters’ children as his heirs. He, indeed, looks upon them with the 
same fondness that fathers in other parts of the world have for their 
own children ; and he would be considered as an unnatural monster, 
were he to show such signs of grief at the death of a child, which, 
from long cohabitation and love with its mother, he might suppose 
to be his own, as he did at the death of a child of his sister. A 
man's mother manages his family ; and after her death his eldest 
sister assumes the direction. Brothers almost always live under the 
same roof ; but, if one of the family separates from the rest, he is 
always accompanied by his favourite sister. Even cousins, to the 
most remote degree of kindred, in the female line, generally live 
together in great harmony ; for in this part of the country love, 
jealousy, or disgust, never can disturb the peace of a Nair family. 
A man’s moveable property, after his death, is divided equally 
among the sous and daughters of all his sisters. His landed estate 
is managed by the eldest male of the family ; but each individual 
has a right to a share of the income. In case of the eldest male 
being unable, from infirmity or incapacity, to manage the affairs of 
the family, the next in rank does it in the name of his senior. 

The Naimr are excessively addicted to intoxicating liquors, and 
are permitted to eat venison, goats, fowls, and fish. 

13th December . — Having taken leave of my kind friends, Messrs. 
Waddel and Drummond, 1 went about twelve miles to Faliencadu, 



which in our maps is called Billiancotta. The road passes over CHAPTER 
sandy downs near the sea, and on each side has a row of Banyan 
trees (Ficus bengalensis ) ; but in such situations they do not thrive. Dec. i3. 
To the right were large plantations of coco-nut trees and rice fields. 

Toward the sea were scattered a few groves of palms. The appear- 
ance of the country is very inferior to that of the inland parts of 

the province. 

Valkncodu is a small open village, containing about 45 houses, 
and a few shops. Near it is a ruinous fort. It is situated in a dis- 
trict called Vaneri Nadu, which belonged to the Peneturu Raja, Pmeturu 
one of those who were dependent on the Tamuri, and who now re- ^*^^**‘ 
ceives from the Company a fifth part of the revenue. Being a man 
'of some abilities, he is entrusted, under the authority of the col- 
lector, with the management of the revenue. I was visited by a 
relation of his, called the ManacaUitu Rajd, who came with a Nam- 
buri, and eight or ten Nairs, following his palanquin. He was a 
poor looking old man, stupified with drink. He said, that one-half 
of his own country, and that of his kinsman, had been situated in 
the Cochi Rdjd's dominions, and that they had been entirely stript 
of this share ever since they fled to Traxancorc to avoid Tippoo's 
bigoted persecution. He afterwards began to talk as if the Com- 
pany had taken from him the remainder ; but he became sensible 
of his error, on being asked Avhat he possessed when the Company 
conquered Malabar, 

The province of Malabar has no very large temples ; and even Religioo* 
those which are dedicated to the great gods are of very miserable 
structure. Those dedicated to the Sahtis are few in number, and 

are not ornamented with images of potter’s work, like those of 
Coimbetore. There are no buildings for the accommodation of tra- 
vellers. Near the sea-coast are many Meshids, or mosques, built 
by the Moplays. These are poor edifices with pent roofs. 

The Niadis are an outcast tribe common in Malabar, but not nu- customs o£ 
merous. They are reckoned so very impure, that even a slave will 




Pec. 13 . 

not touch them. They speak a very bad dialect, and have acquired 
a j)rodigious strength of voice, by being constantly necessitated to 
bawl aloud to those with whom they wish to speak. They absolutely 
refuse to perform any kind of labour; and almost the only means 
that they employ to procure a subsistence is by watching the crops, 
to drive away wild hogs and birds. Hunters also employ them to 
rouse game; and the AchiwHirs, who hunt by profcssir)n, give the 
NUkUs one fourth part of what they kill. They gather a few wild 
roots, but can neither catch fish, nor any kiml of game, fhey 
sometimes procure a tortoise, and are able, by means of hooks, to 
kill a crocodile, lloth of these amphibious animals they reckon 
delicious food. v\ll these resources, however, arc \ ery imuhuiuate 
to their support, and they subsist chiefly by begging. They have 
scarcely any clothing, and every thing about them discloses want 
and misery. They have some wretched huts Imilt under Irccs in 
remote places ; but they generally wander almut in companies of 
leu or twelve, persons, keeping at a little distance from the loads ; 
and when they see any passenger, they set up a howl, like so many 
hungry dogs. Those who arc moved by compassion lay down what 
they are inclined to bestow, and go away. The A7ut//sthen put what 
has been left for them in the baskets w'hich they always carry alxnit. 
The Niadis worship a female tlcity calUal MaUukica, and samitice 
fowls to her in March, When a person dies, all those in the neigh- 
bourhood asseml.ile and bury the body. They have marriage 
ceremony ; but one man and one woman always cohabit together ; 
and among them infidelity, they say, is utterly unknown. 

A wretched tribe of this kind, buft'eted and abuscti by every 
one, and .subsisting on the labour of the industrious, is a disgrace 
to any country; and both compassion and justice seem to reijuire, 
that they shouldbc compelled to gain a livelihood by honest industry, 
and be elevated somewhat more nearly to the rank of men. I’crhaps 
Moravian missionaries might be employed with great success, and 
at little c.xpense, in civilising and rendering industrious the rude 


aiul io’norant tribes that frequent the M’oods and hills of the penin- 
sula of India? In the execution of such a plan, it would be neces- 
sary to transport the Niadis to some country east from Alalahar, in 
order to remove them from the contempt in which they will always 
be held by the hitcher ranks of that country. 

The Shanar, who in the <lialect of MaUiyala arc properly called 
7'irtc, are in Malabar a very numerous tribe, and a stout, handsome, 
industrious race. They do not pretend to be oi Sudra t)rigin, and 
acknowledge themselves to be of the impure race called 
but still they retain all the pride of cast; and a Tiati, or female of 
this cast, although reduced to prostitution, has been known to 
refuse going into a gentleman's palanquin, because the bearers were 
Alaatar, or fishermen, a still lower class of people. All can 
eat together, and intermarry. The proper duty of the cast is to 
extract the juice from palm trees, to boil it down to Jagorjj, and to 
distil it into spirituous liquors; but they are also very diligent as 
cultivators, porters, and cutters of firewood. They have no here- 
ditary chiefs, and all disputes among them are referred to the Tarn- 
biiran, or oHicers of government. In every Dexam certain I'iars 
were formerly appointed to a low office, called Tondan, which gave 
them powers similar to those enjoyed by the Tb/w above thcG/w/^. 
At present, the duties of these officers arc confined to an attendance 
at marriages and funerals, where they receive some trifling dues. 
The Tiars have certain families among them, who are called Panikin. 
These can read and write, and instruct the laity, so far as to enable 
some of them to keep accompts. They are the only Gurux received by 
this cast ; and are supposed to dedicate their time to prayer and reli- 
gious duties, on which account they receive charity. The Panikin 
intermarry with the laity. The deities of the cast are a male nametl 
Mundien^ and a female named Bagawutty. On holy days these arc 
represented by two rude stones, taken up for the occasion, and, 
during the ceremony, placed under a shed ; but afterwards thrown 
away, or neglected. At these ceremonies a fowl is offered up as a 




Dec , } 

Customs of 
the Tiars p or 



CHAPTER sacrifice, and a Nair is employed to kill it before the idols. The 
same Nair acts as Pujdri for the god Mundiea, adorns the stone 
Dec, 13. witli flowers, anoints it with oil, and presents it with fruit. A Narn- 
buri is employed to he Pujdri to Bagawutty, and this is the only 
occasion on which the Tiars give that class of men any employment. 
The Panikim attend at marriages, but do not rcail any thing on 
these occasions. The I'iars seem to be entirely ignorant of a state 
of existence after death. Some of them burn, and some of them 
bury tlie dead. They are permitted to cat swine, goats, fowls, and 
fish; and have no objection to eat animals that iiave died a natural 
death. They may also drink distilled liquors, but not palm wine. 
In fact, they are not so much addicted to intoxication as the Nairs. 
In wealthy families, each man takes a wife; but this being consi- 
dered as expensive, in poor families the brothers marry one wife in 
common, and sleep with her by turns. If either of the brothers 
becomes discontented, he may marry another woman. 'I'lie whole 
family lives in the same house, even should it contain two Avomen ; 
and it is reckoned a proof of a very bad temper, where two brothers 
live in separate hou.scs. It must be observed, that in Malabar a 
family of children are not reckoned burthensome ; so that the Tiars 
arc induced to adopt this uncommon kind of wedlock, merely to 
save the trifling expense of several marriages, the whole amount of 
one of Avhich is as follows: four Fananis [9.S.) given to the girl’s 
parents, a piece of cloth given to herself, and a feast given to the 
relations. Many of the Avomen are thus unprovided Avith husbands, a 
thing very uncommon in India; and, their remarkable beauty ex- 
posing them to much temptation, a great many Tiatis in the sea- 
port tOAvus are reduced to prostitution. Women continue to be 
marriageable after the age of puberty, and after the death of a 
former husband. Adulteresses arc flogged, but not divorced, unless 
the crime has been committed with a man of another cast, A Nam- 
biiri, who condescended to commit fornication with a Tiati, would 
formerly have been deprived of his eyes, and the girl and all her 



relations would either have been put to death, or sold as slaves to 
the Aloplays, avIio sent them beyond the sea; abauislunent dreadfid 
to every Hindu, and still more so to a native of Mahbar, who is 
more attached to his native spot than any other person that I 

Having examined the Tiars concerning tlieir customs, 1 then 
questioned them about the coco-nut plantations ; and the account 
■which they gave ought to be compared with that which was given 
at Skctuzcai by the proprietors. The 7'iars say, that there is no d's- 
tinction between palms that will produec juice, and those that will 
not ; the trees that would produce a good crop o(“ nuts will produce 
much juice, and sometimes continue to bleed the whole year. Poor 
trees give juice in tlic rainy season only, and even then in small 
quantity. Tliey agree with the farmers in allowing, that trees 
giving juice arc more profitable than those producing nuts ; but 
the extraction of this liquor is apt to injure the palm, and, if con- 
tinued for three yeai's, will kill it. The rent paid by liars here for 
twelve good coco-nut trees is one Fanam for twelve months in the 
year. That paid for Irad trees is at the same monthly rate, but is 
only p.iid for six months in the year. The proper management of a 
coco-nut palm requires, that it should be allowed to bear fruit two 
years ; after which, toddy should be extracted from it for eighteen 
months, and never afterwards. 

When the spadi.v, or llowering branch, is half shot, and the spatha, 
or covering of the tlowers, has not yet opened, the Tiar cuts off its 
point, binds the stump round with a leaf, and beats the remaining 
part of the spadix with a small stick. For fifteen days thi.s operation 
ts repeated, a thin slice being daily removed. The stump then 
begins to bleed, and a pot is fixed under it to receive the juice, or 
Callu, which the English call Toddy. Every day afterwards, a thin 
slice is taken from the surface of the stump, which is then secured 
by a ligature ; but after it has begun to bleed, the beating is omitted. 
The juice is removed once a day% If it be intended for drinking, 3H 


Dfc. 13. 



Callu ^ or 




Dec. 13. 

Produce of a 



nothing is put into the pot, and it will keep for tlirce days. On 
the fourth day it becomes sour; and what has .not been sold to drink 
while fermenting, is distilled in*^ > arrack: the still is like that de- 
scribed at Malar, but the head is made of tin. The liquor is dis- 
tilled without addition, and the spirit is not rectified. In the pots 
intended to receive juice that is to be boiled to Jagonj, a little quick 
lime must be jnit, to prevent fermentation; and the juice must be 
boiled on the same day that it is taken from the tree. Twelve trees 
daily fill with juice a large pot, which, nhen boiled <lown, gives 
six balls oi' Jagori/, each worth one Cans; that is, 180 Caas, or 5 
Fanams, a month for the produce of twelve trees ; out of which the 
T/Vir pays one Fanam to the proprietor of the trees, and has four 
Fanams for his trouble. 'I’he Tiars say, that a man cannot manage 
more than twelve trees; the cultivators allege, that an active man 
can manage four times that number. 

The eoco-uut palm, timing the season tliat it is productive, 
pushes out a new spadic once a month ; and after each spadiv begins 
to bleed, it continues to produce freely fora month, by' which time 
auotlier is ready to suj)ply its place. Tlie old spadix continues to 
give a little juice for another nionth, alter M'hich it withers; so 
that tlicrc are never more than two pots to one tree. Each of these 
spadices, if allowed to grow, wouid produce a hunch of nuts, con- 
taining from two to twenty. When the nuts are veiy numerous, 
they grow to an inconsiderable size, and arc of little value; and 
from seven to ten good nuts may be considered as the average pro- 
duce of each bunch. Trees in a favourable soil produce twelve 
bunches in the year; ordinary trees give only six bunches. From 
this it does not appear to me, that the gross average produce can 
be possibly calculated at less than lil’ty nuts a tree. 




UOtriE I-UOM VAT.ll.XC'OUl' TO CO DL AV ir I, L V, TlUiOliOll I’AWAM 

l~\KCr'^] l>i‘’-R l ith.— I wont asliort to Pani/ani. Soon after 
ioavin;;’ Palicucotlu, I ontssctl tlic nioutli of a small river, wbieli, 
by the inllux of salt w.itcr as it approaolies the sea, is extended to 
a "icat widtii. 1 was fin tied over it by means of two canoes lashed 
together, w iiicli forms a very safe conveyance for hajjgage, or foot 
p isscagei s, Imt is not adapted for cattle, the latter being forceil to 
swim. Orders have beirn issued l)y the commissioners to construct 
pi\;pcr stages on canoes at every f(‘rry ; so that cattle, and even 
aitilb’ry, may lie transpurtctl with safety. The canoes in this part 
o[' Maliihiir are among the best and handsomest that I have ever 

<dn the, north suit' of the river is some level marshy ground, into 
wliicli the ticlf is received, and salt is formed by the. evaporation of 
the water l»y the heat of the sun. Ilelween this and Punythii the 
country is very beautiful, aiul thickly cov ered with groves of coco- 
nut trees, which arc separated by rice-lieids that are now covered 
with the second croj). This, how'cvcr, by no means looks thriving. 
On tlic sand of tin; sca-sliore may he lierc seen flourishing the 
coeo-mit palm. It is said, that in such situations it produces fruit 
for ten years only ; but that is of little conscupicnee ; as it seems to 
he reared at a very trilling e.xpcnse, aiul i.s afterwards left entirely 
to nature. 

Panyani is also called by the natives Ptmanj/ IVacul, and contains 
500 houses belonging to traders, with above forty mosques, and at 



Dec. 14. 
rVnies, and 
hoiiis u! il/a* 
Itibar, of the 

Panyuni^ or 
Punany /K/r* 



XII. ' 





least 1^0 huts inhabited by the lower orders of people. It is very 
irregularly built; but many ^f the houses are two stories high, 
and seem to be very comfortable dwellings. They are built of 
stone, and thatched witli coco-nut leaves. The huts are inhabited 
hy boatmen and tishermen, who were formerly Mucuas, a low cast 
of Hindus ; but now they have all embraced the faith of Mahomet. 
All the mosques are thatched, and their principal entrance is at the 
east end, where the roof terminates abruptly in fanciful mouldings, 
and carved work, that by the natives are considered as ornamental. 
The town is scattered over a sandy plain, on the south sitle of a 
river, which descends from Ani-malaya^ and enters the sea by a very 
wide channel. The mouth, however, is shut by a bar, which admits 
boats only to enter. 

The trading boats arc called Patemars, and on an average carry 
50,000 coco-nuts, or 1000 Mudics of rice, equal to .500 Bengal 
bags. There are many Patemars larger, but these seldom frequent 
this port. 

About fifty years ago the Moploys of this place were very rich, 
and possessed vessels that sailed to Surat, Mocha, Madras, and 
Bengal ; but the oppression of Tippoo has reduced them to great 
poverty, and most of them are now under the necessity of acting as 
agents to ^Fonsa, a Mussulman merchant of Tellichery. They have, 
iiowevcr, a few small boats, that go to Tellichery and Calicut for 
supplies of luiropcan and Bengal goods. The port is also frequented 
by vessels ( Patemars ) from diftcrent places on the coast. Those 
from Bombay bring wheat, Mcti, or fenugreek, the pulses called 
IPulindu, Pyru, and Jvaray, sugar-cane, Jagory, and salt ; they take 
back 'Tcak-xi'ood and coco-nuts. Trom Rqja-puram, a town in the 
Marattahinivt oi' Kankuna, vessels (Patemars) bring the same kinds 
of grain that are brought from Bombay, and also sngar-cane,, Ja- 
gory, and Cut, or Terra Japonica : they take away the same returns. 
Trom Gheria, in the same country, are brought much Jagory and 
Cut, and coco-nuts are taken in return. Goa sends the same kind 



of goods that are brought from Bombay. Much rice is exported CHAPTEn 
from hence to the northern parts of the province of Malabar. There 
is no trade between Panyuni and the Maldives. From Cochin are Dec. 14. 
brought canoes, spices, sugar, sugar-cane, Jagory, wheat, and mus- 
tard-seed ; and the returns are iron smelted in the interior parts of 
the country, and rice both rough and freed from the husk. From 
Anjengo are brought cotton cloths Avrought there, and coco-nuts. 

No account is kept here of the arrivals or departures of vessels 
(Patemars); but in the custom-house books every article exported 
or imported ought to be entered. The returns of these, which I 
expected from Mr. Drummond the collector, have not reached 


Pany/mi is the residence of the Tangul, or chief priest of the Mophys, 
MoplaySy who says that he is descended from All and Fatima, the 
daughter of Mahomet. Both the Tangul, and his sister’s son, wlio 
according to the custom of Malayatu is considered as the heir to 
this hereditary dignity, are very stout, handsome, fair men, but from 
their countenances would not be suspected to belong to the priest- 
hood. The nephew is a middle-aged man, and at the jollity of a 
marriage, a few days ago, exerted himself so much, that he 'burst a 
blood vessel in his lungs, and could not venture to speak. The 
Tangul was remarkably civil, and, when I returned his visit in the 
evening, received me with great hospitality, and requested me to 
cat with him ; a thing very uncommon with the natives of India, 
lie promised to send me an account of the arrival of his sect in 
this country, aud.has kept his promise. It is written in Arabic, and 
is said to be the original from which Ferishta translated the account 
of this colony that is given in his Avorks. The Tangul says, that 
his people are called Moplaymar in Malayala ; and Lubbaymar at 
Madras; but among themselves they acknowledge no other name 
than that of Mussulmans. Being of Arabic extraction, they look 
upon themselves as of a more honourable birth than the Tartar 
Mussulmans from the north of India, tvho of course are of the 




) )*‘C. 1 1. 

lu c. r>. 

KlCO ol llie 

contrary opinion. Tlic Arabs settled in India soon alter the pro- 
ninli^ation of the faith of .Mahomet, and liavc made very numerous 
converts; but in many familie.s of distinction the Arab blood seems 
us yet nncontaminated. '.rhey use a Avritten character pecidiar to 
themsehes, and totally dilierent from the j)re.scnt Arabic. Tlje 
l;ni<>ua;fe of their ori<> inal country is known to f(;\v of them, except 
their priests ; and they' have never ac<inired the language of the 
country in nhieh they live so as to speak it in tleccnt jmrity', but a Jargon as ('orrnpte<l as I’.uropeans in general speak for 
IlindKstiuti/. The Mophyjn ol' Malabar are both traders and farmers ; 
the Lnhli<nj'inays of Madras coniim; themselves entirely t(j tin; former 
profession. As traders, they are remarkably <piii‘t, industrious 
peo[)le ; but v. lio in th.e interior parts of Malabar \va\v liecome 
farmers, having b»H.'n eneourage'.l by Tippua m a most lieeiilious at- 
tack on the lives, persons, and properly of tin* liia/lu.s, are (ieice, 
blood-thirsty, bigoted rulhaiis. In religions matters, the 'Idai^i/l h 
the licad of this seel, and his olliee is heicdilaiy. Mosijnes arc 
very numerous. In eaeh |)rc.sides an Imam, or Malhi, appointed hy 
the lie usually he^tov.s the offu'c on the sister's son, or 

heir of the person who last enjoyed the oliiee, unless he shonhl 
happen to he disrjualified by ignoram:e, or immorality. 'I'hc Taagal 
lias .some lands, for wiiieh be pays no tax; nut the inferior clergy 
are supported entirely hy the contrihutionT ofiheir followers. The 
kite Salh'iii, will) wished to mak«; innovations in (. very thing, did not 
re.sjiect this descendant of Ink piophet; hut ajiiiointed another head 
for the priests of his faith in Malabar. 'J’his person, called y/yY//»i 
'iangal, resides at Panpinn ; but hi.s followers arc now reduced to 
tive or six families, and he has lost one half of the property that 
Tippoo bestowed on his new favourite. 

l.)th Dtrcmljcr. — 1 went a long stage to yldannd. The country 
bet vv ecu Paiii/diii and 'I'crnacaij, although higher than tlic sea-shore, 
is level ; and consists entirely' of rice-groniuls, whieli annually pro- 
duce only one crop, and of whicdiagreat part seems to be waste. 



On leaving the se:i-coast, the number of trees, cspeeially of coco- CIIAI'I EII 
nut palms, decreases last. I crossed tlic Panyum river at Ternavd}!, 
where there is a small temple, hut no town. The channel of tin ])rr. i.;i. 
river is very wide; but at this season most of it is occupied by dry 
sands. The water is clear, and the stream gentle ; the fords are, 
however, bad, owing to the <!epth of water, which in most parts is 
four feet, and no where less than three. Cattle, in crossing it, must 
therefore be unloaded, and the baggage carried to the other side 
by the drivers. This river in the rainy season is navigable for 
canoes up to Pali-ghat. 

After crossing this river, I came to a country like that near the* 
Nazaroiy town in tiio. Rr/zu's' dominions, and consisting (,p 

narrow vallics surroutidctl by low bare hills. The vallies jyroduec 
annually two crops of i ice ; each having a peroiiiiitil stream, that is 
applied to the irrigation of the soil. Tlie roots of the hills .are occu- 
pied by the liouscs and plantations of the natives ; and their sides 
in many jdaces have been formed into terraces; but these arc very 
badly cultivated, considering the abundance of rain in this country, 
wliich will ensure plenty of water for any crop that does not rcfiuire 
more than four months to come to maturity. The soil, in le.any 
places of these bills, is very intractable, and consists of a kind of 
indurated clay, which, on c.xposurc to the air, bi.'comes as hard as a 
brick, and serves indee<lall the purposes of stone. 

Adanadh no town, but is celebrated as the throne, of the Akun- X/ /'/<.' / 
gheri Tamburuciil, or chief of the Xamburis, who are the. Brahmans 
of Malayala. Soon after my arrival I sent a message, by a Brahman, 

to know, whether it would be most agreeable to this person to re- 
ceive a visit from me, or for him to come to mv tent, 'i'lie answer 
was, that he would be very hap})y to see me whenever I was ready. 
My politeness was lost on the Brahman, who kept me waiting in an 
outer apartment until iny patience was exhausted, and I returned 
to my tents without the honour of an interview. I then sent to 
him an order from the governmf.;ut of Madras, commanding all 

424 - 


CHAPTER persons to give me such Information as I wanted, and desired liim 
to come to my tent. This was complied with, and he came attended 
Dec. 15. by several Namburis. The Alvangheri Tamburacul having been 
seated on a chair, whicli he took care should be higher than mine, 
I soon discovered that he was an idiot, who grinned with a foolish 
laugh when the most serious questions were proposed to him. His 
attendants, however, were men of good sense, and apparently well 
informed ; and from them the following account is taken. 

The present ThwAwracM/ is descended in the male line from the Brah- 
man who was appointed to that high dignity by Barasu-rama, when he 
created Malayala and gave it to the Namburis. When a Tamburacul 
is likely to die without male children, he adopts a male of the same 
family, and appoints him successor ; but, if he have sons, the eldest 
succeeds of course. Sankara Acharua, about 1000 years ago, came to 
Malabar, and made some reforms in the discipline oi \.\\q Brahmans ^ 
but the then Tamburacul was far from acknowledging the supe- 
riority of that personage, and the present one considers himself as 
much higher in dignity than the Sringa-giri Swami, who is the suc- 
cessor of Sankara Acharya, and chief of the Smartal Brahmans. The 
Tamuri Raja, as I liave already mentioned, affected to consider 
himself as inferior only to the invisible gods ; but this pretension 
is treated with the utmost contempt by the Namburis, the lowest of 
whom is of a much higlier birth than any prince on earth. This 
high opinion of themselves is attributed to the power that they 
have of influencing the gods by their invocations ( Mantrams), 
especially to the power which they have, by means of certain forms 
of prayer, of rendering an image the residence of a god. The Nam- 
buris pretend, that while this country was governed by princes ap- 
pointed by the Sholun Rajas, these viceroys w'ere entirely subject 
to the Alrangkcri Tamburaculs, and did nothing more than, by 
means of the civil arm, carry their orders into execution. WJicn 
the oftice of R&j& came to be hereditary, by the appointment of 
Cheruman Pcrmal, the Tamburacul still ^iretended to have a right to 



dispose of the government ; hut his power was confined to the per- 
formance of a ceremony called Putapayshacuvi, which is somewhat 
analogous to the anointing that our kings use. On this occasion, 
the Tamhuracul and his Namburis received much Dana, and other 
charities; but they had no authority to reject the next heir. All 
the Rajas, except the Feint family, had, for many generations before 
the conquest, given up the ceremony of Putapat/slincnm. The Rajas 
possessed no autliority to punish any Namburi, farther than, in case 
of some very atrocious crime, to banish him from their dominions. 
The Namburis were subject to the jurisdiction of the Alvangheri, 
who in his judgments was always assisted by a council of learned 
men, and guided by the Hindu law. The book that they consult 
on this subject is the Asocha Prapaschittum, composed hyVkla Vpdsa, 
one of the gods, who assumed the form of a Rishi, and was also the 
author of the eigbteeu Purdnas. The laws of Menu seem to be 
totally unknown to the Namburis, who all pretend to be Vaidikus, 
nor do any of them follow lay professions. Few of them, however, 
are men of learning. I'hc only book on astronomical subjects that 
those here could mention was the Joiis Sdsfram, which, from their 
account, is a wmrk on astrology. They will neither eat nor drink 
■with the Brahmans of other countrie.s, whom they call Puttar, and 
whom they consider as very inferior to themselves in dignity. The 
others are equally proud ; and these allege, that Sankara Achdrpa, 
in consequence_ of their disobedience, cursed the Namburis, and 
degraded them below the faithful Brahmans, who adhered to his 
council. The Namburis, like other Brahmans, marry, and live with 
their wives, of whom they take as many as they are able to support. 
A Namburi's children are also considered as his heirs. They do not 
lose cast on account of fornication with a Sudra woman ; and in- 
deed, in order to prevent themselves from losing dignity by becom- 
ing too numerous, the younger sons of a Namburi family seldom 
marry. They live with the elder brother, and assist the ladies of 
the Rtijas, and of the Nairs of distinction, to keep up their families; 
VoL. II. 3 I 


Dec. 15. 






IjtfrLs by Tip- 


Sttni buddies. 


aud ill general they are the most favoured lovers, the young women 
of rank and beauty seldom admitting any person to their bed, hut 
a llrahjiuin, and more especially a Numburi. A Namburi woman 
loses east for inlidelity, even if the crime has been committed with 
a A'amhuri. Many Kumhuris liave lost cast by having committcil 
iminlcr, or by having eaten forbidden things. In such cases, their 
eiiildreu have in general become ^Mussulmans. 'I'lic Namburis eat 
no kind of animal 1‘ood, and drink no spirituous liquofvS. They burn 
the dead, but a widow is not expected to perish on the funeral pile 
with the bodv of her husband. The Aamhuris. like the SmarlaL 

tj ' ' 

allege, that Siva, Brahma, and i'hhnn arc the same god ; and most 
of them, like the Sinar/al, wear the mark of but the Alvan'- 

ghcri Tamburavul uses tlie mark of Vishnu, T hey are not too proud 
to be Pujuris, or priests, in oven the temples of the Saktis ; a cir- 
cumstance that the Brahmans of the East do not fail to mention, in 
ordcM' to render their rivals contemptible. 

On the accession ot' Tippoo, the Nambiiris met with much trouble; 
and manv of them were caught and circuincised. Those, who could 
escape lied to Travancorc. It was three years alter tlic Company 
obtained possession of before the Alvanghcri Tumburacul 

would return to thi.s liis proper residence. The Maiam is now re- 
built, and a tlnonc is erecting for his seat. The Company allow 
g5,()(K) Rupees a year for the Namburis who ofticiatc in the temples. 

Every Namburi who stains hi.s hands with blood ought to become 
an outcast ; but an exception was made in favour of Putter, and his 
companions, who nndertook to assassinate Sholun Permal, as I have 
already mentioned, llcfore he dcjiartcd on this enterprize, the 
A'amburis promised, that, in consideration of the lautlable intention 
with which the deed was uadei taken, the law should not be enforced 
against men who were acting for the good of a cast so favoured by 
the gods. After Putter and hi.s companions, however, had mur- 
dered the unsuspecting prince, and had made their csca|>c to the 
tank where the Brahmans were performing their devotions, they 


became struck willi horror, aiul, sittinjj; <lo\\ ii on (lie stc|»^, c\- CIIAPI KU 
claimed, “ llou' can we with our bloody hands approacdi such pure 
Indni^’S !" The /»yv/.vwr//?,y replied, that, in conscijuencc of (he pro- Dee, !.*>. 
miscs which had hceu madi", if they had come dow n they iiuist. 
have been received ; hut, as llicy had chosen to sit a! a distance, 
conscious ot‘ their impurity, they must ever at’tcrwards lie consi- 
dered as iuiorior to the The descendants of these per- 
sons arc to this day ('.ailed Nanibiuldii, or on '•'cps, and arc 

considered by the A y/w/Awm as not much higher in rank than lin/ds, 
or other princes. 

iGlh iJc'crn/lirr. — I went to 7'ri/nlnii, a small market f Hnzur) of 40 n.-r. i(t 
or aO houses, sitn.aled on the south liank of tlic river. It is iiihaluled * ' ' ■' 
hy Hindus, lirought l>y 7//)/'^'''' the eonntrv tollie eastward, with 
a view of aecommodal ing travellers hy beeping sliops. Tliis is a Im- 
siness to which tlie original inli.ahilants of Malinjul't has e a great 
dislike. The [)lacc is situated in the great roiile hetween. Puli-^lnit 
on one hand, and ('ulicul and J\nnf(tni on the other. It is, of course, 
a very great thorouglifare ; luit the roads are exceedingly had, 
or, rather, there i.s no road whatever. I'hc ( (uintry through which 
I passed consists of inmimcralde low hills, di’. ided from each other 
by narrow vallics, whicli indeed is I lie case almost every Avhere in 
Mulapu/u, or the hilh/ toun/n/. 

17th DecciniH’r , — I remained at ’I'ntalu'i, ondcavoiiring to obtain Dsc. 17. 
an account of the agriculture and produce of the neighbourhood ; 
but found a great difliculty from tbc fears of the natives, who 
consider every itujuiiy as being made with a view of increasing 
their burthens, and therefore wish to make their condition appear 

as poor as they can. 

The most intelligent farmers here give me the following account uvaibcriti 

,^1 hlalabar, 

or the weather. 

In Canni (14th September — 14th Oetoher) they have strong 
winds from the westward, with a considerable quantity of rain, and 

much thunder. 





Hec. 17. 

In Tulam (lotli October — I3th November) the westerly winds 
generally continue j but tbc rains abate, and come once only in 
four or five days. They arc accompanied by much thunder. 

In Vrichka (14th November — 12th December), or s(jmetimes in 
Tulam, tbe winds change to the eastward, and blow strong through 
the Am-inalaya passage. Three or four times in the course of this 
month there comes heavy rain from the eastward. IJy the natives, 
the air is reckoued very cold. To my feelings, the days were very 
hot, but the nights cool and pleasant. The cool air of the night, 
however, is apt to produce, on those Avho sleep exposed .to its in- 
fluence, a disease named Vatum. In this, the legs are drawn up to 
the buttocks, and become stiff and emaciated ; and, if the patient 
escape with life, he never recovers the full use of his limbs. The 
disease, from the accounts of the natives, seems to he a violent 
rheumatism followed by palsy; I have,’ however, had no oppor- 
tunity of tracing its progress. 

Iw Danu (13th December — 11th January) there are pretty strong 
winds from the south, and the air is still colder. These winds also 
produce jhe tktmiu All this month there are strong fogs and dews, 
but seldom rain. 

In Alacara (12th January — ^yth February) there is no rain, and 
less fog than before ; but the dews continue heavy. The winds 
are easterly and strong, and the weather is cool. The Jack fruit, 
called Chaca by the natives (Artocarpus integrijolia), is ripe, which 
•is about six weeks earlier than at Calcutta, 

In Cumbha (lOth February — 11th March) there are very strong 
easterly winds, but no rain, and very slight dews. The weather 
begins to get hot. Mangoes arc in season. 

InJ/h?a(12th March — 10th April) there is very seldom any 
rain, and most of the rivulets become dry. The weather is hot, 
with slight breezes from the eastward. Mangoes continue in season. 

In Mayda (11th April — llth May) the winds change to the 
westward, and there are four or five heavy showers, which are 



accompanied by thunder, and gencraliy fall at night. The heat is C1IAPTI:r 
great. This is the commcuccnient of the plotighing season. 

In Ayduma, or as it is also called Vrlshuppu (15th May — 1 1 (h J une), ixc, ir. 
the winds are westerly, and not strong. M‘>dcratc rains lor the 
iirst half of the month, and these are sometimes accompanied by 
hail. The heat abates considerably. Toward the end of the nionlli 
the rains become very heavy, and are accompanied by much 

In Maylum (15th June — I3th July) the rains increase, with 
strong westerly wind's, and much thunder; the heat is moderate. 

In Carcataca (I4th July — 13th August) there is less thunder; but 
the westerly winds, and the rains, increase in violence. There is 
seldom a fair day, or even any considerable intermission from 

In Sifigliium (l4th August — 13th September) the rains and wind 
somewhat abate, and the thunder is moderate. 

The lo- 'dlls occupy a very large proportion of the country, and parumim 
are clear from woods. Their sides arc formed into terraces for the 

into Ifi lari' 

cultivation of hill-rice, E/iu (Scsainiim), ami Shamutf ( Pankum 
miliarc E. M.). The violence of the rain is such, that it would 
sweep away any thing which was .sown on a sloping surface ; and 
it is merely to prevent this, that the terraces have been formed. 

They are seldom so level, however, as to enable the cultivator to 
confine the rain, and inumlate their surface. The wiiolc that can 
be cultivated has been <livided into terraces ; but that in a very 

slovenly manner, very different indeed from the hills in ( hina. 
Trom the same field a good crop can be had once only in live years, 
'1 his kind of laud is licre called Muluyti. or hill; and is partlv tiic 
jnoperty of tlu; government, and partly that of the landlords (Jetivi- 
cars). That belonging to government is cnltiv.atcd by the neigh, 
boiiring fariner.s, rent free ; that belonging to the private iaudloni- 
pays thorn one fourth of the produce. 

Dhaamurry, or Paddum, or low land, besides the tax to govciu- 

NillM'.* < >. uti- 

inent, pays to the proprietor from one to lour Forays of rough rice d'lm Lr-i 



Chapter tor every Poray candum. If a Foray candum ])ay four Forays to the 
^ proprietor, it is called a four Fatnin land ; if it pay three Forays, it is 
Dec. 17. called three Fatom land ; and so on. The two hij^hest kinds of land 
produce two crops in the year, the others produce only one. The 
land-tax is in the proportion of I f l ir'-Rdya Fanain for every Fatom 
rent. 'Ihus tour Falom-land pays live Vananis land-tax, which is at 
the rate of iiOA'. 5d. an acre. The rcinaiuder left to the proprietor 
is at the rate ot l6'.s'. 'id. The worst land ]):iys at the rate of one- 
tourth of the best. The people at first would not acknowledi*c that 
the best land produced more than ten Forays upon one Foray can- 
dam; but, by putting a number of (piestions to them, of A\'hich they 
coidd not perceive the tendency, they were soon induced to con- 
fess, that they had concealed the truth. The coininoii interest of 
money is 12 per cent, jier annum; but as money jeut on mortgage 
(Canum) is perfectly secure, lour Forays of rough rice are reckoned 
an ade(|uate interest for 100 Vir'-Rdya Fatunns advanced on mort- 
gage. If the farmer (Cudian), therefore, as usual here, advance 
100 Fanntns on a Foray candum of the best land, the interest of the 
money is o<}nal to the rent (Fatom), and the landlord (Je.nmcar) 
has no right to any thing, but a bunch of plantains, or some 
.such trifle, as an acknowledgment of tenure: but it is customary, 
on account of the high rank of the landlord, for the farmer to give 
him, as a mark of respect, a small quantity of grain. On this ac- 
count, on a Foray candum of the best quality, eight-tenths of a 
Foray of rough rice are usually given. The farmer therefore gives 

for a Foray of land of the first quality as 
For Fatom, or rent 

follows : 



For Negadi 5 Fanams " " 1 

For charges of collection .j ditto - J 



For present to the landlord 



For seed of twm crops 



For slaves, labour, See. 



Forays 15 1 % 


Allowing that the mortgagee (Canumcar), on account of the CHAPTER 
goodness of the security, were willing to undertake the trouble of 
superintending the cultivation without reward, it is evident, that 
the produce of the two crops on the best land must be on an aver- 
age 15yV Porays on each Poray-candum. The people here, however, 
do not pretend to say, that the mortgagees have no farther profit ; 
and, after having considered the foregoing statement, they ac- 
knowledged 10 Porays for the first crop, and 7 for the second, 
leaving a gain of \-^ Porays oi neat proceeds to the mortgagee 
for his trouble. If Mr. Drummond be right in his estimate of the 
extent of a Poray-candum, this will make the produce of an acre in 
the first crop 25 bushels, and in the second about 17 bushels ; and 
on each crop will leave a profit to the mortgagee of about 1^ bushel. 

Reasoning on the same data, which cannot well be erroneous, the 
produce of the one crop on the worst land must be 5-jV Porays from 
a Poray-candum, which will give about 13 bushels an acre. During 
Tippoo's government almost the whole of the landlords ( Jenm- 
cars) fled out of the province, and emigrated to avoid perse- 
cution. They have now returned, and are in nominal possession 
of their estates; but as most of these have been alienated on 
full mortgage (Canum), they receive but a very small share of the 

In this part of the country there are few coco-nut palms, the Piaiitafions. 
produce being too bulky for being carried to the sea side for ex- 
portation. The palms that are planted round the houses of the 
natives are chiefly BetcUnut ( Arcca catechu ); and these are inter- 
mixed vixth Jack, Mango, oxzxi^c, lime, and plantain trees. The 
ground that is applied to the raising of these plantations is the best 
of what is called Parumba; and, when a tenant (Cudian) pays the 
land-tax, and advances 25 Fanains on mortgage, for a Poray-candum, 
he is not expected to give any rent to the landlord (Jenmear). 

A Poray-candum therefore of this land is worth to the landholder 
1 Poray of rough rice a year, or about 2| bushels an acre. 

43 ;: 




Hoc. 18 . 
r«ct» of the 
couiitrv. ! 

Tamar i 



. December. — After cros.siniij the river about a mile above 

'J'ritaidu, I went a long stage to Cheritpalchcry, which was tlie resi- 
dence of the superintendant of the sontliern division of Malabar, 
wliile that office existed. Several good lu)use.s, or rather cottages, 
remain at the place as a monuinent, but there is no town nor shop. 
On this day’s route the (juantity of hill-ground is very great, and 
but a very small proportion of it is cultivated. Some of it has so gentle 
a slope, that it admits of being cultivated without being formed 
into terrace.s. To judge from the thickness of the grass, one rvould 
think that this ground was much more fertile than that oi Coimbetore. 

Cheritpakhery is situated in a district called Nedurga nadu, which 
formed a part of the Tamuri Rajas dominions. The Tamuri, al- 
though of a cast inferior to the Cw.7// Raja, and tdthough possessed 
of less extensive dominions, was commonly reckoned of eijual 
rank ; which is said to have been owmg to the superior prowess «)f 
his people. This produced a confidence in tlicmselvcs, which, when 
lli/dcr invaded the country, proved ruinous. The Coc/ii Raja 
<iuietly submitted to pay a tribute, and still enjoys the govermnent 
of his country; while the pride of the Tamuri refused any kind of 
sid)mission to Ilyder, and now he is reduced to a cypher, supported 
by the bounty of the Company. Ilyder in person invadcal the 
country, but was soon afterwards called away by a war in the do- 
minions of Arcot. The Rajas cmbracerl this opportunity, and, 
having repossessed themselves, held their lamU for seven years. 
A Urdhrnan named Cl/iuavas Rozc rvas then sent against them, and 
drove them into the dominions of 7 mw/ce re. After nine years of 
his administration, an English army came, and took Pali-gliat; but, 
on the approach ot'Tippoo, was obliged to retreat by Panydni. The 
Rdjiis continued in exile until 1790; when, a little before the battle 
of Th'uvaua Aiigady, they joined Colonel Hartly with 5000 Nairs. 
The second personage of the Tamuri s family now resides at Carim- 
poray, a Colgum, or palace, that is situated west from Cherupalchery, 
on the banks of the river. 



It must be observed, that \n Malabar no river has any peculiar 
appellation ; but each portion is called by the name of the most 
remarkable place near which it flows. 

A Vaidika Brahman gives me the following account of the wea- 
ther here, which may be compared with that of the farmers that I 
have before detailed. This account is taken from a 5 <ih.s7.t/V work 
composed by the serpent Siihhramam, and illustrated by a commen- 
tary of Sankara ^dcluhn/a. The year is, as usual, divided into six 
Ititas, or seasons. 

The first, containing JH/acara and Cuinbha (12th January — 11th 
March), is called Sayshu Ritu. In this the prevailing winds are 
easterly and northerly, and are not strong. There is no rain. The 
old leaves fall from the trees. 

The second, containing A//h( 7 and Mayda (12th IMareh — 1 1th 
May), is called VuHonla R'ltu. The weather is hot, with light winds 
from the westward, and a few showers of rain. The new leaves 
come out on the trees. 

The third, containing Aydama and Mayluna (12th May — 13th 
.Tidy), is called GrinJnna Rita. There are now thunder, uind, and 
rain; udiich, being all united together, though not very severe, 
make a great tumult in the air. 

The fourth, containing Carcataca and Singhium (14th July — 13th 
September), is called Varshd Rita. In this the thunder, wind, and 
rain are very severe. 

The fifth, containing Canni aiid Tulam (14th September — 1.3th 
November), is called Sarat Riiii. In this, rain comes both from 
the east and from the west. The u'inds are easterly. 

The sixth, containing Vrkhica and Danu (14th November — 1 Ith 
January), is called Hemanta Ritu. In this there are heavy dews, 
but no rain. 

The first three Ritas form Utrdyana; in which the day-wimls 
are easterly, and the night-winds westerly; the latter of which are 
the strongest. The last three Ritas form Dakshandyana, in which 
the day-winds are westerly, and the night-winds easterly and the 
VoL. II. 3 K 



IVc. US. 

Nu nan. O'* of 
livers in Ala- 

Anutlior ac- 
count of th« 





Dec. 18 . 

Dec. 19. 

Dec. tJO, 21. 

Barren lands 
In Mr. Wye s 

HiNs between 
Malihar and 

strongest. From this it would appear, that on shore the sea and 
land winds in some degree overcome even the violence of the 
monsoon ; but at sea, near ♦ j coast, this is not observable during 
the strength of the south’* west monsoon ; at other seasons it is well 
known to seamen. 

iSth December . — I went about nine miles to Augada-puram, having 
crossed a fine little river, a branch of that which falls into the sea 
at Panydni. The lo^^ rice-fields seem to occupy but a small pro- 
portion of the country. The roads are very bad ; but Mr. Wye, the 
collector, has lately obtained leave to lay out on their repair a small 
revenue, the produce of some ferries. Although the sum is small, 
yet it will have a considerable effect in a country where the soil is 
in general favourable, and where there arc no carriages. In Mala- 
bar even cattle are little used for the transportation of goods, 
which are generally carricil by porters. Aiigada-puram, by Euro- 
peans commonly written Angrypar, is at present a military station, 
the troops being in cantonments at some distance from the oid 
fort. The situation rs very pleasant, and many camp followers) and 
traders from Coimbetore, having settletl shops (Bazars), have been, 
tlic means of introducing many conveniences that are not com- 
monly to 1)6 found in the inner parts of Malabar. 

20th and 2 1st December . — I remained with Mr. Wye, from whom, 
in making my incpiiries, I received every possible attention and 
assistance. I have also received from him very saiisfai tory an- 
swers to the queries which 1 proposed in writing to the Commis- 
sioners, and of which 1 shall here avail myself. 

-Mr. Wye has the collection of four districts, namely Bettuta- 
nada, and Parupa-nuda, on the sea coast ; and Vdlater, and ShirnadUy 
toward the Ghats. Of the last two districts, Mr. Wye thinks that 
one half is too steep, rocky, or barren for cultivation. He estimates 
a third of Dettutanada, and a fourth of Parnpa-nada to be of the 
same nature. 

Besides these districts, there is a tract of land occupying part of 
the mountains which separate Malabar from Coimbetore. The 



Nawbai’ii or Nairs had no authority over its inhabitants, who speak CHAPTER 
the language of AV/rw//«. It is divided into two districts, 
and Ayraln Cmlmca, each subject to a Gauda, or hereditary chief. The 20 , 31, 
pass leading up to Attapad'i goes by Manar-ghal, which was subject 
to tlic Tfuniiri, as chief of a district called A^erunganada ; and the 
pass leading up to Aj/rala Cadawa was named Chenimbit, and subject 
to the Rdjd of l\'lafcr. liach Rdjd took advantage of the hill cliief, 
who could only have access to the commerce -of the low country 
through his dominions, and forced him to pay a tribute for permis- 
sion to tra<lc. This tribute, for both chiefs, amounts to 1000 Ru^ 
pees. The manner in which these cliicfs manage their country, or 
raise the revenue, is here totally unknown; as tlie natives seldom 
venture up to the hills, on account of tlic unhealthiness of their 
air. The f pass was reckoned the best ; but, owing to the 

disturbances prevailing in the country, it has of late been neg- 
Icctctl, and is now overgrown with trees. It might be cleared at 
the expense of three or four hundred Rupees. From these hilly 
districts there art roads, that lead to Dan'^Nuyakana Cotay, and 
Cohuhetorc ; and it would be of great importance to commerce to 
have these roads cleared, as also the passes which lead up from the 
Irnada district, in MuUihur, to the southern parts of Mysore. For 
their respective pnxhictions, the two countries have a mutual de- 
mand, which at present is chielly accommodated by the circuitous 
route of Coimhetore, and P(xli-ghat ; but, if ilirect I'oads were opened 
through the passes in the mountains, we might expect, says Mr. Wye, 

“ that towns would spring up at the foot of every pass ; that the 
customs would increase ; and that small Bazars (towns containing 
shops), so much wanted, w^ould be established on the different routes 
between the passes and the towns on the sea coast. The Moplays of 
the inhand country, hitherto a most troublesome race of men, would, 
like their brethren on the sea coast, turn tlieir attention to com- 
merce, and procure a field of exertion for their restless spirit, 
which now so often interrupts the tranquillity of the country.” 

The forests in every part of Malabar would appear to be private Forwii, 



CHAFFER propwrty. A person who wants to cut tiniher must first apply to 
the landlord (Jcnmcar) for permission ; whioli is granted in a writing 

Dec, ao, '^1. called Cutiamum, in which s speeilied the price that is to be paid 
for each tree. This varies, according to the distance of the trees 
from water carriage, from two to eight Famms for aTtyr/ilree, from 
one to two Famms for a I'iti, or black-wood tree ( Pteroairpits), 
and from one to four Famms for an Atony tree f Artocarpus hirsuia 
FjH; Alt'th:): these are the oidy trees for which the landlords de- 
mand a price ; but there arc two others reckoned valuable ; the 
VayHlaycdy which resists the white ant; and the Trimbucum, an iron- 
wood, which belongs to the genus that Dr. Ro.\ burgh in his MSS. 
calls llopca. After the bargain has been made, a small advance is 
given, and the wood-cutter goes and fells whatever trees he wants. 
When he is ready to take them away, he informs the landlorrl, who 
numbers those that have been cut, and, before he allows one to be 
moved, receives the full value. The quantity of 'I'cult trees annually 
produced in this circle docs not, in Mr. Wye's ojrinion, exceed a 
hundred. This valuable tree grows chiefly about Alanur-ghat, and 
is therefore too remote from a navigable river to be carried for a 
market to the sea coast. 

No lac nor sandal- wood is produced in the hills of Malabar ; at 
least, the few trees of samlal that may be found arc devoid of 

ln>:i mitirs. Ill Vdaicr tlicrc are 34 forges for smelting iron. In company 
with Mr. Wye, I examined one of belonging to a very active 
and sensible Afoplay, who was anxious for improvement in his pro- 
fession, and took great pains to show us every part of thfe process, 
with a laudable desire of obt.aining advice to enable him to improve 
defects. These arc indeed very numerous; and his process is less 
complete than even that used in Coimbetore, which is chiefly owing 
to the defects of the bellow's; for the furnace is much better. 

Or*. Ill all the hills of the country the ore is found forming beds, 

veins, or tletachcd masses, in the stratum of indurated clay that is 
to be afterwards described, and of which the greater part of the 


4. ‘>7 

hills of Malabar consists. This ore is composed of i^lay, quartz in CIIAPTKK 
form of sand, and of. the common black iron sand, 'l ids uii\tiiro 
forms small angidar nodules closely compacted t'*;j,cthcr, and cry 
friable. It is dug out with a pick-ax, ami broken into |)o\\ (ler with 
the same instrument. It is then washed in a wooden trough, about 
lour feet in length, open at both ends, and placed in the current of 
■v rivulet ; so that a gentle stream of water runs constantly through 
The pow'dered ore is placed in the upper end of this trough; 
and as the w’ater passes through the heap, a man continually stirs it 
about with his band. The metallic sand remains in the upper end 
)f th(i trough, the quartz is carried to the lower eml, and the clay 
! suspended in the w'ater, and w'ashed entirely aw'ay. The Alvplaif 
in general collects the ore by means of his own slaves. At other 
nies, lx buys it ready wa.shed for the furnace ; and then what he 
Ills in ••lie furnace costs him \0 Fananis. Kach smelting rcipiircs 
ilb'Olb.: the price, therefore, is not quite the hundred-w’cight. 
n this ore the quantity of metallic sand is small, in comparison with 
that of the earthy matter. 

Under the same roof arc built tw'o or three furnaces, of which Funma. 
the description will be remlered mure intelligible by means of the 
sketches annc.xed, IMale XXI. ligures .OS, 53, .54. The furnaces 
arc e.xeavated out of the front of a mound of clay, w hich is 4 feet 
high behind, and 5 feet four inches before; apd about 7 tect w'ide, 
from front to back- The excavation made for each furnace is 
P feet 11 inches wide, and 2 feet deep; and is dug down from the 
tip of the mound to the ground. From behind, opposite to each 
furnace, an arched cavity is dug into the mouml ; so ns to leave a 
thin partition between the two excavations. For allowdug the vi- 
trified matter to runoff, there is in this partition a hole one foot in 
diameter. Above the furnace is erected a cliimney of clay, built 
with four plain sides, which in two dift'erent places is strengthened 
by four Bamboos^ lashed together at the angles. Tlie front of tlie 
chimney consists of baked clay, two inches in thickness. Behind, 



CHAPTER the clay is gradually thickened toward the summit ; so that the 
upper mouth of the chiniuey is contracted to 8 inches in depth by 

Dec. 20,21. 2 feet 1 1 inches in width. The front of the furnace is quite open. 

Smelting. Early in the morning, wdien going to smelt, the workmen put wet 
sand mixed with powdered charcoal into the bottom of the furnace; 
so as to fill it up as far as the hole in its back part, through which 
the vitrifictl matter is to run out. The sand and charcoal are well 
beaten, and formed so us to slope from the outer and upper edge, 
both toward the hole and toward the ground in front of the fur* 
nace. The hole is then well .stopped with clay ; and clay pipes are 
inserted at each corner of the furnace, for the reception of the 
muzzles of the bellows. A row of clay pipes, eight or ten in number, 
is then laid on the surface of the sand, at right angles to the back 
of the furnace. Their outer ends project a little beyond the front, 
and their inner ends reach about half >vay to the back, 'i’he front 
of the furnace is then shut up with moist clay ; and stoppers of the 
same are put in the outer mouths of the pipes. By remo\ ing these 
stoppers, and looking through the pipes, the workmen judge how 
the operation is going forward. Ten baskets of charcoal, each 
weighing 63 lb., arc then poured in by the chimney; and this 
having been kindled, the bellows are .set to work. Then 16 Forays 
of prepared ore, weighing 2l60lb., and 20 baskets more of char- 
coal, as the fire makes room for them, are gradually added. The 
operation lasts 24 hours, two sets of men relieving each other at the 
bellows, and keeping up a constant blast. The principal workman 
who attends the fire adds tbcfcweland ore, and stops up breaches; 
and, when the mass of iron has formed, breaks 'the clay that shut up 
the hole in the back part of the furnace, and lets out much vitrified 
matter, that strongly resembles brown hamatiUs^ and no doubt 
contains much iron, which this imperfect operation is unable to 
reduce. The bellows are then removed, and the front of the 
furnace is broken down, A great part of the charcoal which has 
not been consumed is then pulled out with sticks or forks, and 



extinguished by water. The mass of iron is allowed to remain on CHAPTER 
^ XII. 

the sand 24 hours, and to cool gradually. According to the sue- 

cess of the operation, it weighs from 8 to 12 Tolam, or from 2.>.() 
to 384 lb. The mass, when cool, is broken iu pieces with a large 
hammer, and sold for use, it being then malleable, although some- 
what brittle. The mass is extremely porous, aud irregular in its 
shape, and has never formed what chemists call a button ; that is 
to say, the liquefaction produced on the iron has only been partial, 
sufTicient to cause the particles to adhere in a mass, but not adequate 
to form a fluid that expels all matters ofa different specific gravity. 

Iu fact, the mass, iu its cavities, includes many pieces of charcoal 
enveloped by the iron. How these have not been consumed, I do 
not know ; but this circumstance clearly shows, that combustible 
matter being contained in a stratum is no proof, that the particles 
of this have not been united by a fire capable of mollifying them, 
and of making them cohere. 

I have already mentioned, that this process obtains only from Want of pro- 
ll-iV to 17 to percent, of iron from the ore, and that what is pro- 
duced is very imperfect. The great defect iu the process, that 
renders it so unproductive, seems to be the want of proper bellows. 

Each man works a pair, consisting of two cylindrical leather bags, 
about 18 inches high, and 9 inches in diameter. The top has a 
slit, the edges of which overlap, and serve as a valve. Each pair 
is placed, on a small platform of clay, at a corner of the furnace ; 
and a man, taking hold of the outer flaps of their upper ends in his 
two hands, alternately pushes them down to expel the wind, aud 
draws tliem up to get a supply of air, the one hand going up wliilc 
the other goes down. The air is expelled through a muzzle com- 
mon to both bags. Each furnace has two pair, which at the same 
time requires two men, and there must be two sets, one to relieve 
the other. 

To the proprietor the profit of these works is considerable. The £x{»n<;cs.'ind 
expense for each smelting is as follows. 





Dec. 20. 31. 

Each hcllowsman I latiam, and Vo of rice 

The liead workman ... 

The hammerman - - - - 

Charcoal _ . - - - 

Ore . . . - - 

i'anams, Voray, Edan- 

4 0 4 

2 0 I 

1 0 1 

10 0 0 

10 0 0 

Famims 27 0 6 

V^ilnc of () Udav'^olhcs ol rice - - 0,|- 0 0 

27, f 0 0 

'I'he iron sells at i Famms ixTolam, or 7s. 7-}il. a hundred -weij^hf. 
When the o|iC!;.tioii is w('ll performed, and the iron ma.s» weighs 
12 f'ldi/rt!.';. the proprietor has 20j Ftuiuiiis profit; and at the worst, 
when he gets h 'Ihldiiis only, hi.s prolit is 1} F(iH(m.i. 

'fhe expense, (if implements and buildings, owing to their wrctch- 
edn.'ss, cannot he estimated at more than 50 /Wm a year ; and 
neither (he government nor the landlord demand any thing tor 

Wliat 1 have called indurated clay is not the mineral so called by 
IMr. Kirwan, who has not described this of whicii I am now writing. 
It seems to be tlie ArgUh lapidai of Wallerius I. 395, and is one of 
the nicest valualilc materials torbuiUling. It is dittused in immense 
masses, without any appearance of stratification, and is placetl over 
the granite that forms the basis of Malayala. It is full of cavities 
and pores, and contains a very large quantity of iron in the form 
of red and yed low ochres. In the mass, while excluded from the 
air, it is so .soft, that any iron instrument readily cuts it, and is dug 
up in square masses with a pick-ax, and immediately cut into the 
shape wanted with a trowel, or large knife. It very .soon after be- 
comes as liard as brick, and resists the air and W’ater much better 
than any bricks that I have seen in India. I have never observed 
any animal or vegetable exuvia contained in it, but I have heard 



tJiat sncli have been I'ountl imnicrscd in its substance. As it is ciIArri'.R 
usually cut into the form of bricks for buikliiig, in several of the 
native (lialccts, it is called the brick-stone ( Itica cn/lu). Where, Doc. eo, ii, 
however, by the washing away of the soil, part of it has been ex- 
posed to the air, and has hardened into a rock, its colour becomes 
black, and its pores and iue(|ualitie.s give it a kiml of resemblance 
to the .skin of a person affected with cutaneous <lisorders; hence in 
the language it is called ‘S/iuri-cull, or itch-stone. The most 

proper English name would be fMteritc, iVom Laterili.s, the appella- 
tion that may be given to it jn science. 

In the Inuula district, gold dust is collected in the river which GolJ dust, 
passes AcUanbur in the Man^e.ri/ 'J'oluc. A N^air has an exclusive 
privilege of the collection, and on that account pays a small annual 
iribute. I was very desirous to have visited the place; but, the 
district being ig extreme confusion, I could not with prudence 
enter it, especially on such an e.rrand. The Aclambur river is a 
branch of that which falls into the sea mtrth from Parupa^nada. 

Mr. Wye gives the following account t»f the poj)ulation and stock population. 

of bis district : 

Houses inhabited by iMusselinans - - 12, .581 

Ditt<» by Kambiim - . _ . 

\y\X.iQ hy Put tai' liruhmiDis - . . 44 , 

Ditto hy tlie families of Rajas - - - 3 t> 

Ditto by Nairs ----- f)747 

Ditto by Tiars - • - - -4733 

Ditto by Mucuas _ - _ - tiOg 

Ditto by people from the country to the eastward - 47‘i 

Total - 2.5,515 

It is evident, that Mr. Wye has not given the total number of 
houses, but only the total of those Inhabited by the prineipal casts 
to which my queries referred. I imagine, that we may take the 
total number of houses to be, at least, 28,000. These, at the rate 
VoL. II. 3 L 


CHAPTER of population in Canara, will contain 146,800 persons; but Mr. Bar- 


ber’s estimate will reduce this number to 103, 90O. 

Dec. 20, 21 . 

Rice land 

The number of slaves are, 




Add free persons by first estimate 





Total population by first estimate - 163,001 

Total population by Mr. Barber’s ditto 120,101 


Oxen, large 





Total animals of the cow'-kiiid - 44^827 

Animals of the buffalo kind 8900. 

Number of ploughs 18,000. 

Number of looms 329. 

From the number of ploughs, which is not likely to be exagge- 
rated, there can be little doubt tliat the native officers have con- 
cealed from Mr. Wye the real, number of cattle. 18,000 ploughs 
I'cquire at least 36,000 oxen or buffaloes, to which must be added 
the young of both species, the cows, and the cattle employed for 
carriage and in mills. The returns of cattle made to Mr. Warden 
are apparently correcl: ; and at their rate 18,000 ploughs would 
require 66,840, in place of 53,727 given by Mr. Wye. 

The Dhanmurry, Paddum^ or low land in Mr. Wye’s circle is 
stated, in the revenue accompts, at 170,400 Porays; of which, in 
the two districts nearest the Ghats, 3500 were last year waste. 
Many parts of the districts near the sea, and near the rivers in 
Shirnadq, are, in the rainy season, very liable to suffer by being 



overfloodcd. In the last rainy season many people were obliged, CHAPTllll 
once or twice over, to transplant their Macara croji. In the last 
mentioned district, owing to an embankment having given way, Dec CO, 
some low land has been deserted, and is now overgrown with bushes. 

In the interior part of the coiintr}*, there are large tracts which 
have been over-run with high grass and trees since they have been 
deserted by tlieir inhabitants, owing to the persecutions of the 
Jlindus by the late Sultan, and the subsequent depredations com- 
mitted on the Naii's by the Moplays. These atrocities raged most 
violently in the Malabar years ;)7() — .071; and were somewhat 
checked two years ago by the vigorous justice of Mr. Waddel, then 
superintendent of the southern division; but in the country imme- 
diately north from Angada-ptirani, they have again commenced. 

The grouml called 1()6',00() iSirau-candanin, stated in Mr. Wye's 
account to have been cultivated, can have no reference to the 
quantity of seed, wltich Mr. Since esfimates at 47t2, 113 Porayn : 
allowing one half to produce two crops in the year, the Foray- 
caiidums xnmt at this rate he 311,71-; but this would be only 17 
Furap-ca ndu?ii.<i I'nr r',u']i plough to cultivate; whereas, by the ac- 
count of the farmers at Fali-^hat, a plough ought to cultivate 40 
Foray-candums. Whether tlie number of ploughs have been e.\ag- 
gerated, or whether, owing to the commotions in Vclafer, Mr. Since 
was prevented from surveying the whole district, I cannot say ; but 
it is evident that there is some error. Theproduec of the districts, 
as stated by Mr. Sniee, ctinnot be m'cII reconciled with the popula- 
tion, taken at the lowest estimate. Mr. Since calculates the gros.s 
average produce of rice in these districts, deducting seed, at 
2,928,751 Forays : but 120,000 inhabitants would require!, 180,000, 
at the rate which 1 allowed in Fali-ghat. The e.xportation of these 
districts is not considerable; but we must cither allow, that the 
number of inhabitants and ploughs is greatly’’ exaggerated, or that 
Mr. Smcc's survey did not extend to the whole of Mr. Wy’c’s dis- 
trict. I am indeed inclined to tliink this last to be the case. 





Valiio. of rice 

With regard to the Porays of land mentioned in the revenue ac- 
compts, a most fallacious opinion has been entertained, that they 
are so much land as will sow a Poray of seed, and this is defined to 
he 32 cubits s(juaie, which is still smaller than the allowance made 
by iNIr. Warden. The fact at Angada-puram is, that, when the assess- 
ment was made by Arshid Beg Khan, so much land, good or bad.. 
\ras called a Poray of land, as was supposed to produce to the land- 
lord (Jonnear) ]() Porays of Vir-Patom, or of neat rent. The tax 
imposed on tliis was 5 Famms, which, at harvest, is nearly the value 
of the whole rent; so that, unless the proprietor reserved the grain 
for a favourable market, he had no profit left him from his rice- 
lands. This, the people say, has been actually the ease; but as 
people arc still willing to advance money in mortgage on rice- 
land-s, wc may safely conclude, that Ilydcr did not so far deviate 
from his usual policy and justice, as to lay on a ta.x that would 
entirely aI)sorb the property of the subject. It is true, that the 
inhabitants of Malabar speak of llyder as of a rapacious tyrant; but 
little attention can be pai<l to what such people say, as they are 
universally discontented nith the government of the English, by 
whom they have been indtdged like sick children. To illustrate 
the matter more fully, let us consider what is usually done, accord- 
ing to the acknowledgment of the natives. For the mortgage of 
what is in the revenue accompts called ten Porays land, and of 
what among the proprietors is called a hundred Patvms, being 
estimated to produce 100 Porays of rack-rent (Vir'-PatamJ, a man, 
who has money is willing to advance on mortgage bond (Canum) 
m)0 Fanams ; and, after deducting the interest, to allow the land- 
lord one-fifth of the rent (Patom). I he mortgagee pays the land- 
tax ; and for the trouble of cultivation, should be not occupy the 
land himself, allows the farmer a certain fixed amount in grain. 
This allowance is as follows. 



For seed - - . 

For cattle, implements, and slaves 
For neat profit to the farmer 

Forays - 1 (JO 

From this it is evident, that what in the revenue accompts is 
called a ten-poray~land, on an average actually sows GO Forays, al- 
though the whole cannot be land that produces two crops. After 
deducting the 100 given to the farmer, it is supposed that 

an ccjual (juantity remains to the mortgagee ; but, if we consider 
what he has to pay, we must allow him more. 

The natives allow 5 Forays for the interest of 100 Fanams ; 

so the interest of the bond is - - - 15 

Land-tax 5 Fanams, with 10 per cent, collector’s charges 
= 5, all together 55 Fanams', w’orth - - 1 10 

One-fifth of rent, deducting interest - - 17 

Total to be paid by the mortgagee - 14G 

Farmers’ allowances - - - - 100 

Forays - 24S 

We may safely assert therefore, that in both crops, the average 
produce of what, in the revenue accompts, is called a ten-poray-land, 
is at least 242 Porflyj ; otherwise nobody would be willing to ad- 
vance money on mortgage. Perhaps somewhat might be added 
for the trouble of the mortgagees fCanumcars) ; but, consider- 
ing that they have perfect security for their money, and that, 
as most of them cultivate the ground themselves, they have the 
large profits allowed here for the Cudian, or cultivator, 1 am in- 
clined to think, that nothing ought to b.e added on that account. 
Mr. Smee’s estimate of the average produce of this district is 
seeds for one : at this rate, the 242 Forays^ which make the produce- 



CHAPTER of what is called a ten-poray-laitd, will in fact be the produce of 
about 31 Forays sowing. 

LiHd wltf invasion of Malabar by Hydcr, an attempt was 

made, by Chinavas lloxi^ to introduce a regular system of finance ; 
but this could never be carried into execution. The present system 
was sometime afterwards introduced by Arshid Beg Khan. All tlic 
vigilance of this commander, and of his master, were certainly in- 
adequate to prevent unjust inequalities in the original assessment ; 
and there cannot be a doubt, that many landlords (Jenmears) who 

chose to corrupt the officers of revenue had their lands valued at a 
low rate, and the <leficiency which this occasioned was made up by 
valuing high the lands of those who were too poor, or too proud, to 
corrupt the assessors. Tippoo having heard frequent complaints of 
this, and having been misled by the improper use of the term 
Foray-land, which he conceived to signify, in the revenue accompts, 
a quantity of land capable of sowing a Foray of seed, endeavoured 
to equalize the tax by a measurement, conducted by Ram Lxngam 
Fillay, who had previously ascertained the average extent of ground 
sown with one Foray. This made the matter infinitely worse; as 
his officers were much more liable to corruption than those of hi.s 

father; for he was very lenieirt to such oft’eiulers. 

Division of In Velater there arc a few spots of land, watered by perennial 
streams, that annually produce three crops of rice. The greater 
part of the vallies give two crops : the first by means of the rain in 
the south-west monsoon ; and the second by means of the easterly 
rains, and of the small streams which wind through the vallies, and 
are forced out upon the low grounds by means of dams. About the 
end of January, these streams dry up* but the supply of water is 
sufficient to bring the second crop to maturity. The lower parts 
of the vallies are called Ubayum lands ; but the whole does not pro- 
duce two crops. This term signifies perfectly level ground ; and in 
some places the water lies so deep on it, that one crop only can be 



The higher borders of the vallies, which are too much elevated chapter 
to receive a supply of water from the rivulets, but which are suffi- 
cieutly level to admit of being inundated in the rainy season, are Dec. 20, a/, 
called Pakalil, and annually produce only one crop. Mr. Wyc 
thinks that the quantity of this does not amount to more than a 
twentieth part of the Dhanmurry^ or rice-ground. The land which 
is higher than that called Pakalil is Parum^ and in this neighbour- 
hood pays no land-tax. 

The three usual modes of cultivating rice are here in use. When Different me- 
the seed is sown without preparation, the cultivation is called Podi- 
mtha, i. e. dry -sowing; when, before sowing, it is sprouted, it is 
called wet-sowing, or Chetu-wetha ; and when it is transplanted, it is 
called Ncarra. 

From the months in which the crops ripen, the first is called Different 
Canni, and the second Macara. The first is the most productive, in 
a proportion of 3 to 2 ; but, owing to its being cut in the rainy 
season, the grain is often injured. 

In the Palealil, or higher parts of the level land, the most common Wet-sowing 
cultivation is the sprouted seed. When, however, any fields of the 
Ubayuni or low-land come ap thin, the young rice is pulled up, and 
transplanted into a field ; and there still remains time for 

having two crops on the former. On Palealil land the following 
kinds of rice are cultivated. 

Navara - a 

2y months crop. 

Average produce .5 seeds 



- - 7 or 8 



7 or 8 

Caruma • 

3i - 


Jri Modun 


- 7 

Tua PuKarin 


- - 7 

■Cfieru Modun 3 


An Caruma 







DfC, 20, 21. 

'Ihc average produce of this lar.d may tlicrefore be taken ar 
CjVoo seeds. If one measure only 32 cubits stpiare. 

then the seed for an acre will be above 6' bushels, and the produce 
32i-V bushels, I am inclined, however, to think that the Poy'oif- 
candum is larger. The expenses of cultivation, and farmers (Cudians} 
profit, amount on this land to two thirds of the produce, leaving 
one third to the lamllioldcr and government. 

iM.irincr of The following is the manner of ciilti'. ating Pakalii, or the higher 
til "i cro'i"'* the level land, with sprouted-seed, Rctween the 2d and 

1 1th of June plough twice while the field is dry, and afterwards 
inundate the ground, which in the course of the following month 
must be ploughed eight times, the plougli going over the field, at 
each time, first length-wise, and then across. The field is all the 
while kept inundated, and before the fourth or fifth ploughing is 
manured with leaves and twigs. After the eighth ploughing the 
dung is given, ami ploughed down. The mud is then smootheil 
with the feet; and about the 13th of July, the prepared seed is 
sown, the water being two or three inches deep. In twenty or 
thirty days the weeds must be removed by the hand. It ripens 
without any farther trouble than confining the water to the proper 
depth. The ears only arc cut off ; and, the rain making it impos- 
sible to preserve the straw for fodder, the cattle arc allowed to cat 
it on the ground. The seed is made to sprout by putting it in 
baskets, and M'etting it with water. Thrice a day afterwards, for 
from four to six days, it is watered, and is then fit for use. 
UbayumhinA On the Ubayum, or low level land, the first, or Canni crop, is in 
producing general SO wii in the Same manner as on the fields called Palcalil: 

two crops* ^ 

only the season commences somewhat earlier, as the lowness of the 
situation affords a better supply of water. When the ears have 
been removed, the straw is immediately ploughed in for the Second 
crop, which is always transplanted. For this the field is ploughed 
five or six times. If the farmer be not pushed for time, he allows 



toi’ this operation from ten to twenty days ; but, if the season be CHAPTER 
nearly over, he completes it in less than a week. After the second 
ploughing, the field is manured with leaves; and after the last with Dec. 20, 21. 
dung, which is ploughed in, and the seedlings arc transplanted, the 
nuid having been previously smoothed by the Uricha Maram (Plate 
XIX. Pig. 4G.). The fields arc always kept inundated, and require no 
weeiiing. The straw of this crop is cut down close by the ground, 
and kept four days in a heap. The grain is then rubbed off with 
the feet; for the Hindus^ on such occasions, make as much use of 
their feet as we do of our hands. Twenty days afterwards the straw 
is beaten with sticks, and gives some more grain of an inferior qua- 
lity. Tlic seedlings arc raised on a piece of high ground allowed 
for the purpose, and which pays no tux. Between the 14th of Au- 
gust and the J3th of September this is ploughed four or five times 
in the course of eight days, the field being in general inundated ; 
this practice, however, is not always followed. The field is manured 
witli leaves and dung; and the seed, after it lias been prepared so 
as to sprout, is sown very thick. It s